3 Times Beach, MissouriTimes Beach was founded in 1925 along the Meramec river - summer resort town (st. Louis)purchase of a 20 x 100 ft (6 by 30 m) lot for $67.50 included a six-month newspaper subscription.In its early years
4 Times Beach, Missourithe Great Depression and WWII --> town became a community of mostly low-income housing although (a few families spent winters in the city and summers in Times Beach as late as 1970)one small grocery store and one gas station on old Highway 66 to serve the residents
5 Times Beach, Missouri Prone to flooding throughout its history 1st buildings were built on stiltstown experienced a devastating flood three weeks before an announcement by the EPA which led to the town's evacuation by 1985 and complete demolition by 1992.
6 Times Beach, MissouriThe site of Times Beach now houses a 419 acre state park commemorating Route 66In the early 1970s the town could not afford to pave its dirt roads & had dust problem
7 Times Beach, Missouricity hired Russell Bliss to oil the roads in the townbetween 1972 & 1976 Roads sprayed with waste oilBliss subcontracted to haul waste for the Northeastern Pharmaceutical and Chemical Company (NEPACCO - During the Vietnam War producer of Agent Orange)
8 Times Beach, Missouriwaste clay & water removed from plant contained levels of dioxin some 2,000 time higher than the dioxin content in Agent Orangedirt roads of Times Beach were sprayed with the lethal material
9 Times Beach, MissouriThe EPA began to visit Times Beach in 1982, taking samples and tests that identified dangerous levels of dioxin in Times Beach soil.In December, 1982, the Meramec River flooded, further spreading the contamination of the town and other areas.
10 Times Beach, Missouripanic spread through the town and every illness and animal death was attributed to dioxinPresident Ronald Reagan formed a dioxin task force to study the effects of the chemical and in early 1983; the EPA announced the town buyout for $32 million dollars.
11 Times Beach, Missouri1985, the entire population of +2,000 had been evacuated (except 1 elderly couple who refused to leave)town was dis-incorporatedentire site was quarantined as residents moved on to other areas
12 Times Beach, Missourisite sat silent behind barricades protecting public from the toxic threat1996 and 1997 the government removed 265,000 tons of contaminated soil and debris from Times Beach and 28 other sites in eastern Misouri at a cost of $110 million dollarsAfter the soil was incinerated, the incinerator was dismantled and the site was turned over to the State
18 Hinkley, CaliforniaUnincorporated settlement in Mojave Desertlocation of a compressor station for PG&E's massive natural gas transmission pipelinesnatural gas has to be re-compressed approximately every three-hundred and fifty miles
19 Hinkley, Californiastation uses large cooling towers to cool the compressorsThe water used in these cooling towers contained Hexavalent Chromium to prevent rust in the machinerySince the water was stored between uses in unlined ponds, it ultimately severely contaminated the groundwater in the town
20 Hinkley, CaliforniaPG&E knew water contaminated but tried to cover it up - tried to buy property, tell people the chemical was safe found in vitamins1996 class action law suit --> $330 million to 648 plaintiffs
24 Cameron, MissouriBorder Clinton & Dekalb counties
25 Cameron, Missouri Original function was --> house of entertainment > Isaac Baldwin opened a Post officeSold whiskey for $0.25 a gallon & $.10 for a jug of H20For $20 would take people to St. Joseph’s 48 hour trip
26 Cameron, MissouriPart of hound dog trail (now US route 36 & interstate 72)Connected St. Joseph’s Hannibal (Missouri’s 2nd and 3rd largest cities prior to civil war )
27 Became railway town pop from 100 in 1859 to 3,000 in 1881 Cameron, MissouriBecame railway town pop from 100 in 1859 to 3,000 in 1881College town Wesleyan College run by Methodist Church
28 Now most people employed in health care & Education Cameron, MissouriNow most people employed in health care & EducationPop in > 8, 312Pop in > 9, 279
29 Cameron, MissouriPharmacist Steve Erickson 1st to notice something wrongLarge # of tumors - many benign not reported to health departmentCitizens concerned about large # of brain tumors and cancers in the townSince casesjune town meeting to discuss concernshistory
30 Cameron, Missouri EPA involved in testing to determine the cause October test on old landfillFound formaldehyde, metals, dioxins & furans, pesticides, semi-volatile organic compounds & volatile organic compoundsAll except one soil sample (lead) all levels below screening levelsErin Brockovich
31 Cameron, MissouriAug EPA soil test on former Rockwood industries plant (insulation company)Found high levels of lead and arsenic but not life threateningFeb EPA - test on drinking water near quarry no problemsApril 22, Cameron Brain tumor lawsuit (William Kemper (wife Karen) & Janet Lasher (lung cancer) filed by Erin Brockovich
32 Cameron, MissouriPrime Tanning Corp - use of Hexavlaent chromium to remove hair from hides
33 Cameron, Missouriwaste sludge given to farms in Buchanan, Dekalb, Andrew & Clinton as free fertilizerlawsuitcameron
35 Chernobyl, Ukraine City began in 1193 as a hunting lodge Politically changed hands many times --> Lithuania, Poland and RussiaPart of U.S.S.R from 1921 until 1991 (independent)1964 site chosen for 1st nuclear power plant on Ukrainian soil
36 Chernobyl, UkraineApril 26, 1986 (mid-night)reactor #4 exploded (near town of Pripyat)4 workers killed instantly4 days later residents of Prypyat ordered to evacuateWorst nuclear disaster in the worldChernobyl
37 Chernobyl, UkraineFurther explosions & fire sent a plume of highly radioactive Fallout into the atmosphere & over an extensive geographical area400 times more fallout was released than had been by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima
38 Chernobyl, Ukraineplume drifted over extensive parts of the western USSR, Eastern, western and Northern Europe, & as far away as Eastern North AmericanLarge areas in Ukraine, Belarus & Russia were badly contaminated--> evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 peopleAccording to official post-Soviet data~ 60% of the radioactive fallout landed in Belarus
39 Chernobyl, UkraineThe countries of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and substantial decontamination & health care costs of the Chernobyl accidentdifficult to accurately quantify the number of deaths caused by the events at as the Soviet-era cover-up made it difficult to track down victims
40 Chernobyl, UkraineLists incomplete, and Soviet authorities later forbade doctors to cite "radiation" on death certificatesThe overall cost of the disaster is estimated at US$200 billion
41 Chernobyl, UkraineWorld Health Organization (WHO), attributed 56 direct deaths (47 accident workers, and nine children with Thyroid Cancer~ 4,000 extra cancer deaths among the approximately 600,000 most highly exposed peopleChernobyl Exclusion Zone & certain limited areas remain off limits, the majority of affected areas are now considered safe for settlement and economic activity
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