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BECOMING A POSTGRADUATE / GRADUATE. “ UNDER YOUR OWN MANAGEMENT” is the key nature of postgraduate (especially the PhD / doctoral) education. In undergraduate.

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Presentation on theme: "BECOMING A POSTGRADUATE / GRADUATE. “ UNDER YOUR OWN MANAGEMENT” is the key nature of postgraduate (especially the PhD / doctoral) education. In undergraduate."— Presentation transcript:

1 BECOMING A POSTGRADUATE / GRADUATE

2 “ UNDER YOUR OWN MANAGEMENT” is the key nature of postgraduate (especially the PhD / doctoral) education. In undergraduate education, a great deal in academic terms is organized for the student, although it may not have seen to you like that at that time. In POSTGRADUATE education / in DOCTORAL education in particular, YOU HAVE TO TAKE THE RESPONSIBILITY for MANAGING YOUR LEARNING, and for GETTING YOURSELF A DEGREE. People around you, your tutors, supervisor, head of the department, etc. will only be there for you – TO GUIDE YOU, TO GIVE SOME ADVICE TO YOU. Some will tell you THEIR OWN OPINION, or THEIR OWN EXPERIENCES just to HELP YOU. But the RESPONSIBILITY FOR WHAT IS REQUIRED, as well as FOR CARRYING IT OUT, REMAINS FIRMLY WITH YOU. YOU ARE UNDER SELF-MANAGEMENT

3 SO IT IS NO USE SITTING AROUND, WAITING FOR SOMEBODY TO TELL YOU WHAT TO DO NEXT OR, WORSE, COMPLAINING THAT NOBODY IS TELLING YOU WHAT TO DO NEXT. IN POSTGRADUATE / GRADUATE WORLD, THERE ARE OPPORTUNITIES, NOT DEFICIENCIES. ALL NEW POSTGRADUATES HAVE TO BE PREPARED TO UNLEARN AND RETHINK MANY OF THE DOCTRINES THAT THEY HAVE HAD TO ACCEPT UP TO THIS POINT IN THEIR STUDENTSHIP CAREER. A VITAL ASPECT OF THIS RETHINKING IS TO TAKE THE INITIATIVE IN DISCUSSING WITH YOUR SUPERVISOR THE WHOLE RANGE OF YOUR IDEAS.

4 IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO MAKE CLEAR IN YOUR MIND, AS NEW POSTGRADUATES, “WHY YOU WANT TO MAKE A POSTGRADUATE DEGREE”. THERE MAY BE SEVERAL REASONS FOR IT, SOME OF WHICH MAY BE: - TO GET DEEPER KNOWLEDGE ON A PARTICULAR SUBJECT RELATED TO YOUR SUBJECT OR INTEREST AREA (THAT YOU MIGHT USE IN PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE); - AS A FIRST STEP TO THE ACADEMIC LIFE; - TO POSTPONE GOING INTO THE PROFFESSIONAL PRACTICE OR MILITARY SERVICE, ETC. In that sense you have to be HONEST to yourself, to your institute and to your supervisor, in order to get the most benefit from the study in the end. ACCORDINGLY, YOU ALSO NEED TO DEFINE THE SUBJECT AREA THAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO CONTINUE YOUR STUDY.

5 STUDY SKILLS Here are some useful hints / clues about the study skills during your graduate study:  “PULLING SOMETHING INTO THE FOREGROUND” CHOOSING 3 IDEAS / TASKS OUT OF 10 and TO GIVE “SHORT-CUTS” FOR EACH.  PERCIEVE AND ARRANGE YOUR STUDY AS “MANAGEABLE PIECES”  “IT IS ONLY A PROBLEM IF YOU THINK IT IS A PROBLEM” A great barrier to doing anything is to perceive it as a problem.  TIME MANAGEMENT – a valuable experience in higher education

6 A principle of management is to SKETCH IN OUR OVERALL PLANS, then temporarily CONCEAL SOME OF THESE. Put some of the tasks in PRIORITY, and some into the BACKGROUND. YOU should find a good way of managing your time (LONGTERM, SHORT TERM, IN DIARIES, ON COMPUTER, ETC.) Below is an example for a brief / general time-schedule of a research process:  Deciding on a research projects (The 1st to the 4th month)  Writing a research proposal (The 5h to the 8th month)  Research work (The 9th to the 18th month for masters degree, the 9th to the 45th month for doctoral degree)  Completing and defending the thesis (The 19th to the 20th month for masters degree, the 46th to the 50th month for doctoral degree

