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1 Usability Buffet by Karen Bachmann Seascape Consulting, Inc.
3/31/2017 The Usability Buffet by Karen Bachmann Seascape Consulting, Inc. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

2 Navigating this presentation
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Navigating this presentation This presentation is audience-driven, so it is organized to allow a flexible rather than a linear flow. Slides 3-13 provide an overview of the user-centered design process and some key activities and deliverables. Slide 14, The Usability Buffet, serves as a launching point (or table of contents) into detailed discussions. Just clicking the mouse or Enter key will take you to the end of the presentation. Click the topic name to go to that specific topic. A link back to slide 14 is provided at the end of each detail section. Click the to return to slide 14. Buffet Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

3 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability defined… ISO : “Usability: the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.” ISO 13407: "Human-centered design is characterised by: the active involvement of users and a clear understanding of user and task requirements; an appropriate allocation of function between users and technology; the iteration of design solutions; multi-disciplinary design." Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

4 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability defined… UPA: “Usability is an approach to product development that incorporates direct user feedback throughout the development cycle in order to reduce costs and create products and tools that meet user needs. There are many definitions of usability…” Jakob Nielsen: “Usability is a quality attribute that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use. The word ‘usability’ also refers to methods for improving ease-of-use during the design process.” Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

5 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability defined… Wikipedia: “Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. Usability can also refer to the methods of measuring usability and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance. In human-computer interaction and computer science, usability usually refers to the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site is designed. ” Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

6 Usability defined? A process for delivering the quality of usability
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability defined? A process for delivering the quality of usability A quality of a product In practical terms, Implement as a process Educate and evaluate as a quality Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

7 Usability in the development life cycle
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability in the development life cycle Analysis Design Development Testing Maintenance User research: Personas and profiles Task analysis Environment analysis UI design models and prototypes Usability requirements UI functional prototypes UI specifications: Screen elements, interactions, behaviors User interface Usability Testing Benchmark testing Competitive analysis Heuristic evaluations Formative testing AB testing Summative testing Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

8 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 User research: Users “The process of learning about ordinary users by observing them in action” (Hackos and Redish) Identifies user needs and expectations Identifies user demographics, background, experience, knowledge, and other characteristics Does not result in a single profile of an “average” user, but can help develop composites Requires empathy, not just scientific principles and data gathering techniques Is subject to change over time The quote by Hackos and Redish is actually about user and task analysis. The two are frequently paired with good reason, but they answer different questions. If you are conducting a single activity to conduct both user and task analysis, you need to be certain to understand in detail what questions each should answer. Coe speaks of the “users’ psychology.” This understanding provides the proper foundation for development. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

9 User research: Task analysis
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 User research: Task analysis “… learning about ordinary users by observing them in action” Define the way users perform tasks in their own world Understand the users models for interacting with data and tools to perform their tasks Focus on users’ processes, not their tools Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

10 User research: Environment analysis
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 User research: Environment analysis Understand the conditions that users will face when using the end product Detail the users’ working environment Identify “noise” in the communication ? Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

11 Usability requirements
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability requirements Are the expected and desired user reaction to a system Define how well a product should work for the intended users Turn user goals into measurable success criteria Communicate user expectations to the development team Help keep users’ needs visible throughout development ! Answers “how well” rather than “how” or “what.” Examples: User wish list: Maroon text on light mauve Usability requirement: High contrast (X shades) between text and background to support accessibility goals. Customizable colors to allow users to create the needed contrast for visibility and satisfaction. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

12 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 UI design An iterative, exploratory process for creating a product that meets user needs First deliverables that stakeholders are likely to react strongly to Sample deliverables: Sketchlets Wireframes Mockups Functional prototypes Interaction specifications Content outlines Site maps ? ! Sketchlets: Early concepts to illustrate key tasks Wireframes: Present layout and functionality Mockups: Present functionality with look-and-feel Functional prototypes: Present groups of functionality and allow functional walkthroughs Interaction specifications Content outlines Site maps Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

