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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 1 Chapter Three Nonverbal Communication This multimedia product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, or any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 2 Nonverbal Communication Defined All those messages that people exchange beyond the words themselves. Communication that is nonverbal 60-93%. Emotional communication that is nonverbal 99%.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 3 Cluster Factors regarded together for meaning. Gestures. Posture. Eye contact. Clothing styles. Movement.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 4 Congruency A person’s background and past patterns of behavior considered when analyzing their nonverbal communication.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 5 Sources of Nonverbal Signs A step-by-step process. Innate neurological programs--automatic nonverbal reactions (reflexive) to stimuli with which we are born. Cultural and Intercultural Behavior--reflective of the culture from which they were learned.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 6 Neurolinguistic Psychological Research (NLP) Look up for visual accessing. Look down for linguistic accessing. Look left for past experiences. Look right for future perceptions. Look straight ahead for present day.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 7 Action Chain Behavioral sequence with two or more participating organisms. Standard steps for reaching a goal. In US, on time--within five minutes.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 8 Emotional Influences on Nonverbal Communication Feel insecure, avoid closeness. Upset, rigid body.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 9 Verbal and Nonverbal Relationships Substituting relationship—In US, nodding head to mean “yes.” Complementing relationship—Shaking head while saying "no." Conflicting relations—"Yeah, sure" with voice and face that says sarcasm. Accenting relationship--nonverbal message stresses the verbal one. "Good to see you," with huge smile.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 10 Expectancy Violation Theory Sees communication as the exchange of information high in relational content, but uses communication an unpredictable way. [Add Photo 3.3]
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 11 Categories Of Nonverbal Communication Add Figure 3.3 Kinesics, Proxemics, Paravocalics, Chronemics, Olfactics, Aesthetics, and Gustorics
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 12 Kinesics: Body Communication Facsics—face. Ocalics—eyes. Pupilometrics--pupils dilate when the eyes are focused on a pleasurable object and contract when focused on an unpleasurable one. [Add Figure 3.4]
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 13 Gestures Gestics—movements. Speech-independent gestures--not tied to speech. Speech-related gestures--directly tied to, or accompany, speech.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 14 Emblems Nonverbal acts with dictionary definition consisting of one or two words. Culture specific. Illustrators—body communication that aids what is being said. “Josh, please stand up" (point at Josh and bring your hand upward). Affect displays--facial gestures that show emotions and feelings (e.g., pouting, winking). Regulators--nonverbal acts that maintain and control interaction (nods of the head, body shifts). Adaptors--movements that accompany boredom, show internal feelings, or regulate a situation.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 15 Haptics Use of touch as communication.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 16 Body Synchrony Communication through posture, walk, and stance. Artifacts--messages through what adorns the body (clothing, makeup, eyeglasses, and jewelry). Physical Characteristics--including height, weight, and skin color.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 17 Attractiveness Halo effect—positive evaluation because attractive. Devil effect--negative evaluation because less attractive. [Add Photo 3.5]
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 18 Proxemics Communication through use of space. [Add Photo 3.6]
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 19 Proxemics (Space) Culture and space. Space distances--Intimate distance, personal distance and comfort bubble, social distance, public distance. Small-group ecology--placement of chairs, setting.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 20 Paravocalics Vocal cues as communication. Rate (speed). Volume (power). Pitch (such as soprano or bass). Pause (stopping). [Add Photo 3.7]
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 21 Chronemics Time as communication. Circular phenomenon--no pressure or anxiety about the future. Technical time--precise time, scientific. Formal time--way a culture defines its time. Informal time--flexible use of time, such as “soon” or “right away.”
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 22 Being Late In cultures that value promptness, what might habitual tardiness reveal about the person? Need to feel special. Need for punishment. Need for power. Expression of hostility.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 23 Olfactics Smell as communication. Can have positive effects on mood, stress reduction, sleep enhancement, self-confidence, and physical and cognitive performance. Selective. Helps us reach conclusions.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 24 Smell Smell blindness--unable to detect smells. Smell adaptation--gradually lose the distinctiveness of a particular smell through repeated contact. Smell memory--smell can trigger flashbacks. Smell overload--strong odor overpowers you. Smell discrimination--tell the difference between scents.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 25 Aesthetics Mood and beauty as communication. Music. Color.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 26 Gustorics Taste as communication. Classifications of bitter, salty, sweet, and sour. Taste blindness--the inability to taste. Taste adaptation--used to a taste and cannot taste it.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 27 Using Nonverbal Communication Behavior pattern recognition-- training in detecting signs. How will you improve your nonverbal communication effectiveness?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 28 Discussion Questions How is nonverbal communication important? What are the categories of the origins of nonverbal messages? What is the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication? List and illustrate--from your experience--the categories of nonverbal communication. Using your experience, analyze the role of culture in the development and use of nonverbal communication.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon | 29 End The sources are available at the end of chapter three of the textbook. Visuals from textbook chapter or
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