Presentation on theme: "Usability Buffet by Karen Bachmann Seascape Consulting, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
1Usability Buffet by Karen Bachmann Seascape Consulting, Inc. 3/31/2017The Usability Buffetby Karen Bachmann Seascape Consulting, Inc.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
2Navigating this presentation Usability Buffet3/31/2017Navigating this presentationThis presentation is audience-driven, so it is organized to allow a flexible rather than a linear flow.Slides 3-13 provide an overview of the user-centered design process and some key activities and deliverables.Slide 14, The Usability Buffet, serves as a launching point (or table of contents) into detailed discussions. Just clicking the mouse or Enter key will take you to the end of the presentation. Click the topic name to go to that specific topic.A link back to slide 14 is provided at the end of each detail section. Click the to return to slide 14.BuffetKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
3Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability defined…ISO : “Usability: the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.”ISO 13407: "Human-centered design is characterised by: the active involvement of users and a clear understanding of user and task requirements; an appropriate allocation of function between users and technology; the iteration of design solutions; multi-disciplinary design."Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
4Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability defined…UPA: “Usability is an approach to product development that incorporates direct user feedback throughout the development cycle in order to reduce costs and create products and tools that meet user needs. There are many definitions of usability…”Jakob Nielsen: “Usability is a quality attribute that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use. The word ‘usability’ also refers to methods for improving ease-of-use during the design process.”Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
5Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability defined…Wikipedia: “Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. Usability can also refer to the methods of measuring usability and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance. In human-computer interaction and computer science, usability usually refers to the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site is designed. ”Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
6Usability defined? A process for delivering the quality of usability Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability defined?A process for delivering the quality of usabilityA quality of a productIn practical terms,Implement as a processEducate and evaluate as a qualityKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
7Usability in the development life cycle Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability in the development life cycleAnalysisDesignDevelopmentTestingMaintenanceUser research:Personas and profilesTask analysisEnvironment analysisUI design models and prototypesUsability requirementsUI functional prototypesUI specifications: Screen elements, interactions, behaviorsUser interfaceUsability TestingBenchmark testingCompetitive analysisHeuristic evaluationsFormative testingAB testingSummative testingKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
8Usability Buffet3/31/2017User research: Users“The process of learning about ordinary users by observing them in action” (Hackos and Redish)Identifies user needs and expectationsIdentifies user demographics, background, experience, knowledge, and other characteristicsDoes not result in a single profile of an “average” user, but can help develop compositesRequires empathy, not just scientific principles and data gathering techniquesIs subject to change over timeThe quote by Hackos and Redish is actually about user and task analysis. The two are frequently paired with good reason, but they answer different questions. If you are conducting a single activity to conduct both user and task analysis, you need to be certain to understand in detail what questions each should answer.Coe speaks of the “users’ psychology.” This understanding provides the proper foundation for development.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
9User research: Task analysis Usability Buffet3/31/2017User research: Task analysis“… learning about ordinary users by observing them in action”Define the way users perform tasks in their own worldUnderstand the users models for interacting with data and tools to perform their tasksFocus on users’ processes, not their toolsKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
10User research: Environment analysis Usability Buffet3/31/2017User research: Environment analysisUnderstand the conditions that users will face when using the end productDetail the users’ working environmentIdentify “noise” in the communication?Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
11Usability requirements Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability requirementsAre the expected and desired user reaction to a systemDefine how well a product should work for the intended usersTurn user goals into measurable success criteriaCommunicate user expectations to the development teamHelp keep users’ needs visible throughout development!Answers “how well” rather than “how” or “what.”Examples:User wish list: Maroon text on light mauveUsability requirement: High contrast (X shades) between text and background to support accessibility goals. Customizable colors to allow users to create the needed contrast for visibility and satisfaction.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
