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Hunger Games: Enemies, Arenas and Fighting to the Death!! Whitney Yeary, Amy Fulcher and Bill Klingeman University of Tennessee.

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Presentation on theme: "Hunger Games: Enemies, Arenas and Fighting to the Death!! Whitney Yeary, Amy Fulcher and Bill Klingeman University of Tennessee."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hunger Games: Enemies, Arenas and Fighting to the Death!! Whitney Yeary, Amy Fulcher and Bill Klingeman University of Tennessee

2 Winning the Hunger Games

3 Arena! Image credit:

4

5

6 Introduction Insect pests cause economically significant damage to nursery crops In NC, the green industry reported annual losses of $91,000,000 due to insects and diseases NCDA North Carolina green industry economic impact survey.Photo credit Bambara and Baker - via Bugwood

7 Introduction Insecticides can be useful in managing pest problems. Insecticides can: – Harm natural enemies – Exacerbate secondary pest populations Cloyd, R Pesticide use in ornamental plants: what are the benefits? Pest Management Science. 65: x

8 Data & Image Credit: Frank, S. and C. Sadof. J. Econ. Entomol. 104(6): 1960‹1968 (2011); DOI: 50% more natural enemies and 50% fewer spider mites with spray wand than airblast sprayer Introduction

9 Imidacloprid caused outbreaks of an obscure spider mite on elm trees in NYC Szczepaniec, A., S. F. Creary, K. L. Laskowski, J. P. Nyrop, and M. J. Raupp Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid causes outbreaks of spider mites on elm trees in urban landscapes. PLoS ONE 6(5): e doi: /journal.pone Introduction

10 Lab expts, predators of T. schoenei were poisoned through ingestion of prey exposed to imidacloprid Szczepaniec, A., S. F. Creary, K. L. Laskowski, J. P. Nyrop, and M. J. Raupp Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid causes outbreaks of spider mites on elm trees in urban landscapes. PLoS ONE 6(5): e doi: /journal.pone Introduction

11 Imidacloprid’s tendency to elevate reproduction of T. schoenei also contributed to their elevated densities on treated elms Szczepaniec, A., S. F. Creary, K. L. Laskowski, J. P. Nyrop, and M. J. Raupp Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid causes outbreaks of spider mites on elm trees in urban landscapes. PLoS ONE 6(5): e doi: /journal.pone Introduction

12 3 cover sprays/year for 4+ years had greater scale species diversity and more likely to be scale infested than shorter treatment Raupp et al.: Effects of Cover Sprays and Residual Pesticides. Journal of Arboriculture 27(4): July 2001 Introduction

13 Insecticides can negatively affect natural enemies Growers tell us scale pests are a relevant problem in the nursery trade – More than previously?? Adkins, C., G. Armel, M. Chappell, J.C. Chong, S. Frank, A. Fulcher, F. Hale, K. Ivors, W. Klingeman III, A. LeBude, J. Neal, A. Senesac, S. White, A. Windham Pest Management Strategic Plan for Container and Field-Produced Nursery Crops in GA, KY, NC, SC, TN. A. Fulcher, ed. Southern Region IPM Center.

14 Scales as Pests of Woody Plants Strikes against us: – Generalists – Thousands of eggs – Wind blown – Difficult to see (small) – Neighboring property can infest and re-infest – Can unknowingly sell infested trees.

15 Objectives Investigate the effects of systemic & contact insecticides on natural enemies to direct contact with insecticide residue – a worst-case exposure scenario Determine if systemic insecticides offer a more sustainable insecticide choice

16 Materials and Methods Marathon II, Safari, Sevin, Talstar, water Sprayed on tuliptree Conducted two experiments: – Lab – Field

17 Lab Materials and Methods 3 leaves from each tree 10 insects /arena, CHO supply – Minute Pirate Bug, Lady beetle, and Lacewing

18 8 replicate arena/trt Assessed survival every 24 h for 4 d Removed dead daily Lab Materials and Methods

19 Field Materials and Methods Attached three arenas to each tree (one species per arena) – Lady beetle, Minute Pirate Bug, Aphidius

20 Field Materials and Methods Installed pitfall trap at base of each tree Every 48 h – Assessed survival – Replaced 10 new insects

21 Lacewing, Minute Pirate Bug, Lady Beetle Lady beetle Minute Pirate Bug Lacewing

22 Experiment Schedule SundayMondayTuesdayWednesd ay ThursdayFridaySaturday 28 Spray, cages Survival % 29 Survival % 12 6

23 Results Lab

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25 Lacewing Survival 48 h after Applications

26 Lady Beetle Survival 48 h after Applications

27 Minute Pirate Bug Survival 48 h after Applications

28 Lacewing Survival 96 h after Applications

29 Lady Beetle Survival 96 h after Applications

30 Minute Pirate Bug Survival 96 h after Applications

31 Conclusions Limited study Worst case scenario Insecticide effect on beneficial insect varies with insect species, pesticide, and times after application Sevin and Talstar appear to be most toxic Minute Pirate Bug most affected Safari appears to have the least negative effect

32 Implications on Pest Mgt Augmentative Biological Control Where to release Plant density influence natural enemy survival

33 Implications on Pest Mgt

34 Hydrangea Spray Penetration Dense canopy – Droplet density was reduced from 56 deposits/cm 2 on the exterior position to 2 deposits/cm 2 on the middle and interior positions 96% loss

35 Hydrangea Spray Penetration Sparse canopy – Received 463% more coverage in the middle of the canopy than the dense plants Regardless of density, the interior received less than 1% coverage!

36 Beneficial Insect Survival Only the interior and middle positions of dense plants protected greater than 50% of the lady beetles Only the interior position of dense plants protected greater than 50% of lacewings over the course of the experiment If not lethal to natural enemies perhaps not lethal to pest insects!

37 Intelligent Spray Systems Automatic controllers – Computer program – Signal generation and amplification unit – Pulse width modulated solenoid valves – Algorithm Ultrasonic sensor Laser sensor

38 Hydraulic Boom Sprayer

39 Test Drive Compared to the constant application rate of 50 gpa – the intelligent sprayer reduced the application rate by 70% in April 66% in May 52% in June

40 Powdery Mildew Control Powdery mildew rating – Not different conventional versus intelligent sprayers. – Not different based on interior or outer row

41 Thank you! Funded by Center for Applied Nursery Research Tennessee Institute of Agriculture Phil Flanagan, S. Evan Wilson, Casey Sullivan, Ann Reed, Xiaocun Sun


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