7 TIMING SHOULD BE as REALISTIC as possible. NOT something you start with good intentions and only give up with disappointment in the end. YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER “BUNCHED DEADLINES” IN YOUR PLANNED TIMETABLE. SOME DEADLINES MUST BE BROUGHT FORWARD BY YOU, NOT BY THE INSTITUTION OR SUPERVISOR. YOUR OWN STUDY TASKS WILL CREATE LONG TERM DEADLINES FOR YOU. REGULAR BOOKINGS MIGHT HELP YOU TO ACHIEVE YOUR TASKS ON TIME.

8 TIME INVESTED IN “ADVANCE PLANNING” SAVES TIME LATER ON. ADVANCE PLANNING IS ALSO A “DECISION-MAKING PROCESS”: NO DECISIONS means NO EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT.  A PIECE OF PAPER MUST GO THROUGH YOUR HANDS ONCE. (TAKING EFFICIENT NOTES WILL SAVE YOU TIME IN THE END)  TASK MANAGEMENT – LIMIT YOURSELF TO NO MORE THAN FIVE OR SIX ASPECTS OF A LARGE TASK. OF THESE YOU WILL WORK ON ONE IN THE END. SET ACHIEVABLE TARGETS BECAUSE EACH OF THESE GIVES YOU MUCH NEEDED FEEDBACK ON YOUR PROGRESS.

9 ORGANIZE YOUR STUDY IN A MEANINGFUL STRUCTURE (ESSAYS, RESEARCH REPORTS, THESIS) SEE PREVIOUS EXAMPLES, COMPARE THEM WITH EACH OTHER, CREATE YOUR OWN ORGANIZATION SYSTEM.  KEEP YOUR STUDY UNDER CONTROL – WITH SOME FEEDBACK AT CERTAIN POINTS.  DEVELOP YOUR QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE TO STUDY IN AN ACTIVE WAY.

10 There are numerous situations in which you will meet too wide questions for your purposes. KNOWING WHERE TO START is again a matter of PULLING SOMETHING INTO THE FOREGROUND. LEARN “WHERE” TO ASK “WHICH” QUESTIONS. LEARN “WHERE TO START WITH” IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS. Scientists seek answers to their own questions. Their work is built on highly refined skills in ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS. KNOWING HOW TO ASK QUESTIONS is as important as KNOWING HOW TO GO ABOUT ANSWERING THEM.

11 THE ESSENCE OF SCIENCE IS THE PROCESS OF FORMING QUESTIONS AND SYSTEMATICALLY SEEKING THEIR ANSWERS TO GAIN A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF NATURE. SCIENCE IS A PROCESS OF INQUIRY, A PARTICULAR WAY OF THINKING.

12 Some forms of questions are more useful than the others. “WHY” and “HOW” questions are useful because THEY GENERATE EXTENSIVE ANSWERS. The traditional journalist‟s six questions are: WHO? WHEN? WHERE? WHAT? WHY? HOW? WHO? WHEN? WHERE? CLOSED QUESTIONS INVITING BRIEF ANSWERS WHAT? WHY? HOW? OPEN QUESTIONS ELICIT MUCH WIDER RESPONSES

13 FINDING AND CHOOSING YOUR SUPERVISOR SUPERVISOR is the term most commonly used within universities and colleges for academics who have personal responsibility for overseeing the progress of individual students‟ research projects. The term „tutor‟ is sometimes used in a similar meaning. IDEALLY, SUCH SUPERVISORS SHOULD HAVE BOTH SOME KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECIALIST AREAS IN WHICH THEIR STUDENTS ARE RESEARCHING, AND ALSO A GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS AND VARIOUS STRATEGIES POSSIBLE. THEY SHOULD HAVE AN INSIDE KNOWLEDGE OF RULES AND REGULATIONS, BOTH WRITTEN AND UNWRITTEN, AFFECTING THE RESEARCH PROJECT. THEY SHOULD HAVE SOME SKILL IN CONDUCTING THE KIND OF IN-DEPTH, BUT PARTIAL AND DISONTINUOUS, RELATIONSSHIPS REQUIRED FOR SUCCESSFUL SUPERVISION. THEY SHOULD HELP TO KEEP STUDENTS FOCUSED ON THEIR RESEARCH