12Usability Buffet3/31/2017UI designAn iterative, exploratory process for creating a product that meets user needsFirst deliverables that stakeholders are likely to react strongly toSample deliverables:SketchletsWireframesMockupsFunctional prototypesInteraction specificationsContent outlinesSite maps?!Sketchlets: Early concepts to illustrate key tasksWireframes: Present layout and functionalityMockups: Present functionality with look-and-feelFunctional prototypes: Present groups of functionality and allow functional walkthroughsInteraction specificationsContent outlinesSite mapsKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
13Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability testingUsability testing is a process where actual users are observed performing real tasks using the product being evaluated by the testing (Barnum; Dumas and Redish).Evaluates the usability of a design against defined success criteriaConducted throughout the life cycle: “test early, test often”Tests the following questions:Does the product meet user needs?Does the product meet user expectations??Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
14Usability Requirements UCD & Your Organization Usability Buffet3/31/2017The Usability BuffetSurveysUsability TestingUI DesignUser ResearchUsability RequirementsUCD & Your OrganizationKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
15? User Research Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
16Usability Buffet3/31/2017What user research is“The process of learning about ordinary users by observing them in action” (Hackos and Redish)Defines user needs and expectations…does not identify an “average” user, but can help develop composites…requires empathy, not just scientific principles and data gathering techniques…is subject to change over timeThe quote by Hackos and Redish is actually about user and task analysis. The two are frequently paired with good reason, but they answer different questions. If you are conducting a single activity to conduct both user and task analysis, you need to be certain to understand in detail what questions each should answer.Coe speaks of the “users’ psychology.” This understanding provides the proper foundation for development.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
17Why do user research To understand current user experiences Usability Buffet3/31/2017Why do user researchTo understand current user experiencesTo distinguish between user needs and user wantsTo anticipate user reactions to and the chances for success with a particular development effortTo increase the likelihood of a project’s success before starting developmentTo identify all possible users of the product as concretely as possibleSeveral reasons users may not know what they really need: faulty memory, limited perspective, resistance to changeHow can the final product ensure user satisfaction?Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
18What user research should answer Usability Buffet3/31/2017What user research should answerWhatHowWhyUser ResearchWho?WhereWhen(How, Why)Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
19Steps to conduct user research Usability Buffet3/31/2017Steps to conduct user researchDetermine who your desired users areDetermine what user tasks your product helps accomplishDevelop questions that you need to know about the users and their processesDetermine the method of user research to conductPlan researchConduct researchPresent resultsWho: Categories of users; business plan, marketing research, and other business analysis artifacts may define usersTasks: Business artifacts such as marketing research and competitive analysis may inform this, but you may also discover some tasks while conducting user research that were not uncovered through other meansQuestions: What do you need to know to develop the product? The questioning process is iterative. You will probably want to refine your questions at each round of user research if you are able. If you are not able to have more than one round of research with target users, consider using surrogates, including family and friends.Method: More on the next slide, but in general, watch them or ask them (Summers and Summers)Plan and conduct: Working directly with users is often a ticklish business. Sales, account reps, marketing, and other business people may be protective of their contacts. Developing a plan that allows them to participate in the planning process to gain buy-in and allay any fears that you might adversely affect their business relationships. Beware common objections to direct interaction: “Marketing already knows the users. We don’t have enough time… money…. We are users ourselves.” (Hackos and Redish) and many more.Present: A bargaining chip to use with other stakeholders—you will be acquiring information they might need. Also, useful to demonstrate value of research as well as share the data with other stakeholders and team members. First step to getting team members to consider user satisfaction in the project plan.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
20Types of information to learn Usability Buffet3/31/2017Types of information to learnIndustry experienceJob experienceRolesComputer experienceEducation and trainingAge ranges (if relevant)Working conditions (environment)Usage constraintsSatisfaction with current conditionsPerspective on changes to current conditionsTraining includes what users have had and what they can realistically expect to receive.Age ranges example: ages of insurance underwriters were considerably higher than that of their assistants. These older workers had already managed to work around and even outside the current computerized system by transferring the burden to the assistants or by relying on manual means that were still available.Usage constraints: accessibility questions fall in this category as well as management imposed constraints among others.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
