IAEA Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response Module L-054 Scenario, Injects and Data Lecture
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data2 Objectives Know the overall process for the development of an exercise scenario. Understand the difference between injects and data Know what data is required to run an exercise Understand the need for scenario security
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data3 Process Overview Objectives Review procedures Basic scenarioValidate Detailed scenario, injects and data
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data4 Objectives and Scenario The scenario is based on the objectives! The scenario MUST allow all the selected objectives to be met
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data5 Exercise Objectives Choice of objectives: Select compatible objectives Don’t be too ambitious Don’t try to do everything in one exercise But do try to cover all objectives over a five-year program
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data6 Review Procedures To understand expected actions by participants To understand what information and data needs to be injected, and when Rule 1: Use existing procedures When is it allowed to break Rule 1?
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data7 Review Procedures (Cont’d) When is it allowed to break Rule 1? When testing a new plan and new procedures...
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data8 Develop the Basic Scenario It is like writing a story! Like a good story The plot must be believable The story must be captivating... From beginning to end!
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data9 A Believable Story! Events must be physically possible As much as possible, they must be credible They may be highly improbable but even improbable things happen! Random failures should be on somewhat related systems (causal relationship) External events are a nice way to initiate an emergency (fire, earthquake, storm)
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data10 A Captivating Story! Don’t bunch events Don’t overwhelm staff Don’t try things that have a fair chance of ruining the exercise Most beautiful exercise is one where initiating event is simple and is allowed to run its course naturally
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data11 A Story That Unfolds by Itself The scenario should allow as much free-play as possible How much controller intervention is required to drive the scenario? Simulation is always required but should be minimal Simulation interferes with the exercise The scenario should unfold naturally and realistically How much human errors or stupidity is required to make the scenario happen?
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data12 Designing the Event Sequences Bottom-up Approach Start with the final events (evacuation, life-threatening injury,...) Work backwards towards realistic initiating events Respect timing and duration of intermediate events Tie the whole series of events in a "Story"
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data13 Designing the Event Sequences Top-down Approach Start with the initiating event (tornado, LOCA...) Play out the consequences according to safety analysis, plans and procedures Add embellishments to the basic "Story"
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data14 Event Sequences: Validation Training staff is very valuable Explain the methodology (or recipe…) Explain the objectives Explain your needs Respect their advice Verify safety of scenario
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data15 Exercise Scenario Detailed Contents Start state Narrative Critical time line Master event list Local event lists Supporting data
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data16 What do You Need to Run the Scenario? ControllerInjectsPlayers Actions Data Response givesto Perform Receive React
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data17 Injects (Reminder) Inject = information “injected” by a controller to a player to simulate an event Example: Initiation of a fire alarm in a facility
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data18 Inject (Example) From: simulated police chief To: regional emergency management group Time: 0830 h Message: This is lieutenant Palmer. The evacuation of sector A is proceeding. There is a traffic jam at the corner of Main road and Sanity boulevard. Estimate that it will clear in 2 hours.
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data19 Inject (Example) Inject #1-10Inject time0730 Injected byOn-site controller Injection methodPhone call MESSAGE From: Witness To:E emergency response 24/7 call service or other designated player Simulated time: 0730 A witness called the emergency response 24/7 service to inform the emergency dispatchers of an emergency. He gave information about a train and truck crash, possible leaking fuel, and gave no other information.
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data20 Inject (Example) Medical injects Patient starts vomiting Moulage
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data21 How to Deliver an Inject Verbally (by simulating the originator) Direct but interferes with the player By phone, fax or radio Direct and simulates reality In writing, by handing out the inject Indirect and interferes with players, but is the best way in cases where there is a language barrier Visually Example, moulage
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data22 Data (Reminder) Data = information provided by a controller to a player when adequate actions are taken to obtain it Example: ambient gamma measurement when a survey is conducted
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data23 What Data is Required? All information needed but not actually available must be simulated To understand what data will be required, ask yourselves: What must the players do? What information or data will they need? Will that data be available? Is it essential for their performance? In what form is it normally obtained?
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data24 What Data is Required (Cont’d)? Generate the data in the form required: e.g. If ambient dose rate is measured, do not provide committed effective dose or dose rate e.g. If contamination meters read in cpm, do not provide contamination data in Bq/m 2 e.g. If the meters saturate at the expected reading, don’t give a reading that exceeds the scale of the instrument
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data25 Data Required (Facility) System parameters In-station radiological data Stack monitor readings Off-site radiological measurements Gamma shine Ground deposition Soil and food contamination
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data26 Data Required (Facility) Chemistry laboratory analyses Health physics laboratory analyses Fixed monitoring station readings Personnel accounting (to simulate missing persons if required) Medical data
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data27 Data Required (Facility) Source term? Not required because not normally available
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data28 Data Required (Off-site) Radiation levels Vehicle contamination People contamination data Road conditions Other operational data
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data29 Data Required (Off-site) Weather: real or simulated?
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data30 Data Required (Medical) Patient basic information Vital signs Bioassay results X-ray results Lymphocyte counts Status of injuries Others
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data31 How to Prepare the Data? From tables Technical data From graphs Time-dependent technical data From figures or pictures Geometric technical data, layouts, site condition, control board status From maps Geographical information
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data33 Exercise Data Graphs (Example)
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data34 Exercise Data Figures or Pictures (Example)
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data35 Exercise Data Maps (Example)
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data36 Maps (Cont’d)
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data37 How to Provide the Data Verbally or in writing Be non-intrusive Avoid conversations Do not show the entire graph when using a graph Do not show the map if a single point data is required If the player does not take the appropriate action, do not volunteer the data
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data38 Scenario Security Scenario security is important: It helps ensure that the participants react in a realistic way It helps ensure that the evaluation is accurate It is more stimulating and adds value to the exercise It leads to useful lessons
L-054: Scenario, Injects and Data39 Summary You need to select objectives before you design an exercise The scenario is directly related to the objectives The scenario needs to be realistic and validated Injects and data are different Injects drive the scenario Data must be deserved by the player Provide injects and data in a realistic and practical manner