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Vaccination Protocols in the Horse Who, What, When, Where, Why Benjamin R Buchanan, DVM Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Diplomate,

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Presentation on theme: "Vaccination Protocols in the Horse Who, What, When, Where, Why Benjamin R Buchanan, DVM Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Diplomate,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vaccination Protocols in the Horse Who, What, When, Where, Why Benjamin R Buchanan, DVM Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Brazos Valley Equine Hospital Navasota, TX 77868

2 How vaccines work: Passive Immunization Passive Immunization Active Immunization Active Immunization

3 How vaccines work: Passive Immunization Passive Immunization

4 How vaccines work: Passive Immunization Passive Immunization

5 How vaccines work: Active Immunization Active Immunization

6 How vaccines work: Passive Immunization Passive Immunization Brief period of protection Brief period of protection Antibody absorption one time only Antibody absorption one time only Active Immunization Active Immunization Prolonged period of protection Prolonged period of protection Boosting of protective response by additional exposure Boosting of protective response by additional exposure

7 How vaccines work: Passive or Active Immunization Passive or Active Immunization Antibody Antibody Antibody-Antigen Interaction Antibody-Antigen Interaction

8 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Who needs to be vaccinated: Who needs to be vaccinated: All horses need certain vaccinations All horses need certain vaccinations Depends on: Depends on: Environment Environment Region of country Region of country Degree of exposure to other horses Degree of exposure to other horses Pregnant or Open Pregnant or Open

9 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Eastern Encephalitis Eastern Encephalitis Western Encephalitis Western Encephalitis Venezuelan Encephalitis Venezuelan Encephalitis West Nile Encephalitis West Nile Encephalitis Influenza Influenza Equine Herpes Virus Equine Herpes Virus Respiratory Respiratory Abortion Abortion Tetanus Tetanus Tetanus toxoid Tetanus toxoid Tetanus antitoxin Tetanus antitoxin Rabies Streptococcus equi (strangles) Potomac Horse Fever (Neoricketsia ristici) Clostridium botulinum Equine Viral Arteritis

10 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Intramuscular Intramuscular Intranasal

11 Who, What, Where, When, Why…..

12 Intranasal Intranasal

13 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Rabies Fatality Rate = 100% Fatality Rate = 100% If infected, significant threat to people If infected, significant threat to people Transmission Transmission Preventable disease Preventable disease

14 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Rabies Initial at 5-6 months Initial at 5-6 months Booster in 4 weeks Booster in 4 weeks Booster at one year Booster at one year Annual Annual Good Protection Good Protection Does not rule out disease Does not rule out disease

15 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Tetanus Fatality Rate = moderate Fatality Rate = moderate Non zoonotic Non zoonotic Transmission Transmission Preventable Preventable

16 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Tetanus TOXOID TOXOID Initial Series Initial Series 5 months and 6 months 5 months and 6 months Booster at one year Booster at one year Annual Annual Booster if interval is > 6 months with SX and lacerations Booster if interval is > 6 months with SX and lacerations ANTITOXIN ANTITOXIN Associated with hepatic necrosis (theilers dz) Associated with hepatic necrosis (theilers dz) Useful in non-vaccinated animals and foals born to non vaccinated mare Useful in non-vaccinated animals and foals born to non vaccinated mare

17 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. West Nile Virus Fatality Rate = modest Fatality Rate = modest Non zoonotic Non zoonotic Transmission Transmission Preventable Preventable June - September June - September

18 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. West Nile Virus Transmission Transmission

19 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. West Nile Virus Flavivirus (WNV) Flavivirus (WNV) Initial series > 6 months Initial series > 6 months Depends on time of year Depends on time of year Maternal antibodies inactivate vaccine Maternal antibodies inactivate vaccine Bi-annual vaccine? Bi-annual vaccine? Depends on region Depends on region Decent protection, but does not rule out disease Decent protection, but does not rule out disease

20 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Western/Eastern Encephalitis Fatality Rate = high Fatality Rate = high Non zoonotic Non zoonotic Transmission Transmission Preventable Preventable June – September June – September

21 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Western/Eastern Encephalitis Togavirus (WEE/EEE) Togavirus (WEE/EEE) Initial series > 6 months Initial series > 6 months Depends on time of year Depends on time of year Maternal antibodies inactivate vaccine Maternal antibodies inactivate vaccine Bi-annual vaccine Bi-annual vaccine Depends on region Depends on region Decent protection, but does not rule out disease Decent protection, but does not rule out disease

22 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Streptococcus equi Strangles Fatality Rate = low Fatality Rate = low Non zoonotic Non zoonotic Highly contagious to other horses Highly contagious to other horses Transmission Transmission Preventable Preventable Sometimes? Sometimes?

23 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Streptococcus equi Strangles Two types of vaccine Two types of vaccine IM (whole cell or M-protein) IM (whole cell or M-protein) IN (provides little systemic immunity) IN (provides little systemic immunity) Initial series is 2 doses at 4-6 week intervals Initial series is 2 doses at 4-6 week intervals Foals mount poor response to vaccine Foals mount poor response to vaccine Vaccinate 2-4 weeks prior to exposure Vaccinate 2-4 weeks prior to exposure Semi-annual Booster Semi-annual Booster Purpura hemorrhagica is a adverse reaction to vaccination Abscesses and muscle soreness are other risks Caution when using IN and IM vaccines IN/IM vaccine can slow a outbreak in a barn Do not vaccinate horses showing symptoms

24 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Equine Influenza Fatality rate = low Fatality rate = low Contagious to other horses Contagious to other horses Transmission Transmission Prevention Prevention