21Go-to sources about users Usability Buffet3/31/2017Go-to sources about usersUsers themselvesThe immediate managers of usersThe company-level management (the people who are paying for a project)The general industry through researchImmediate managers of users will likely err on the side of what should be done vs. what is actually done to perform a job.Research: if you can’t get to users, this is the only way to answer the questions. Recent experience with start-ups has meant relying on research as the primary means of learning about target users. Anticipating a user advisory board, but marketing is arranging that and expect some bias.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
22What to do: Common techniques Usability Buffet3/31/2017What to do: Common techniquesLeastIndustry researchSurveys and questionnairesSME interviewsUsage trackingFeedback from usersFocus groupsInterviewsUsability testingObservationsSite visitsInteraction with real usersSurveys and questionnaires: May misrepresent their view to make themselves look better or provide the answer they think management wants, may forget or believe they do things differently than they do, may lie because they are hostile to the project at all.Feedback: Especially from previous versionsUsage tracking: Better for task analysis, but can reveal superstitious behavior (DOS delete followed by directory command)Interviews and focus groups may not provide access to real users, but instead provide at best a limited subset of the total user group (frequently the experts). At worst, these are interactions with direct managers, former users who have moved on to higher responsibilities, and the purchase decision makers (high-level management).Additionally, focus groups introduce group dynamics and a dynamic personality may dominate more passive personalities. If this is a concern, you as the usability expert must provide opportunities to get complete input from those passive personalitiesUsability testing should come at all phases of the development life cycle and ideally supplies any updated information to enhance an existing user profile.Observations may be remote (video of a factory line, observation deck of a auction flow) while site visits are actual users in their real environment.MostKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
23Applying research: Users Usability Buffet3/31/2017Applying research: UsersDevelop complete profiles of all users and any composites for designDevelop user personasOrganize any user artifacts (such as forms, documentation, and similar)Use as basis for usability validationShare with the development teamHackos & Redish confirm that the types of analysis you apply depends on your project:New product: detailed user profiles including outliersLegacy product:list of the user skills compared with what they will needThe information gathered in the user analysis will benefit all members of the project team; however, the other team members may not be quick to realize the benefits. Make the information readily available and publicize that availability. Put up posters about users.Understand how your team views usability, whether they actively support your activities by collecting and sharing information themselves, whether they expect you to provide all the relevant information, whether they support the idea of usability at all.Understand their experience with using direct user data. Less experience means a slower pace. Don’t try to force them to accept your conclusions.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
24Applying research: Tasks Usability Buffet3/31/2017Applying research: TasksDevelop task models and work flowsDocument how users perform tasks in their own world currentlyUnderstanding the users’ models for interacting with data, tools, and tasksThe quote by Hackos and Redish is actually about user and task analysis. The two are frequently paired with good reason, but they answer different questions. If you are conducting a single activity to conduct both user and task analysis, you need to be certain to understand in detail what questions each should answer.Coe speaks of the “users’ psychology.” This understanding provides the proper foundation for development.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
25Applying research: Environment Usability Buffet3/31/2017Applying research: EnvironmentUnderstand the conditions that users will face when using the end productDetail the users’ working environmentIdentify “noise” in the communicationThe quote by Hackos and Redish is actually about user and task analysis. The two are frequently paired with good reason, but they answer different questions. If you are conducting a single activity to conduct both user and task analysis, you need to be certain to understand in detail what questions each should answer.Coe speaks of the “users’ psychology.” This understanding provides the proper foundation for development.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
26Where the analysis takes you… Usability Buffet3/31/2017Where the analysis takes you…User AnalysisTask AnalysisEnvironment AnalysisUser GoalsNot necessarily the same as…The business unit’s goalsThe developers’ goalsThe customer goalsKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
27Making user research part of the plan Usability Buffet3/31/2017Making user research part of the planKnow the objections and have answers for themPrepare a formal requestProvide cost analysis of savings from solid user analysis in similar projectsLook for ways to integrate user analysis in existing processesPrepare management for plan changesHackos and Redish list (pg. 13)The objections have a grain of truth in them that provides a resource to you.Formal request may be for a whole series of user interactions or for a single opportunity. Either way provide a detailed account of your goals for the analysis.Develop a usability life cycle plan that mirrors current development lifecycles.The process of user analysis will lead to new questions and new needs for information. Change also means that as the mental model of the user unfolds, some design decisions may need to be revisited.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