13 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability testing Usability testing is a process where actual users are observed performing real tasks using the product being evaluated by the testing (Barnum; Dumas and Redish). Evaluates the usability of a design against defined success criteria Conducted throughout the life cycle: “test early, test often” Tests the following questions: Does the product meet user needs? Does the product meet user expectations? ? Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

14 Usability Requirements UCD & Your Organization
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 The Usability Buffet Surveys Usability Testing UI Design User Research Usability Requirements UCD & Your Organization Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

15 ? User Research Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

16 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 What user research is “The process of learning about ordinary users by observing them in action” (Hackos and Redish) Defines user needs and expectations …does not identify an “average” user, but can help develop composites …requires empathy, not just scientific principles and data gathering techniques …is subject to change over time The quote by Hackos and Redish is actually about user and task analysis. The two are frequently paired with good reason, but they answer different questions. If you are conducting a single activity to conduct both user and task analysis, you need to be certain to understand in detail what questions each should answer. Coe speaks of the “users’ psychology.” This understanding provides the proper foundation for development. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

17 Why do user research To understand current user experiences
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Why do user research To understand current user experiences To distinguish between user needs and user wants To anticipate user reactions to and the chances for success with a particular development effort To increase the likelihood of a project’s success before starting development To identify all possible users of the product as concretely as possible Several reasons users may not know what they really need: faulty memory, limited perspective, resistance to change How can the final product ensure user satisfaction? Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

18 What user research should answer
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 What user research should answer What How Why User Research Who ? Where When (How, Why) Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

19 Steps to conduct user research
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Steps to conduct user research Determine who your desired users are Determine what user tasks your product helps accomplish Develop questions that you need to know about the users and their processes Determine the method of user research to conduct Plan research Conduct research Present results Who: Categories of users; business plan, marketing research, and other business analysis artifacts may define users Tasks: Business artifacts such as marketing research and competitive analysis may inform this, but you may also discover some tasks while conducting user research that were not uncovered through other means Questions: What do you need to know to develop the product? The questioning process is iterative. You will probably want to refine your questions at each round of user research if you are able. If you are not able to have more than one round of research with target users, consider using surrogates, including family and friends. Method: More on the next slide, but in general, watch them or ask them (Summers and Summers) Plan and conduct: Working directly with users is often a ticklish business. Sales, account reps, marketing, and other business people may be protective of their contacts. Developing a plan that allows them to participate in the planning process to gain buy-in and allay any fears that you might adversely affect their business relationships. Beware common objections to direct interaction: “Marketing already knows the users. We don’t have enough time… money…. We are users ourselves.” (Hackos and Redish) and many more. Present: A bargaining chip to use with other stakeholders—you will be acquiring information they might need. Also, useful to demonstrate value of research as well as share the data with other stakeholders and team members. First step to getting team members to consider user satisfaction in the project plan. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

20 Types of information to learn
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Types of information to learn Industry experience Job experience Roles Computer experience Education and training Age ranges (if relevant) Working conditions (environment) Usage constraints Satisfaction with current conditions Perspective on changes to current conditions Training includes what users have had and what they can realistically expect to receive. Age ranges example: ages of insurance underwriters were considerably higher than that of their assistants. These older workers had already managed to work around and even outside the current computerized system by transferring the burden to the assistants or by relying on manual means that were still available. Usage constraints: accessibility questions fall in this category as well as management imposed constraints among others. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

21 Go-to sources about users
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Go-to sources about users Users themselves The immediate managers of users The company-level management (the people who are paying for a project) The general industry through research Immediate managers of users will likely err on the side of what should be done vs. what is actually done to perform a job. Research: if you can’t get to users, this is the only way to answer the questions. Recent experience with start-ups has meant relying on research as the primary means of learning about target users. Anticipating a user advisory board, but marketing is arranging that and expect some bias. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