14 EXERCISE What do you want from your supervisor? Identify and list the qualities you are looking for in your supervisor

15 Students expect their supervisors:  to supervise them  to feel responsible for them  to read their work well in advance  to be available when needed, to have free timetable for them  to be friendly, supportive, and open  to be constructively critical  to have a good knowledge of their research area  to be intelligent  to be systematically working  to motivate them  to put them in discipline whenever needed  to be communicative  to structure tutorials so that it is relatively easy to exchange ideas  to have sufficient interest in their research to put more information in the path of researchers  to be sufficiently involved in their success to help them get a good job at the end of it all

16 Supervisors expect their students:  to be independent  to be creative and curious  to be careful, analytical, questioning, good thinking  to be committed hard work at times when needed  to produce written work that is just a first draft  to have regular meetings  to be honest when reporting upon their progress  to follow the advice that they give, when it has been given at their request  to be excited about their work, able to surprise them and fun to be with

17 Science is a way of thinking, When to conduct (scientific) research? What is research? Characteristics of good research

18 SCIENCE IS A WAY OF THINKING Science begins with the observation of nature, and with the belief that problems arising from those observations can be answered It acquires value when it is able to predict novel observations by studying the answers to solved problems

19 SCIENCE IS A WAY OF THINKING THAT INVOLVES A CONTINUOUS AND SYSTEMATIC INTERPLAY OF RATIONAL THOUGHT AND EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION. In scientific research, empirical observation and observed events constitute the facts of research. But the empirical observation of events and the resulting identification or listing of facts is not sufficient in science. We must go beyond the immediately observable facts, using them in rational processes of abstract thought to construct general principles and understanding and to make new predictions about nature. Science, then involves the CONTINUOUS SYSTEMATIC INTERPLAY OF FACTS AND RATIONAL THOUGHT

20 At this point it is also worth to have a quick look at the definitions of the two terms: RATIONALISM as a WAY OF THINKING IN WHICH KNOWLEDGE IS DEVELOPED THROUGH REASONING PROCESS ALONE. In the rationalist approach, information is carefully stated and logical rules are followed to arrive at acceptable conclusions. Consider the following deductive syllogism: All cows are black. This is a cow. Therefore, this cow is black. The conclusion is logically derived from the major and minor premises. But the same logic would lead us to reject the following conclusion: All cows are black. This is black. Therefore, this is cow.

21 In the rationalist approach, the conclusion is reached through the logic of the PROCEDURE, - which is a more reliable way to arrive at knowledge than tenacity, intuition, or authority. - TENACITY (willingness to accept an idea as valid knowledge because that idea has been accepted for a long period of time; requires no evidence for a belief except that the belief is already accepted) - INTUITION - AUTHORITY (the acceptance of an idea as valid knowledge because some respected source – Aristotle, the president, Sigmung Freud, etc.- claims it is valid)

22 However, using rationalism alone has its limitations. Consider this syllogism: All 4-years old children developed fears of the dark. Lisa is a 4-year-old child. Therefore; Lisa has developed fears of the dark. The logic is clear and the conclusion is correct, unless of course Lisa has not developed fears of the dark. What is the limitation? Suppose it is not true that all 4-years old children develop fears of the dark, or suppose Lisa is actually 7 not 4 years old, or suppose Lisa is a teenager not a child at all.

23 Although essential, rationalism alone has its limitations in science; that is, THE PREMISES MUST BE TRUE AS DETERMINED BY SOME OTHER EVIDENCE TO ARRIVE AT THE CORRECT CONCLUSIONS. ATTAINING KNOWLEDGE, THEN, DEPENDS NOT ONLY ON THE REASONING PROCESS BUT ALSO ON THE ACCURACY OF THE PREMISES. There is no provision for assessing their accuracy in the purely rationalistic approach.