28User research questions? Usability Buffet3/31/2017User research questions?BuffetKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
29User Surveys Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
30Definitions Survey: planned method of finding something out Usability Buffet3/31/2017DefinitionsSurvey: planned method of finding something outQuestionnaire: formal series of questions, sometimes with choices for answersInterview: planned discussion of a topicKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
31Interview or questionnaire? Usability Buffet3/31/2017Interview or questionnaire?InterviewTalk to the userInterviewer captures the answersFlexibleRequires small samplesQuestionnaireDo not talk to the userReceive written answers from userInflexibleSupports large samplesFace-to-face data collectionCATIFace-to-face data collectionKB: Should questionnaire use an outline to mirror the interview plan of interviews?CATIKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
32Poor (but typical) choice of method Usability Buffet3/31/2017Poor (but typical) choice of methodDecide to do a surveyWrite some questionsCirculate internally “for comment”ReviseAdministerBy to everyoneAs a pop-up window to every site visitorBy including in every manualKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
33Ideal: Iterative information gathering Usability Buffet3/31/2017Ideal: Iterative information gatheringFace-to-face interviewTelephone or electronic interviewDetailed questionnaireShort questionnaireA user survey can be very effective when used to collect the right information at the right time and in the right format. The type of survey used—questionnaire vs. interview vs. test, lengthy vs. short, anonymous vs. confidential, self-administered vs. investigator-administered—depend on a number of factors.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
34When NOT to do a user survey Usability Buffet3/31/2017When NOT to do a user surveyDon’t yet have a business definition of the usersForced to use a method that doesn’t match the time availableCan’t do anything with the resultsKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
3510 steps Preparation Production Delivery Set goals Conduct Usability Buffet3/31/201710 stepsPreparationSet goalsDecide on target groupInterview target usersProductionCreate contentDecide on deliveryTestRevise for final surveyDeliveryConductCompile and analyze responsesPublish resultsKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
36Buffet User survey questions? Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
37Usability requirements Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability requirements!Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
38Usability requirements Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability requirementsWhat they are: The expected and desired user reaction to a systemDefine how well a product should work for the intended usersDefine target user satisfaction goalsWhat they aren’t: Functional requirements, use cases (strictly speaking), marketing’s product “mission” statements, nebulous user wish listsAnswers “how well” rather than “how” or “what.”Examples:User wish list: Maroon text on light mauveUsability requirement: High contrast (X shades) between text and background to support accessibility goals. Customizable colors to allow users to create the needed contrast for visibility and satisfaction.Does the product work well for the intended users?Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
39Sources: Analysis deliverables Usability Buffet3/31/2017Sources: Analysis deliverablesMust-have usability requirementsBusinessUserUser and task analysisExpectationsWork environmentProfession descriptionPersonal productivity goalsMarket needsIndustry analysisTechnology changesBudgetCompany productivity goalsGrowth strategyCompetitive AnalysisTwo main areas of focus (your mileage may vary): user and biz (which includes technical).Business is usually your customer: your management for internal projects or the companies that buy business products; for general audiences COTS products, user = customer, so the business is the company developing the product.After dealing with the must-haves, you need to prioritize everything else. How you do this? It depends (of course), but consider what success you gain from users (product satisfaction) and from the business (income).COTS = Users get higher priorityInternal product (no user choice) = Business gets higher priorityDetermines how truly successful your product isPays youKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
40When to determine requirements Usability Buffet3/31/2017When to determine requirementsAnalysisDesignDevelopmentTestMaintenanceRequirementsLife cycle activities, regardless of terminology and granularity. Size indicates time allotted.Requirements may sometimes be a phase unto themselves for really “big” products or detailed (read: legally sensitive) products. In general, they are the analysis of the data and component analysis of the analysis phase.Requirements guide and cross-check design and development decisions.Requirements guide and double-check changes made in the maintenance phase (mini design and development efforts).Requirements are living documents and can change based on design decisions just as designs may change during implementation. The document should be updated (preferably under version control) to support testing and future revisions. The development phase may even contribute changes, but notice that it’s a thin trickle back. Problems happen when the trickle becomes a flood—that’s scope creep.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