22 What to do: Common techniques
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 What to do: Common techniques Least Industry research Surveys and questionnaires SME interviews Usage tracking Feedback from users Focus groups Interviews Usability testing Observations Site visits Interaction with real users Surveys and questionnaires: May misrepresent their view to make themselves look better or provide the answer they think management wants, may forget or believe they do things differently than they do, may lie because they are hostile to the project at all. Feedback: Especially from previous versions Usage tracking: Better for task analysis, but can reveal superstitious behavior (DOS delete followed by directory command) Interviews and focus groups may not provide access to real users, but instead provide at best a limited subset of the total user group (frequently the experts). At worst, these are interactions with direct managers, former users who have moved on to higher responsibilities, and the purchase decision makers (high-level management). Additionally, focus groups introduce group dynamics and a dynamic personality may dominate more passive personalities. If this is a concern, you as the usability expert must provide opportunities to get complete input from those passive personalities Usability testing should come at all phases of the development life cycle and ideally supplies any updated information to enhance an existing user profile. Observations may be remote (video of a factory line, observation deck of a auction flow) while site visits are actual users in their real environment. Most Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

23 Applying research: Users
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Applying research: Users Develop complete profiles of all users and any composites for design Develop user personas Organize any user artifacts (such as forms, documentation, and similar) Use as basis for usability validation Share with the development team Hackos & Redish confirm that the types of analysis you apply depends on your project: New product: detailed user profiles including outliers Legacy product:list of the user skills compared with what they will need The information gathered in the user analysis will benefit all members of the project team; however, the other team members may not be quick to realize the benefits. Make the information readily available and publicize that availability. Put up posters about users. Understand how your team views usability, whether they actively support your activities by collecting and sharing information themselves, whether they expect you to provide all the relevant information, whether they support the idea of usability at all. Understand their experience with using direct user data. Less experience means a slower pace. Don’t try to force them to accept your conclusions. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

24 Applying research: Tasks
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Applying research: Tasks Develop task models and work flows Document how users perform tasks in their own world currently Understanding the users’ models for interacting with data, tools, and tasks The quote by Hackos and Redish is actually about user and task analysis. The two are frequently paired with good reason, but they answer different questions. If you are conducting a single activity to conduct both user and task analysis, you need to be certain to understand in detail what questions each should answer. Coe speaks of the “users’ psychology.” This understanding provides the proper foundation for development. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

25 Applying research: Environment
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Applying research: Environment Understand the conditions that users will face when using the end product Detail the users’ working environment Identify “noise” in the communication The quote by Hackos and Redish is actually about user and task analysis. The two are frequently paired with good reason, but they answer different questions. If you are conducting a single activity to conduct both user and task analysis, you need to be certain to understand in detail what questions each should answer. Coe speaks of the “users’ psychology.” This understanding provides the proper foundation for development. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

26 Where the analysis takes you…
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Where the analysis takes you… User Analysis Task Analysis Environment Analysis User Goals Not necessarily the same as… The business unit’s goals The developers’ goals The customer goals Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

27 Making user research part of the plan
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Making user research part of the plan Know the objections and have answers for them Prepare a formal request Provide cost analysis of savings from solid user analysis in similar projects Look for ways to integrate user analysis in existing processes Prepare management for plan changes Hackos and Redish list (pg. 13) The objections have a grain of truth in them that provides a resource to you. Formal request may be for a whole series of user interactions or for a single opportunity. Either way provide a detailed account of your goals for the analysis. Develop a usability life cycle plan that mirrors current development lifecycles. The process of user analysis will lead to new questions and new needs for information. Change also means that as the mental model of the user unfolds, some design decisions may need to be revisited. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

28 User research questions?
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 User research questions? Buffet Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

29 User Surveys Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

30 Definitions Survey: planned method of finding something out
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Definitions Survey: planned method of finding something out Questionnaire: formal series of questions, sometimes with choices for answers Interview: planned discussion of a topic Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

31 Interview or questionnaire?
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Interview or questionnaire? Interview Talk to the user Interviewer captures the answers Flexible Requires small samples Questionnaire Do not talk to the user Receive written answers from user Inflexible Supports large samples Face-to-face data collection CATI Face-to-face data collection KB: Should questionnaire use an outline to mirror the interview plan of interviews? CATI Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