24 The rationalistic approach allows us SYSTEMATICALLY AND LOGICALLY TO DEVELOP A TENTATIVE STATEMENT (HYPOTHESIS) THAT CAN THEN BE TESTED IN SOME OTHER MANNERS. EACH PREMISE IS A HYPOTHESIS, which if shown to be true on the basis of the external data, CAN BE USED RATIONALLY IN DRAWING CONLUSIONS

25 In summary, the logic of rationalism is used in modern science to aid in developing hypotheses that then can be tested against external criteria. IN ORDER TO PERFORM THIS TESTING AGAINST EXTERNAL CRITERIA, SCIENCE MUST DEPEND ON STILL ANOTHER WAY OF KNOWING – EMPIRICISM

26 The word EMPIRICAL means– BASED ON OR GUIDED BY, THE RESULTS OF OBSERVATION AND EXPERIMENT ONLY. FROM THE GREEK WORD “EMPEIRIKOS” MEANING EXPERIENCED, SKILLED. (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary) EMPIRICISM is A WAY OF GAINING KNOWLEDGE THROUGH OBSERVATION OF REAL EVENTS; that is KNOWING BY EXPERIENCING THROUGH OUR SENSES. It is a method as old as civilization. For the empiricist, it is not enough to know through reason (or intuition or authority) alone. It is necessary to experience the events through the senses – to see, hear, touch, taste and smell. “I won‟t believe it unless I see it!” is the empiricist‟s motto. Empiricism alone, however has its limitations.

27 EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IS THAT KIND OF RESEARCH WHICH SEEKS TO ANSWER THOSE KINDS OF QUESTIONS WHICH CAN BE ANSWERED BY REFERENCE TO SENSORY DATA. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH cannot determine if a car is beautiful, or a girl is the most attractive; if god exists, etc. But empirical research can determine the percentage of young people who think god exists, for example

28 To conclude; SCIENCE brings together elements of both RATIONALISM and EMPIRICISM. SCIENCE employs RATIONAL LOGIC and checks each step with EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION. The SCIENTIST is constantly shuttling between EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION, more abstract RATIONAL THOUGHT and generic principles, and returning again to further EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION of SPECIFIC FACTS. To repeat once more: SCIENCE IS A WAY OF THINKING THAT INVOLVES A CONTINUOUS AND SYSTEMATIC INTERPLAY OF RATIONAL THOUGHT AND EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION.

29 Certain characteristics of scientists (Graziano & Raulin, 1993, p. 5): - curiosity - creativity - skepticism - tolerance for ambiguity - commitment to hard work - a way of thinking that searches for answers to questions

30 WHEN TO CONDUCT RESEARCH

31 ENDLESS ARGUMENTS HOW / WHERE TO STOP HOW TO KNOW WHO IS WRIGTH OR WRONG HOW TO KNOW WHAT WE KNOW WE ANSWER QUESTIONS IN A VARIETY OF WAYS: - LOOK OUTSIDE - ASK SOMEONE / TAKE SOMEONE‟S WORD FOR IT - LOOK IN THE RIGHT BOOK, ETC. AND WE ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE BY: - TENACITY - INTUITION (sezgi) - AUTHORITY

32 CONSULTING AN AUTHORITY / SOMEONE WHO KNOWS - HOW DO WE CHOOSE THE RIGHT AUTHORITY  THE KNOWLEDGE HE/SHE HAS  POPULARITY  POSSESSIONS  POSITION  THE WAY HE/SHE LOOKS THE OPINION OF A PERSON ON A SUBJECT IN WHICH HE IS NOT AN EXPERT IS OF NO MORE VALUE THAN THE OPINION OF ANY OTHER PERSON - THE AUTHORITIES SHOULD BE CHOSEN CAREFULLY - THE WORDS OF AUTHORITIES SHOULD BE ACCEPTED CRITICALLY

33 To sum it up: If we take RESEARCH AS A WAY OF KNOWING, then we can say that - WHEN THERE IS A DISAGGREEMENT ON A QUESTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT AUTHORITIES - WHEN A PERSON DOES NOT ACCEPT THE OTHER‟S AUTHORITY - WHEN WE HAVE A QUESTION FOR WHICH THERE IS NO AUTHORITY TO ANSWER (AUTHORITIES CANNOT ANSWER) - WHEN WE ARE NOT READY TO ACCEPT ONE AUTHORITY HAS TOLD US, WITHOUT QUESTION THEN WE DO RESEARCH

34 SO THE QUESTION OF “WHAT IS RESEARCH?” ARISES. But before going into the definitions of research, let us practice our knowledge with a quick exercise: EXERCISE 1. List 3 authorities which you may consult for 3 different questions you raise. 2. List 3 questions that you may find no authority to consult, therefore you need to do research