41Why develop usability requirements Usability Buffet3/31/2017Why develop usability requirementsProvide a common, familiar language to focus on user needsInclude usability into a product foundation rather than add it as an afterthought or fixTest design and development assumptionsSupport usability testingServe as a rallying cry for user satisfactionCommon language: Make sure that every stakeholder has the same understanding of what a “usable” end product will be. Again, this is a communication activity—perfect for tech communicators to take a large role. The language of requirements is (or should be) familiar to development teams.Product foundation: Companies who have no or minimal understanding about usability read articles that contain heuristic evaluations and test results of finished products by gurus such as Jakob Nielsen, Jared Spool, and Don Norman. They may be at risk to conclude that usability is an end of cycle activity. Usability requirements in particular are used throughout the lifecycle, as shown on the upcoming slide.Rally cry: Ensure that usability is considered throughout the product life cycleKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
42General usability criteria Usability Buffet3/31/2017General usability criteriaLearnability: How quickly do users come up to speed on the product?Efficiency: How easy is the product to use and be productive?Memorability: Do users remember how to use the product between uses?Error tolerance: Do users make few errors? Are errors recoverable?Relevance: Does the product meet users real needs?Attitude/satisfaction: Do users enjoy using the product?Accessibility: Does the product support the usage needs of all potential users including those with special physical requirements?Whitney Quesenbery’s 5 E’s of Usability:EngagingEffectiveEasy to LearnError TolerantEfficientAttitude/Satisfaction: Some concrete measures are available (number of good things remembered example on slide 14), but probably the hardest to make concrete. Surveys and interviews from testing. Support calls are another source of validation, although in some ways too late.Fortress experience: When user access was limited, I used this list to prioritize the internal stakeholders goals prior to completing the design.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
43Constructing usability requirements Usability Buffet3/31/2017Constructing usability requirementsDetermine what usability criteria to measure and the priority for each.Determine how the criteria be measured. Create tangible measurements of intangible user satisfaction statements.Set a realistic percentage of users that must achieve the goals. (100% of users will almost never accomplish 100% of all usability goals.)Define the conditions that must exist for the product to successfully fulfill the requirements.Select any usability criteria that won’t be covered. Rank included usability criteria.Realistic: “U% of a sample of the intended user population should accomplish T% of the benchmark tasks within M minutes and with no more than E errors.”Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
44Components of a usability requirement Usability Buffet3/31/2017Components of a usability requirementWhat task should the user accomplish: Clearly define the specific, finite task that a user should perform and the goal to be achievedWho will accomplish the task: Define which user type (novice? expert?) the requirement addressesWhat conditions will the task be performed under: Amount of training, work environment, computer experience, etc.How well should the task be performed: A concrete measure of success as a percentage of the right users under the right conditionsHow well: Indicate acceptable number of errors for individuals and acceptable frequency of the same errors for sample, the speed (by time or number of actions) with which the task is completed, the ability to remember how to perform the same task after some duration, the ability to perform similar tasks with same or fewer errors.Correlation to Use CasesKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
47? ! User Interface Design Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
48Usability Buffet3/31/2017Design processIs iterative and exploratory, with the goal of creating a product that meets user needsStarts with users’ actually tasks not system functionalityShows very tangible output of the analysis phaseProvides first deliverables that SMEs are likely to react strongly toDevelops iteratively and incrementallyTested throughoutKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
49Moving through the design process Usability Buffet3/31/2017Moving through the design process!??!!????!Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
50Using design models and prototypes Usability Buffet3/31/2017Using design models and prototypesExplore: Create a strong design by iterating through ideas rapidlyCommunicate: Demonstrate progress against time lines in tangible formatCollaborate: Enhance collaboration with other teams through clear understanding and a shared vocabularyValidate: Test a design in early stages when changes can be made easilyUnderstand the ways you are likely to use the prototype within your project, which segues into… (next slide)From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
51Design models: UI sketchlets Usability Buffet3/31/2017Design models: UI sketchletsEarly concepts to illustrate key tasksTypically, created as a “quick and dirty” exploration toolEncourage discussion and inputValidate thinking as early as possibleCapture early ideasPresented as storyboards, paper prototypes, whiteboard designs, and similarKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
