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Blood Typing ABO.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood Typing ABO."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood Typing ABO

2 Blood: How much do we have?
The average adult has about five liters of blood living inside of their body

3 Approximately 55 percent of blood is plasma, a straw-colored clear liquid.
The liquid plasma carries the solid cells (WBC and RBC) and the platelets which help blood clot.

4 BLOOD Composition


6 Plasma Is a mixture of: Water (92%) Sugar Fat Protein
potassium and calcium salts.

7 Red Blood Cells Contain a special protein called hemoglobin, which carries the oxygen Hemoglobin also makes red blood cells red.

8 White Blood Cells Bigger than red blood cells.
Produce antibodies that help our bodies fight infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and foreign proteins.

9 Platelets Are just fragments of cells.
When we are injured, platelets gather at the site of the injury and stick to the edges of the wound. They release chemicals that help start the process of blood clotting so that bleeding will stop.

10 Blood Type is Inherited
Everybody has a blood type. The most common blood type classification system is the ABO (say "A-B-O") system discovered by Karl Landsteiner in the early 1900s.

11 Three Alleles for ABO Blood

12 BLOOD TYPES Phenotype Possible Genotypes A AA AO B BB BO AB O OO

13 Antigens Markers that identify the RBC

14 Antibodies in the Plasma Floating around

15 Mix blood When an antibody finds its specific antigen, antigen-antibody complexes form. This process is called agglutination.

16 Agglutination

17 ANIMATION: Click Here Adding Anti-A or Anti-B

18 * If your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-A serum, then you have type A blood.

19 * If your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-B serum, then you have type B blood.

20 * If your blood cells stick together when they are mixed with both anti-A and anti-B serums, then you have type AB blood.

21 * If your blood cells do not stick together in the presence of either serum, then you have type O blood.

22 Blood Typing Reactions

23 AB B A O Anti A Anti B

24 Rh Factor: another antigen-antiody combo
* Rh reactions vary in strength from slight to very strong agglutination. If the Rh antibody finds Rh antigens on red blood cells, we say the person's blood type is positive (+).

25 When Rh+/Rh- mixes

26 * If your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-Rh serum, then you have type Rh-positive blood.

27 * If your blood does not clot when mixed with anti-Rh serum, then you have type Rh-negative blood.

28 Mother’s Blood mixes with baby’s

29 Rh- Baby

30 Donate anti-Rh to destroy Rh+ cells

31 Which type is most common?
O Rh-positive--- 38 percent   O Rh-negative---  7 percent   A Rh-positive--- 34 percent   A Rh-negative---  6 percent  B Rh-positive---  9 percent  B Rh-negative---  2 percent AB Rh-positive---  3 percent   AB Rh-negative---  1 percent

32 Donating Blood People with blood group O are called "universal donors" and people with blood group AB are called "universal receivers."

33 LAB: Testing Fluids A (blue) B (yellow) O (neither) Rh (clear)

34 O AB+

35 O O+

36 AB AB-

37 A B+

38 Can you have 2 blood types?
NOTE:  A small number of people have two different ABO blood types.  They are not simply AB codominant.  Apparently, most of these blood chimera individuals shared a blood supply with their non-identical twin before birth.  In some cases, people are unaware that they had a twin because he or she died early in gestation and was spontaneously aborted.  As many as 8% of non-identical twins may have chimeric blood. 

39 Blood Typing Activity Click on the above link for a really cool activity. Did your teacher give you a worksheet and handout?

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