35 Now let us look at the twenty views of research: 1. Research is about providing your pet theory. 2. Research is something done by academics or experts. 3. Research is very expensive. 4. Research is about establishing the facts. 5. Research is objective. 6. Research is about justifying what your funding person/organization wants to do. 7. Research can prove anything you want. 8. Research involves a lot of jargon. 9. Research serves the powerful. 10. Research exploits the poor. 11. Research is useless. 12. Research is very difficult. 13. Research is time-consuming. 14. Research is scientific. 15. Research is a highly controlled activity. 16. Research is removed from reality. 17. Research cannot change anything. 18. Research should always be policy-related. 19. Research will break up your relationships. 20. I could never do research.

36 And now let us look at the twenty things you did not know about research: 1. Research is very time-consuming. 2. Research is subjective. 3. Research can be undertaken by anyone. 4. Research is often boring. 5. Research can also be fun. 6. Research can take over your time. 7. Research can be much more interesting than its results. 8. Research is about being nosy. 9. Research can be done in many ways. 10. You can research anything. 11. Research uses everyday skills. 12. Research gets into your dreams. 13. Spies do research; so do newspaper reporters. 14. Research can be done by the people and for the people. 15. Research can turn a theory into action. 16. Research can lead you in unexpected directions. 17. Lots of women do research. 18. Even hard men do research. 19. There are no definite answers (or are there?). 20. You can do research.

37 Now let us come to a more scientific definitions of research: In general RESEARCH, is  A WAY OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE / A WAY OF KNOWING / LEARNING  A WAY OF PRODUCING KNOWLEDGE  THE METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURE FOR SATISFYING HUMAN CURIOSITY  A SYSTEMATIC / DISCIPLINED WAY OF THINKING / A PROCESS OF INQUIRY  A DISCIPLINE / A DISCIPLINED WAY TO GO ABOUT ANSWERING QUESTIONS

38 RESEARCH AS A WAY OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE / A WAY OF KNOWING / LEARNING SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IS DONE TO TEST IDEAS ABOUT THE NATURE AND OPERATION OF SOME ASPECT OF THE UNIVERSE. WE ENGAGE IN RESEARCH TO SETTLE CONFLICTING CLAIMS OR DIFFERENCES OF OPINION OR TO TEST AN IDEA. RESEARCH IS THE DISCIPLINED WAY WE COME TO KNOW WHAT WE KNOW. RESEARCH IS ONE WAY OF KNOWING AND LEARNING.

39 RESEARCH AS A WAY OF PRODUCING KNOWLEDGE FIRST WE GATHER INFORMATION, THEN WE ANALYZE IT. ACCORDING TO OUR AIMS, WE PUT FORWARD NEW HYPOTHESIS IN A CREATIVE WAY. WE GATHER AGAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE METHODOLOGY SUITABLE TO TEST OUR HYPOTHESIS. WE SELECT OR DEVELOP OR CREATE A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS. IF THE RESULTS SHOW SCIENTIFICALLY ACCEPTABLE, MEANINGFUL VERIFICATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS WE REACH TO A CONCLUSION: THIS IS THE KNOWLEDGE PRODUCED OR CREATED.

40 RESEARCH AS THE METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURE FOR SATISFYING HUMAN CURIOSITY It is more than merely reading the results of others‟ work; it is more than just observing one‟s surroundings. The element of research that imparts its descriptive power is the ANALYSIS and RECOMBINATION, THE TAKING PART and PUTTING TOGETHER IN A NEW WAY, of the information gained from one‟s observations.

41 RESEARCH AS A SYSTEMATIC / DISCIPLINED WAY OF THINKING / A PROCESS OF INQUIRY TO DO RESEARCH IS TO BE INVOLVED IN A PROCESS. A PROCESS CAN BE SEEN AS A SERIES OF ACTIVITIES MOVING FROM A BEGINNING TO AN END. The research process is NOT A RIGID PROCESS. A rigid process is one in which Step 1 must be done and completed before Step 2 can begin. On the other hand, THERE IS A SENSE, in which, IF THE FIRST STEPS ARE NOT EXECUTED CAREFULLY THE REST OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS WILL BE WEAKENED OR MADE MORE DIFFICULT.