52Sketchlet examples Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
53Design models: UI wireframes Usability Buffet3/31/2017Design models: UI wireframesPresent layout and functionalityShows data fields and controlsFocused on specific functionalityDoes not show graphics or look-and-feelKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
54UI wireframe example Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
55Design models: UI mockups Usability Buffet3/31/2017Design models: UI mockupsPresent functionality within design conceptsShows functionality within the context of the designPresents examples of how the final product might lookKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
56UI mockup example Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
57Design models: Functional prototype Usability Buffet3/31/2017Design models: Functional prototypePresent groups of functionality and allow functional walkthroughsIs a design deliverableGuide feedbackUse for usability testingValidate and document designPresented often as complete screens, but may not represent all functionality in the systemUnderstand the ways you are likely to use the prototype within your project, which segues into… (next slide)From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
58Design models: Interaction specification Usability Buffet3/31/2017Design models: Interaction specificationTypically produced in the last stages of the design phaseDefines the initial state of each screen elementDefines how each element (control, data, status icon, etc.) behaves when the user interacts with itDefines how user action changes (or not) each elementCan define error messages and other system text that may be displayed to usersPresented as a spreadsheet or an annotated illustrationAlso called a GUI mapShould accompany some design illustrations even if it is a spreadsheetKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
59Interaction specification example Usability Buffet3/31/2017Interaction specification exampleKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
60Usability Buffet3/31/2017Prototyping goal: Whether users can work effectively with the interfaceVisual or information design issuesCan the user find and understand the information on the screen?Navigation issuesDoes the user understand the meaning of each control? Can they find the controls or information needed to complete their task?Efficiency issuesCan the user work quickly enough to meet usability goalsSetting prototyping goals makes sure that you cover enough of the correct functionality to have a tool appropriate to the uses you intend without investing too much time and effort.Prototypes produced in different stages of the project lifecycle will likely have different goals and usage.From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
61Prototyping goal: Demonstrate the user interface Usability Buffet3/31/2017Prototyping goal: Demonstrate the user interfaceCommunicate the design to developers, marketing, management, or customersWalk through proposed navigation designMatch screens and controls to use casesDemo proposed functionality to internal or external groupsFrom “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
62What to include in a prototype Usability Buffet3/31/2017What to include in a prototypeHorizontal: Full breath of functionality, but with little depthVertical: Complete demonstration of representative tasks or information pathsKey Screen or T-Prototype: Full breadth indicated, with 1-2 tasks prototyped in detailFrom “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
63Usability Buffet3/31/2017When to prototypeAnalysisDesignDevelopmentTestingMaintenance123vision prototypes expose early ideas to commentwireframes accompany use-case analysis or participatory design sessionskey screen prototype demonstrates interaction structure/UI architectureprototypes validate specific or complex work flowsvisual prototypes test layout for usability and technologyVision and analysis: Help guide and refine user input into the requirements gathering processEarly design: Help with database schema design and reflects any data constraints so alternative presentations can be explored early (sounds weird, but it’s happening to me now)Build: Aid with traceability, easier to see changes in a UI design than underlying system changes that may deviate from the specificationFrom “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
64Types of prototypes Low fidelity Slide shows Medium fidelity Usability Buffet3/31/2017Types of prototypesLow fidelitySimple layout sketches which usually focus on content and layoutSketchlets, wireframes, content outlinesSlide showsHigh fidelity visual design, but with minimal interactivityWireframes, mockups, site mapsMedium fidelityGood visual fidelity with nominal interaction capability following a scenarioMockups, prototypesHigh fidelityFull interaction capabilities and detailed screen layouts.Functional prototypes, interaction specificationFrom “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
65Selecting a prototyping tool Usability Buffet3/31/2017Selecting a prototyping toolPaperlow fidelity and difficult to distributeHTMLgood for navigation, but not always appropriateDevelopment environmenthigh fidelity, but slow and can limit creativityInteractive environments (PowerPoint, Flash, etc.)good for experimental interactions, can be rapid, can be too different from final environmentVisiohybrid: rapid, high screen fidelity, moderate interactionFrom “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