32 Poor (but typical) choice of method
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Poor (but typical) choice of method Decide to do a survey Write some questions Circulate internally “for comment” Revise Administer By to everyone As a pop-up window to every site visitor By including in every manual Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

33 Ideal: Iterative information gathering
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Ideal: Iterative information gathering Face-to-face interview Telephone or electronic interview Detailed questionnaire Short questionnaire A user survey can be very effective when used to collect the right information at the right time and in the right format. The type of survey used—questionnaire vs. interview vs. test, lengthy vs. short, anonymous vs. confidential, self-administered vs. investigator-administered—depend on a number of factors. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

34 When NOT to do a user survey
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 When NOT to do a user survey Don’t yet have a business definition of the users Forced to use a method that doesn’t match the time available Can’t do anything with the results Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

35 10 steps Preparation Production Delivery Set goals Conduct
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 10 steps Preparation Set goals Decide on target group Interview target users Production Create content Decide on delivery Test Revise for final survey Delivery Conduct Compile and analyze responses Publish results Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

36 Buffet User survey questions? Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

37 Usability requirements
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability requirements ! Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

38 Usability requirements
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability requirements What they are: The expected and desired user reaction to a system Define how well a product should work for the intended users Define target user satisfaction goals What they aren’t: Functional requirements, use cases (strictly speaking), marketing’s product “mission” statements, nebulous user wish lists Answers “how well” rather than “how” or “what.” Examples: User wish list: Maroon text on light mauve Usability requirement: High contrast (X shades) between text and background to support accessibility goals. Customizable colors to allow users to create the needed contrast for visibility and satisfaction. Does the product work well for the intended users? Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

39 Sources: Analysis deliverables
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Sources: Analysis deliverables Must-have usability requirements Business User User and task analysis Expectations Work environment Profession description Personal productivity goals Market needs Industry analysis Technology changes Budget Company productivity goals Growth strategy Competitive Analysis Two main areas of focus (your mileage may vary): user and biz (which includes technical). Business is usually your customer: your management for internal projects or the companies that buy business products; for general audiences COTS products, user = customer, so the business is the company developing the product. After dealing with the must-haves, you need to prioritize everything else. How you do this? It depends (of course), but consider what success you gain from users (product satisfaction) and from the business (income). COTS = Users get higher priority Internal product (no user choice) = Business gets higher priority Determines how truly successful your product is Pays you Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

40 When to determine requirements
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 When to determine requirements Analysis Design Development Test Maintenance Requirements Life cycle activities, regardless of terminology and granularity. Size indicates time allotted. Requirements may sometimes be a phase unto themselves for really “big” products or detailed (read: legally sensitive) products. In general, they are the analysis of the data and component analysis of the analysis phase. Requirements guide and cross-check design and development decisions. Requirements guide and double-check changes made in the maintenance phase (mini design and development efforts). Requirements are living documents and can change based on design decisions just as designs may change during implementation. The document should be updated (preferably under version control) to support testing and future revisions. The development phase may even contribute changes, but notice that it’s a thin trickle back. Problems happen when the trickle becomes a flood—that’s scope creep. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

41 Why develop usability requirements
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Why develop usability requirements Provide a common, familiar language to focus on user needs Include usability into a product foundation rather than add it as an afterthought or fix Test design and development assumptions Support usability testing Serve as a rallying cry for user satisfaction Common language: Make sure that every stakeholder has the same understanding of what a “usable” end product will be. Again, this is a communication activity—perfect for tech communicators to take a large role. The language of requirements is (or should be) familiar to development teams. Product foundation: Companies who have no or minimal understanding about usability read articles that contain heuristic evaluations and test results of finished products by gurus such as Jakob Nielsen, Jared Spool, and Don Norman. They may be at risk to conclude that usability is an end of cycle activity. Usability requirements in particular are used throughout the lifecycle, as shown on the upcoming slide. Rally cry: Ensure that usability is considered throughout the product life cycle Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