42 Those who have done a lot of research develop their own style of going through te phases of the research process. Each researcher will describe a pattern of his own. THERE IS A USUAL “SEQUENCE” IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Thus, this sequence is not an “this and then that” ordering. Rather, THERE IS AN ORDER OF BASIC STAGES AND SERIES OF INTERLINKED ISSUES IN EACH STAGE. FAILURE TO ADDRESS THE RIGHT ISSUES SATISFACTORILY WILL UNDERMINE OR MAKE MORE DIFFICULT THE REST OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS. RESEARCH IS DESIGNED ACCORDING TO A PLAN OR DESIGN. WITHOUT CLEAR DEFINITIONS CONFUSION RESULTS. IF ONE KNOWS HOW AND WHAT FOR S/HE IS GOING TO ANALYSE HIS/HER DATA, S/HE IS CLEARER WHAT DATA S/HE NEEDS. AIMS, OBJECTIVES, SHOULD BE KNOWN / CLARIFIED BEFORE DATA ARE COLECTED

43 OUTLINE OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS

44 PHASE 1: ESSENTIAL FIRST STEPS – CLARIFICATION OF THE ISSUES TO BE RESEARCHED AND SELECTION OF A RESEARCH METHOD 1. SELECTING, NARROWING AND FORMULATING THE PROBLEM TO BE STUDIED 2. SELECTING A RESEARCH DESIGN 3. DESIGNING AND DEVISING THE MEASURES FOR VARIABLES 4. SETTING UP TABLES FOR ANALYSIS 5. SELECTING A SAMPLE PHASE 2: DATA COLLECTION – COLLECTING EVIDENCE ABOUT THE RESEARCH QUESTION 1. COLLECTING DATA 2. SUMMARIZING AND ORGANIZING DATA PHASE 3: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION – RELATING THE EVIDENCE COLLECTED TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION ASKED; DRAWING CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE QUESTION, AND ACKNOWLEDGING THE LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH 1. RELATING DATA TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION 2. DRAWING CONSLUSIONS 3. ASSESSING THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 4. MAKING SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

45 In other words, WTHIN THE RESEARCH PROCESS, YOU MAY  START WITH SELECTING A TOPIC OR A PROBLEM  THEN LOOK AT EXISTING STUDIES AND ANY RELEVANT THEORIES  THEN FORMULATE A HYPOTHESIS  DESIGN AN EXPERIMENT TO TEST IT OUT  MAKE COMPARISONS IN SOME CASES  AND FINALLY DRAW CONCLUSIONS AND SPECULATE ON THE IMPLICATIONS AND NEXT STEPS

46 For its VALIDITY and USEFULNESS, research in science and technology depends on a concept known popularly as the SCIENTIFIC METHOD. This method covers all aspects of SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, so a research student should become familiar with its qualities and implications early in the process.

47 Scientific research involves at minimum: 1. Creating and posing a question 2. Determining how to go about answering the question 3. Planning for and making appropriate empirical observations 4. Rationally making sense out of those observations.

48 The scientific method covers the following steps: 1. Study and discuss 2. Recognize possible problems 3. Collect information, observe and describe 4. Clarify problem, divide into sub-problems 5. Hypothesize 6. Deduce consequences, make predictions, and design experiments 7. Experiment, analyse results, test hypothesis 8. Develop theory, publish results

49 We may as well simplify these steps as in the following 1- Identify the problem that defines the goal of the project 2- Gather data with the hope of resolving the problem 3- Posit a tentative hypothesis both as a logical means of locating the data and as an aid for resolving the problem 4- Empirically test the hypothesis by processing and evaluating the data to see if the interpretation of such data will resolve the primary question that initiated the research in the first place

50 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IS A PROCESS BY WHICH  QUESTIONS ARE SHARPENED OR FOCUSED  DATA ARE GATHERED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE QUESTIONS CAN BE ANSWERED  SOME OTHER QUESTIONS MIGHT APPEAR THEREFORE RESEARCH IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS. END OF ONE RESEARCH IS OFTEN THE BEGGINNING OF THE NEXT. RESEARCH AS A DISCIPLINE / A DISCIPLINED WAY TO GO ABOUT ANSWERING QUESTIONS. RESEARCH PROCESS IS A DISCIPLINED PROCESS FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS AND ALSO FOR RELATING THEORY AND DATA.


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