66How users interact with the prototype Usability Buffet3/31/2017How users interact with the prototypeNavigation is done on-screenAll buttons, links or other major navigation controls are active and can be used to move from page to pagePost-it notes representDrop down menus or combo boxesSome popup windowsFilling in forms on paperPrint outs of the forms let users write in any data they would enter.Talk through the actionsUsers describe aloud what actions they take and data they useFrom “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
69Planning a usability test Usability Buffet3/31/2017Planning a usability testEstablish goals and scopeWhat do you hope to learn?Plan the usability testWhat tasks or sections of the product are included?Scripted task or user-driven exploration?What functionality must be active?Recruit users and set up facility2-3 users per roundPlan facilitation and interaction areasTesting with Visio usually requires user interaction with a test moderator. Even more sophisticate, linked Visio prototypes do not fully behave as their controls suggest. The moderator can aid the user in understanding and overcoming such limitations to focus instead on the goals of the usability test.Usability test objectives may be either qualitative or quantitative. Testing using low fidelity prototypes generally supports qualitative analysis more completely than quantitative analysis, although by no means exclusively. Types of qualitative information to learn from usability testing include user’s satisfaction, comprehension, and preferences. (Reference: “Getting Started with Usability Testing: An STC Telephone Seminar in 2 Parts” presented by Carol M. Barnum, Ph.D., Higher fidelity allow for more accurate testing of quantitative information such as how fast is a task completed and how many mistakes were made. However, detailed quantitative testing is probably best using development versions that have the real functionality.From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
70Developing a usability test plan Usability Buffet3/31/2017Developing a usability test planIdentify the most significant group of users to testHighest priority usability requirementsHighest quantity of usability requirementsIdentify which user tasks to testIdentify the usability test methods to use at each phase of developmentIdentify the test materialsWrite test scenariosSpecify results necessary to passDevelop testing schedulesDetermine the method of reporting and analysisMethods: Barnum, Dumas and Redish, and other resourcesScripted task or user-driven exploration?What functionality must be active?Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
71Example test summary Navigation  User: Current insurance customer Usability Buffet3/31/2017Example test summaryNavigation User:Current insurance customerLocation:Marketing Research FacilityMethod:Moderated walkthroughDate:March 2007Materials:Paper prototypeStatus:In progressGoals:Discover whether the site organization matches how users look for quotes.Discover whether the terminology makes sense to a general audience.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
72Thoughts on testing logistics Usability Buffet3/31/2017Thoughts on testing logisticsLocationsWithin the user’s environmentIn a lab environmentRecordingAudio and visualCapture screen movementsGood quality microphonePermissionsRecruitingHonoraria and thank you giftsObserversAnalysis of dataQuantitativeQualitativeKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
73Formal usability testing Usability Buffet3/31/2017Formal usability testingBroad in scopeLooking for input for sets of functionalityTesting more sophisticated prototypes or alpha/beta productsLarger number of users overallStrive for a statistical samplingUsually more expensiveKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
74Lab-based test environment Usability Buffet3/31/2017Lab-based test environmentAdvantagesControlled environmentHigh-quality session recordingGood for evaluating products nearing completionDisadvantagesArtificial, formal settingExpensiveConsiderably more logistics managementKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
75Guerilla usability tests Usability Buffet3/31/2017Guerilla usability testsSmall in scopeLooking for input on specific design problemsTesting overall organization of workflow or information architectureSmall number of users per iterationJust enough to gain enough insight to confirm or iterate designFrom “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
76Advantages to guerilla testing Usability Buffet3/31/2017Advantages to guerilla testingThe informality is infectiousIt’s relaxing and interactive for the usersUsers have little trouble moving from screen to paper when necessary (as long as they match)The fact that it’s obviously a work in progress encourages users to make suggestions and talk easilyUsers will feel that they are making a real contribution to the development of new productsFrom “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
77Reporting test results Usability Buffet3/31/2017Reporting test resultsTailor to your audienceFocus on significant conclusions and provide recommendationsRecognize the limits of your dataAvoid forcing more conclusions than the data supportAcknowledge the other constraints (business drivers, schedule, budget, and so on) on development when making recommendationsRecognize that the details that may grab your attention may not be that significantKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
79Bringing UCD into Your Organization Usability Buffet3/31/2017Bringing UCD into Your OrganizationKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
80Motivations and strategies Usability Buffet3/31/2017Motivations and strategiesWhat pain points exist that UCD could target?Can UCD support an organizational vision?Is there interest in UCD and usability?What is the timeline for success?Who should lead UCD?Current internal teamHired specialistsIndependent contractorsConsulting firmsKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