25 Influenza Influenza Vaccinate against type H7N7 (A/equine 1) and H3N8 (A/equine 2) although H3N8 is predominate Vaccinate against type H7N7 (A/equine 1) and H3N8 (A/equine 2) although H3N8 is predominate Variants between Europe and Americas Variants between Europe and Americas Initial series > 6 months Initial series > 6 months Or booster at 6 months if started at 3 months Or booster at 6 months if started at 3 months Booster can be 2 or 3 shots Booster can be 2 or 3 shots Short-term protection Short-term protection Frequency of vaccine dependent on life style Frequency of vaccine dependent on life style Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Equine Influenza

26 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Equine Herpes Virus Fatality rate = low Fatality rate = low Contagious to other horses Contagious to other horses Transmission Transmission Prevention Prevention

27 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Equine Herpes Virus Vaccinate against types 1 and 4 Vaccinate against types 1 and 4 Initial series 5 months Initial series 5 months Booster at 6 months Booster at 6 months Maternal Interference Maternal Interference Short-term protection Short-term protection Frequency of vaccine dependent on life style Frequency of vaccine dependent on life style

28 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Botulism Fatality rate = moderate-high Fatality rate = moderate-high Not directly contagious to other horses Not directly contagious to other horses Transmission Transmission Prevention Prevention

29 Who, What, Where, When, Why….. Potomac Horse Fever Fatality Rate = moderate Fatality Rate = moderate Non zoonotic Non zoonotic Transmission Transmission Preventable Preventable Challenge infection: Challenge infection: Clinical signs, except fever, prevented in 78% of horses, 4 weeks after vaccination. Clinical signs, except fever, prevented in 78% of horses, 4 weeks after vaccination. 66% challenged after 9 months became ill. 66% challenged after 9 months became ill.

30 Vaccine Pleasure or Show Pregnant Mare Pasture Horse Boarding Facility Weanling (> 6 mo) Frequency EEE/WEEXXXXXAnnual West Nile Virus XXXXXMay/Sept RabiesXXXXXAnnual Herpes (Rhino) XXX+/- Q 6 months TetanusXXXXXAnnual InfluenzaXXX+/- StranglesXXX+/-Annual PHF+/-+/-+/-+/-+/-April/June EPM Botulism Atlantic states Comments High rate of exposure Maternal Antibodies in last 30 days of pregnancy Protect from non-equine vectors High rate of exposure

31 BVEH Wellness Plan Basic Basic $29.95/month $29.95/month No emergency fees No emergency fees Routine float and sedation Routine float and sedation Vaccines – Guarantee* Vaccines – Guarantee* Reminders and BVEH schedules visit Reminders and BVEH schedules visit Fecal De-wormer Coggins Physical and lameness exam Discount on Strongid C, Solitude, and ACTH testing

32 BVEH Wellness Plan Basic Basic $29.95/month $29.95/month No emergency fees No emergency fees Routine float and sedation Routine float and sedation Vaccines Vaccines Reminders and BVEH schedules visit Reminders and BVEH schedules visit Cost of all services $ Cost of all vaccines one time $134

33 BVEH Wellness Plan Optimal Optimal $69.95/month $69.95/month $200 upfront one time $200 upfront one time Colic Surgery Guarantee Colic Surgery Guarantee $7,500 any facility in US $7,500 any facility in US Medical Colic Medical Colic $1,000 at BVEH $1,000 at BVEH No emergency fees No emergency fees Reminders and BVEH schedules visit Reminders and BVEH schedules visit Performance float and sedation Vaccines – Guarantee* Fecal De-wormer Annual CBC/Chem Coggins Physical and lameness exam Discount on Strongid C, Solitude, and ACTH testing

34 BVEH Wellness Plan Colic Surgery Guarantee Colic Surgery Guarantee $ 7,500 any facility in US $ 7,500 any facility in US Underwritten by Hartford Underwritten by Hartford 2 to 18 years 2 to 18 years Free of colic for 12 months Free of colic for 12 months No history of colic surgery No history of colic surgery No foal in last 60 days No foal in last 60 days Fill out form Notify Mandy at BVEH- Stephenville Send in monthly report and payment All vaccines and care must be done by BVEH Account must be in good standing

35 BVEH Wellness Plan Spring (March/April) Spring (March/April) Physical Exam Physical Exam Dental Exam Dental Exam Lameness Screen Lameness Screen WNV + EWT WNV + EWT Flu Flu Rhino Rhino Strangles Strangles Coggins Coggins Fecal and De-wormer Fecal and De-wormer Fall (Oct/Nov) Physical Exam Dental Exam Performance Float CBC, Chem, Elytes Rabies Flu Rhino Strangles De-wormer

36 BVEH Wellness Plan What is Not Included What is Not Included Farm Call Farm Call Lameness work-up Lameness work-up Other diagnostics Other diagnostics Medications Medications Other than Colic Other than Colic Pneumobort Other vaccines 4X / year Rhino Boosters for initial series

37 BVEH Wellness Plan What if… What if… Horse sold Horse sold Care will transfer Care will transfer Horse dies Horse dies Prorated refund Prorated refund Account Past Due Account Past Due Services put on hold Services put on hold Dont use service No refund Someone else does routine care No guarantees

38 BVEH Wellness Plan What if… What if… Horse becomes ill Horse becomes ill Manufacturer will pay for testing and treatment Manufacturer will pay for testing and treatment Flu Flu Rabies Rabies WNV WNV EWT EWT I want to sign up Enrollment form on website _plan.htm _plan.htm I want a discount Possibly waive $200 per horse with multiple horses or barn

39 Questions


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