42 General usability criteria
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 General usability criteria Learnability: How quickly do users come up to speed on the product? Efficiency: How easy is the product to use and be productive? Memorability: Do users remember how to use the product between uses? Error tolerance: Do users make few errors? Are errors recoverable? Relevance: Does the product meet users real needs? Attitude/satisfaction: Do users enjoy using the product? Accessibility: Does the product support the usage needs of all potential users including those with special physical requirements? Whitney Quesenbery’s 5 E’s of Usability: Engaging Effective Easy to Learn Error Tolerant Efficient Attitude/Satisfaction: Some concrete measures are available (number of good things remembered example on slide 14), but probably the hardest to make concrete. Surveys and interviews from testing. Support calls are another source of validation, although in some ways too late. Fortress experience: When user access was limited, I used this list to prioritize the internal stakeholders goals prior to completing the design. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

43 Constructing usability requirements
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Constructing usability requirements Determine what usability criteria to measure and the priority for each. Determine how the criteria be measured. Create tangible measurements of intangible user satisfaction statements. Set a realistic percentage of users that must achieve the goals. (100% of users will almost never accomplish 100% of all usability goals.) Define the conditions that must exist for the product to successfully fulfill the requirements. Select any usability criteria that won’t be covered. Rank included usability criteria. Realistic: “U% of a sample of the intended user population should accomplish T% of the benchmark tasks within M minutes and with no more than E errors.” Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

44 Components of a usability requirement
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Components of a usability requirement What task should the user accomplish: Clearly define the specific, finite task that a user should perform and the goal to be achieved Who will accomplish the task: Define which user type (novice? expert?) the requirement addresses What conditions will the task be performed under: Amount of training, work environment, computer experience, etc. How well should the task be performed: A concrete measure of success as a percentage of the right users under the right conditions How well: Indicate acceptable number of errors for individuals and acceptable frequency of the same errors for sample, the speed (by time or number of actions) with which the task is completed, the ability to remember how to perform the same task after some duration, the ability to perform similar tasks with same or fewer errors. Correlation to Use Cases Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

45 Tips for writing usability requirements
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Tips for writing usability requirements Convert qualitative wants and needs to quantifiable goals Absolute: A concrete measure of success Relative: Compared to another criteria such as a previous release Write them in terms of user tasks and goals Prioritize needs of different user groups Prioritize the usability requirements Be realistic – success is rarely 100% of users Test the requirements Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

46 Usability requirements questions?
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability requirements questions? Buffet Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

47 ? ! User Interface Design Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

48 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Design process Is iterative and exploratory, with the goal of creating a product that meets user needs Starts with users’ actually tasks not system functionality Shows very tangible output of the analysis phase Provides first deliverables that SMEs are likely to react strongly to Develops iteratively and incrementally Tested throughout Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

49 Moving through the design process
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Moving through the design process ! ? ?! !? ? ? ?! Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

50 Using design models and prototypes
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Using design models and prototypes Explore: Create a strong design by iterating through ideas rapidly Communicate: Demonstrate progress against time lines in tangible format Collaborate: Enhance collaboration with other teams through clear understanding and a shared vocabulary Validate: Test a design in early stages when changes can be made easily Understand the ways you are likely to use the prototype within your project, which segues into… (next slide) From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

51 Design models: UI sketchlets
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Design models: UI sketchlets Early concepts to illustrate key tasks Typically, created as a “quick and dirty” exploration tool Encourage discussion and input Validate thinking as early as possible Capture early ideas Presented as storyboards, paper prototypes, whiteboard designs, and similar Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

52 Sketchlet examples Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

53 Design models: UI wireframes
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Design models: UI wireframes Present layout and functionality Shows data fields and controls Focused on specific functionality Does not show graphics or look-and-feel Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

54 UI wireframe example Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

55 Design models: UI mockups
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Design models: UI mockups Present functionality within design concepts Shows functionality within the context of the design Presents examples of how the final product might look Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