81Support in the organization Usability Buffet3/31/2017Support in the organizationWill someone in the organization champion UCD?Top-downMiddle-outGrassrootsDoes another organization do similar work now?Marketing focus groupsAccount representatives (CRM)Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
82Personal goals and interests Usability Buffet3/31/2017Personal goals and interestsDoes UCD present a career path or a resource for your current work?Are you prepared for a dual role?Do you have an advocate and/or mentor?Do you have access to users now?Do you understand the business drivers to make the case for UCD?What training do you need?What training resources are available?Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
83Education options Yours… Your company… Formal education Certification Usability Buffet3/31/2017Education optionsYours…Formal educationCertificationConferences, workshops, seminars, and webinarsBooks, trade publications, and websitesDiscussion lists, blogs, and professional organizationsMentors and apprenticeshipsYour company…Lunch-and-learn sessionsArticles and case studiesConsultantsOn-site trainingWebinarsCertificationKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
84Getting started Start small Look for a proof-of-concept project Usability Buffet3/31/2017Getting startedStart smallOffer internal “consulting” to colleaguesStart educating the organizationLook for a proof-of-concept projectFind a project with interested and sympathetic project leads and team membersConsider projects for internal usersCapture metrics and value along the wayConduct benchmark usability testingRecord time spent on usability tasks carefullyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
85Buffet UCD & you questions? Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
86Usability Buffet3/31/2017Questions?Contact Karen at with “Usability Buffet” in the subject line.Thank youKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
87User and task analysis references Usability Buffet3/31/2017User and task analysis referencesM. Coe, Human Factors for Technical Communicators.J.T. Hackos and J.C. Redish, User and Task Analysis for Interface Design.T. Mandel, The Elements of User Interface Design.J. Nielsen, Usability Engineering.B. Shneiderman, Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
88Usability requirements references Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability requirements referencesC. Courage, K. Baxter. Understanding Users: A Practical Guide to User Requirements - Methods, Tools, and Techniques.J. Jubner. “Setting Usability Requirements.”S. Lauesen, H. Younessi. “Six Styles for Usability Requirements.”E. Smith, A. Siochi. “Software Usability Requirements by Evaluation.”W. Quesenbery. “5Es of Usability.”Usability Net (A European Union Project). “Requirements.”Xerox Corporation. “How to Develop Usability Goals.” Usability SIG website:Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
89UI design references B. Buxton. Sketching User Experiences. Usability Buffet3/31/2017UI design referencesB. Buxton. Sketching User Experiences.R. Kavanagh and J. Soety. Prototyping Using Visio:J. Hom (Site Owner). Usability Methods Toolbox (Section on Prototyping):M. Klee. Five Paper Prototyping Tips:Using Paper Prototypes to Manage Risk:L.J. Najjar. Conceptual User Interface: A New Tool for Designing E-Commerce User Interfaces:J.A. Landay and B.A. Myers. Interactive Sketching for the Early Stages of User Interface DesignJ. Redish. Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works.C. Snyder. Paper Prototyping: The fast and Easy Way to Design and Refine User Interfaces.From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney QuesenberyKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
90Usability testing references Usability Buffet3/31/2017Usability testing referencesC. Barnum. Usability Testing and Research.J.S. Dumas, J.C. Redish. Practical Guide to Usability Testing.J. Nielsen. Usability Engineering.J. Rubin, D. Chisnell. Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests, 2nd Edition.D. Stone, C. Jarrett, M. Woodroffe, S. Minocha. User Interface Design and Evaluation.K. Summers, M. Summers. Creating Websites that Work.Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
91User survey references Usability Buffet3/31/2017User survey referencesD.A. Dillman. Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method.A.N. Oppenheim. Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement.P. Salant and D.A. Dillman. How to Conduct Your Own Survey.From “Creating Effective User Surveys,” originally presented with Caroline JarrettKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
92Organizations and resources Usability Buffet3/31/2017Organizations and resourcesSTC Usability & User Experience:Usability Professionals’ Association:ACM SIGCHI:Human Factors and Ergonomics Society:UX Watercooler:Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
93Recognitions and thanks Usability Buffet3/31/2017Recognitions and thanksPrototyping presentation originally created and presented with Whitney QuesenberyUser survey presentation originally created and presented with Caroline JarrettKaren Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.
94Usability Buffet3/31/2017About meKaren Bachmann, an independent consultant, helps clients deliver usable products that support how users need and expect to interaction with information and perform their tasks. Karen is the former manager of the Usability & User Experience community and is an Associate Fellow of STC. Karen blogs on The Content Wrangler Community and the UX Watercooler, a social network she founded for anyone interested in UX design.She lives with 14 ferrets and a cat, who view her and the other human in the house as necessary, although hard-to-train, staff.Karen can be reachedGot treats?Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.