56 UI mockup example Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

57 Design models: Functional prototype
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Design models: Functional prototype Present groups of functionality and allow functional walkthroughs Is a design deliverable Guide feedback Use for usability testing Validate and document design Presented often as complete screens, but may not represent all functionality in the system Understand the ways you are likely to use the prototype within your project, which segues into… (next slide) From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

58 Design models: Interaction specification
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Design models: Interaction specification Typically produced in the last stages of the design phase Defines the initial state of each screen element Defines how each element (control, data, status icon, etc.) behaves when the user interacts with it Defines how user action changes (or not) each element Can define error messages and other system text that may be displayed to users Presented as a spreadsheet or an annotated illustration Also called a GUI map Should accompany some design illustrations even if it is a spreadsheet Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

59 Interaction specification example
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Interaction specification example Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

60 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Prototyping goal: Whether users can work effectively with the interface Visual or information design issues Can the user find and understand the information on the screen? Navigation issues Does the user understand the meaning of each control? Can they find the controls or information needed to complete their task? Efficiency issues Can the user work quickly enough to meet usability goals Setting prototyping goals makes sure that you cover enough of the correct functionality to have a tool appropriate to the uses you intend without investing too much time and effort. Prototypes produced in different stages of the project lifecycle will likely have different goals and usage. From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

61 Prototyping goal: Demonstrate the user interface
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Prototyping goal: Demonstrate the user interface Communicate the design to developers, marketing, management, or customers Walk through proposed navigation design Match screens and controls to use cases Demo proposed functionality to internal or external groups From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

62 What to include in a prototype
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 What to include in a prototype Horizontal: Full breath of functionality, but with little depth Vertical: Complete demonstration of representative tasks or information paths Key Screen or T-Prototype: Full breadth indicated, with 1-2 tasks prototyped in detail From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

63 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 When to prototype Analysis Design Development Testing Maintenance 1 2 3 vision prototypes expose early ideas to comment wireframes accompany use-case analysis or participatory design sessions key screen prototype demonstrates interaction structure/UI architecture prototypes validate specific or complex work flows visual prototypes test layout for usability and technology Vision and analysis: Help guide and refine user input into the requirements gathering process Early design: Help with database schema design and reflects any data constraints so alternative presentations can be explored early (sounds weird, but it’s happening to me now) Build: Aid with traceability, easier to see changes in a UI design than underlying system changes that may deviate from the specification From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

64 Types of prototypes Low fidelity Slide shows Medium fidelity
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Types of prototypes Low fidelity Simple layout sketches which usually focus on content and layout Sketchlets, wireframes, content outlines Slide shows High fidelity visual design, but with minimal interactivity Wireframes, mockups, site maps Medium fidelity Good visual fidelity with nominal interaction capability following a scenario Mockups, prototypes High fidelity Full interaction capabilities and detailed screen layouts. Functional prototypes, interaction specification From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

65 Selecting a prototyping tool
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Selecting a prototyping tool Paper low fidelity and difficult to distribute HTML good for navigation, but not always appropriate Development environment high fidelity, but slow and can limit creativity Interactive environments (PowerPoint, Flash, etc.) good for experimental interactions, can be rapid, can be too different from final environment Visio hybrid: rapid, high screen fidelity, moderate interaction From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

66 How users interact with the prototype
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 How users interact with the prototype Navigation is done on-screen All buttons, links or other major navigation controls are active and can be used to move from page to page Post-it notes represent Drop down menus or combo boxes Some popup windows Filling in forms on paper Print outs of the forms let users write in any data they would enter. Talk through the actions Users describe aloud what actions they take and data they use From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

67 User interface design questions?
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 User interface design questions? Buffet Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

68 ? Usability Testing Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

69 Planning a usability test
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Planning a usability test Establish goals and scope What do you hope to learn? Plan the usability test What tasks or sections of the product are included? Scripted task or user-driven exploration? What functionality must be active? Recruit users and set up facility 2-3 users per round Plan facilitation and interaction areas Testing with Visio usually requires user interaction with a test moderator. Even more sophisticate, linked Visio prototypes do not fully behave as their controls suggest. The moderator can aid the user in understanding and overcoming such limitations to focus instead on the goals of the usability test. Usability test objectives may be either qualitative or quantitative. Testing using low fidelity prototypes generally supports qualitative analysis more completely than quantitative analysis, although by no means exclusively. Types of qualitative information to learn from usability testing include user’s satisfaction, comprehension, and preferences. (Reference: “Getting Started with Usability Testing: An STC Telephone Seminar in 2 Parts” presented by Carol M. Barnum, Ph.D., Higher fidelity allow for more accurate testing of quantitative information such as how fast is a task completed and how many mistakes were made. However, detailed quantitative testing is probably best using development versions that have the real functionality. From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

70 Developing a usability test plan
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Developing a usability test plan Identify the most significant group of users to test Highest priority usability requirements Highest quantity of usability requirements Identify which user tasks to test Identify the usability test methods to use at each phase of development Identify the test materials Write test scenarios Specify results necessary to pass Develop testing schedules Determine the method of reporting and analysis Methods: Barnum, Dumas and Redish, and other resources Scripted task or user-driven exploration? What functionality must be active? Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

71 Example test summary Navigation [1] User: Current insurance customer
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Example test summary Navigation [1] User: Current insurance customer Location: Marketing Research Facility Method: Moderated walkthrough Date: March 2007 Materials: Paper prototype Status: In progress Goals: Discover whether the site organization matches how users look for quotes. Discover whether the terminology makes sense to a general audience. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

72 Thoughts on testing logistics
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Thoughts on testing logistics Locations Within the user’s environment In a lab environment Recording Audio and visual Capture screen movements Good quality microphone Permissions Recruiting Honoraria and thank you gifts Observers Analysis of data Quantitative Qualitative Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

73 Formal usability testing
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Formal usability testing Broad in scope Looking for input for sets of functionality Testing more sophisticated prototypes or alpha/beta products Larger number of users overall Strive for a statistical sampling Usually more expensive Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

74 Lab-based test environment
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Lab-based test environment Advantages Controlled environment High-quality session recording Good for evaluating products nearing completion Disadvantages Artificial, formal setting Expensive Considerably more logistics management Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

75 Guerilla usability tests
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Guerilla usability tests Small in scope Looking for input on specific design problems Testing overall organization of workflow or information architecture Small number of users per iteration Just enough to gain enough insight to confirm or iterate design From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

76 Advantages to guerilla testing
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Advantages to guerilla testing The informality is infectious It’s relaxing and interactive for the users Users have little trouble moving from screen to paper when necessary (as long as they match) The fact that it’s obviously a work in progress encourages users to make suggestions and talk easily Users will feel that they are making a real contribution to the development of new products From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

77 Reporting test results
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Reporting test results Tailor to your audience Focus on significant conclusions and provide recommendations Recognize the limits of your data Avoid forcing more conclusions than the data support Acknowledge the other constraints (business drivers, schedule, budget, and so on) on development when making recommendations Recognize that the details that may grab your attention may not be that significant Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

78 Usability testing questions?
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability testing questions? Buffet Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

79 Bringing UCD into Your Organization
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Bringing UCD into Your Organization Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

80 Motivations and strategies
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Motivations and strategies What pain points exist that UCD could target? Can UCD support an organizational vision? Is there interest in UCD and usability? What is the timeline for success? Who should lead UCD? Current internal team Hired specialists Independent contractors Consulting firms Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

81 Support in the organization
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Support in the organization Will someone in the organization champion UCD? Top-down Middle-out Grassroots Does another organization do similar work now? Marketing focus groups Account representatives (CRM) Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

82 Personal goals and interests
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Personal goals and interests Does UCD present a career path or a resource for your current work? Are you prepared for a dual role? Do you have an advocate and/or mentor? Do you have access to users now? Do you understand the business drivers to make the case for UCD? What training do you need? What training resources are available? Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

83 Education options Yours… Your company… Formal education Certification
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Education options Yours… Formal education Certification Conferences, workshops, seminars, and webinars Books, trade publications, and websites Discussion lists, blogs, and professional organizations Mentors and apprenticeships Your company… Lunch-and-learn sessions Articles and case studies Consultants On-site training Webinars Certification Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

84 Getting started Start small Look for a proof-of-concept project
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Getting started Start small Offer internal “consulting” to colleagues Start educating the organization Look for a proof-of-concept project Find a project with interested and sympathetic project leads and team members Consider projects for internal users Capture metrics and value along the way Conduct benchmark usability testing Record time spent on usability tasks carefully Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

85 Buffet UCD & you questions? Usability Buffet 3/31/2017
Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

86 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Questions? Contact Karen at with “Usability Buffet” in the subject line. Thank you Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

87 User and task analysis references
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 User and task analysis references M. Coe, Human Factors for Technical Communicators. J.T. Hackos and J.C. Redish, User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. T. Mandel, The Elements of User Interface Design. J. Nielsen, Usability Engineering. B. Shneiderman, Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

88 Usability requirements references
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability requirements references C. Courage, K. Baxter. Understanding Users: A Practical Guide to User Requirements - Methods, Tools, and Techniques. J. Jubner. “Setting Usability Requirements.” S. Lauesen, H. Younessi. “Six Styles for Usability Requirements.” E. Smith, A. Siochi. “Software Usability Requirements by Evaluation.” W. Quesenbery. “5Es of Usability.” Usability Net (A European Union Project). “Requirements.” Xerox Corporation. “How to Develop Usability Goals.” Usability SIG website: Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

89 UI design references B. Buxton. Sketching User Experiences.
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 UI design references B. Buxton. Sketching User Experiences. R. Kavanagh and J. Soety. Prototyping Using Visio: J. Hom (Site Owner). Usability Methods Toolbox (Section on Prototyping): M. Klee. Five Paper Prototyping Tips: Using Paper Prototypes to Manage Risk: L.J. Najjar. Conceptual User Interface: A New Tool for Designing E-Commerce User Interfaces: J.A. Landay and B.A. Myers. Interactive Sketching for the Early Stages of User Interface Design J. Redish. Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works. C. Snyder. Paper Prototyping: The fast and Easy Way to Design and Refine User Interfaces. From “Prototyping and Usability Testing with Visio” with Whitney Quesenbery Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

90 Usability testing references
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Usability testing references C. Barnum. Usability Testing and Research. J.S. Dumas, J.C. Redish. Practical Guide to Usability Testing. J. Nielsen. Usability Engineering. J. Rubin, D. Chisnell. Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests, 2nd Edition. D. Stone, C. Jarrett, M. Woodroffe, S. Minocha. User Interface Design and Evaluation. K. Summers, M. Summers. Creating Websites that Work. Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

91 User survey references
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 User survey references D.A. Dillman. Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. A.N. Oppenheim. Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. P. Salant and D.A. Dillman. How to Conduct Your Own Survey. From “Creating Effective User Surveys,” originally presented with Caroline Jarrett Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

92 Organizations and resources
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Organizations and resources STC Usability & User Experience: Usability Professionals’ Association: ACM SIGCHI: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: UX Watercooler: Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

93 Recognitions and thanks
Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 Recognitions and thanks Prototyping presentation originally created and presented with Whitney Quesenbery User survey presentation originally created and presented with Caroline Jarrett Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.

94 Usability Buffet 3/31/2017 About me Karen Bachmann, an independent consultant, helps clients deliver usable products that support how users need and expect to interaction with information and perform their tasks. Karen is the former manager of the Usability & User Experience community and is an Associate Fellow of STC. Karen blogs on The Content Wrangler Community and the UX Watercooler, a social network she founded for anyone interested in UX design. She lives with 14 ferrets and a cat, who view her and the other human in the house as necessary, although hard-to-train, staff. Karen can be reached Got treats? Karen Bachmann, Seascape Consulting, Inc.


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