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Demystifying Domestic Violence Court Appointed Special Advocates Training Walnut Avenue Women’s Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Demystifying Domestic Violence Court Appointed Special Advocates Training Walnut Avenue Women’s Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Demystifying Domestic Violence Court Appointed Special Advocates Training Walnut Avenue Women’s Center

2 Desired Outcomes Learn about the dynamics of domestic violence and how to assess risk factors to victim’s/survivor’s safety. Understand how domestic violence impacts the health and wellbeing of adult victims/survivors & children exposed to domestic violence. Learn why it might be hard for some victims/survivors to leave abusive relationships. Identify ways you can support resiliency of children exposed to domestic violence. Discuss ways that you can work in partnership with domestic violence service providers. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

3 Introductions Name What is your role within CASA? What do you want to get out of today’s session? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

4 “Domestic violence means abuse committed against an adult or fully emancipated minor who is a: spouse or former spouse, cohabitant or former cohabitant, person with whom one is having or has had a dating or engagement relationship, person with whom one has had a child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree. Section of the California Penal Code (b) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

5 “Abuse” means intentionally or recklessly causing or attempting to cause bodily injury, or placing another person in reasonable apprehension of imminent serious bodily injury to himself or herself, or another. Section (a) of the California Penal Code ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

6 What is Domestic Violence? An escalating pattern of coercive behaviors that are used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

7 Tactics of Power & Control Physical Sexual Emotional Isolation Economic Verbal Technological Privilege ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

8 Cycle of Violence Tension Honeymoon Violence Fear Love Hope ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

9 Who is Victimized? Primarily Female Victims:  1 in 4 Women will experience DV in her lifetime  Over 85% of the time, the batterer is male and the victim is female. However, when men are battered by women, they are less likely to report it.  Pregnant women: 25-45% of all battered women are pregnant at the time of the incident.  Disabled Women: may be victimized by caregivers, or more vulnerable to attacks on mobility and financial independence. The Elderly: May be abused by their partners, caregivers or even their children. Children: Child witnesses may develop symptoms of PTSD and behavioral problems. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

10 Statistics from SCPD DV phone calls responded to by SCPD in the last 5 years, between January October 2011: –Yearly average # of calls: 324/year (includes domestic incidents) –Average number of EPO’s given: 64/year –Highest call average as separated by penal code: 243(e) Battery on Spouse: 93 per year Inflict injury on spouse/cohabitant: 117 per year Percentage of Victims: –Female 90% –Male 10% ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

11 Video “Faces of Domestic Violence” By The Blue Shield Foundation & The Family Violence Prevention Fund ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

12 Myth: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AFFECTS ONLY A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION. FACT: One in three women are physically or sexually abused by a husband or boyfriend at some point in their lives. Myth: ALCOHOL ABUSE CAUSES DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. FACT: Although there is a high risk between alcohol or other substance abuse, batterers use drinking as one of many excuses for their violence. Alcohol is used as a way to place the responsibility for their violence elsewhere. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

13 Myth: WHY DO WOMEN STAY WITH ABUSERS? THEY MUST LIKE IT OR THEY WOULD LEAVE. FACT: Abused women often make repeated attempts to leave violent relationships, but are prevented from doing so by increased violence, and control tactics on the part of the abuser. The risk of domestic homicide increases significantly when the woman leaves or divorces her abuser. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

14 Its about Power and Control Batterers may: Have been raised in a violent home. Need to hide their insecurities. Feel it’s their “right” to “discipline” their partner. Need to feel in power by humiliating their partner. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

15 Characteristics of a Batterer Control Entitlement Selfishness & Self-Centeredness Superiority Possessiveness Confusion of Love & Abuse Manipulation ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

16 Contradictory Statements & Behaviors Externalization of Responsibility Denial, Minimizing & Blaming Lack of Empathy for the Victim Serial Battering Source for Characteristics of a Batterer: Bancroft, L., “The Batterer as a Parent”. Synergy*, 6(1), 6-8. Winter (*Newsletter of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

17 Screening for Dominant Aggressor It is not uncommon for batterers to – present themselves as victims. –Seek victim/survivor services to locate a partner –To gain physical proximity to a partner who is receiving services –Contact law enforcement and/or DV Service Programs before the victim in order to isolate the victim/survivor from future support and safety. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

18 Factors to examine at interview –How does the person talk about her/himself and the partner. Minimize actions/blame others? Take excessive responsibility? –Context –Intent –Effect –Use of force ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

19 Barriers to Leaving Fear Denial Low self-esteem Cultural Pressures Religion Economic Dependence ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

20 Reasons for Staying Love Self-Blame Economic Dependence Optimism Culture Religion Lack of information/knowledge ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

21 Danger Assessment Tool By Dr. Jacquelyn Campbell, PHD, RN, FAAN Refer to Handout “Every year 3 to 4 million in the US are abused and 1500 to 1600 are killed by their abusers. The challenge for those who encounter abused women is to identify those with the highest level of danger” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

22 Batterer Generated Risk Assessment Physical Psychological Children Financial Family & Friends Relationship Arrest / Legal Status Possible Risks if She StaysPossible Risks if She Leaves ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

23 Life Generated Risk Assessment Possible Effects of Life-Generated Risks Possible Uses of Life- Generated Risks by Batterer Financial Limitations Home Location: Where She Lives Physical Health Issues Mental Health Issues Responses by Major Social Institutions Discrimination Based on Sex, Gender, Sexual Preference or Other Bias ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

24 DV & Women with Multiple Vulnerabilities Multiple vulnerabilities simply means that a woman living in or leaving a domestically violent situation often presents with co-occuring conditions that affect her health & well being, safety, decision-making and priorities. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

25 Multiple Vulnerabilities No Health Insurance Poor Work History Low Educational Attainment Health Problems Mental Health Issues Cognitive Impairment Substance Use/Abuse HIV/AIDS or other STIs Historical Trauma ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

26 Health Outcomes of Violence Against Women Partner Abuse, Sexual Assault & Child Sexual Abuse Physical Health Injury Functional impairment Physical symptoms Poor subjective health Permanent disability Severe obesity Chronic Conditions Chronic pain syndromes Irritable bowel syndrome Gastrointestinal disorders Somatic complaints Fibromyalgia Reproductive Health Unwanted pregnancy STDs/HIV Gynecological disorders Unsafe abortion Pregnancy complications Miscarriages/low birth weight Pelvic inflammatory diseases Fatal Outcomes Homicide Suicide Maternal mortality AIDS-related Sources: Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE), Violence Against Women WHO Consultation 1996, California Center of Excellence for Trauma Informed Care ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

27 Mental Low Self-Esteem PTSD Anxiety Dissociative syndrome Depression Phobias/Panic disorder Aggression/Anger problems Agorophobia Alexithymia Munchausen’s syndrome Somatization syndrome Obsessive-compulsive disorder Hallucinations Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder Behavioral Alcoholism Illicit drug abuse Tobacco use Decreased seat belt use Decreased helmet use Reduced compliance with medication and treatment Promiscuity Hoarding Cutting or other self-harm Suicide/suicidal behavior Health Outcomes of Violence Against Women Partner Abuse, Sexual Assault & Child Sexual Abuse Sources: Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE), Violence Against Women WHO Consultation 1996, California Center of Excellence for Trauma Informed Care ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

28 Functioning (Ability to Self Advocate) 1.Placing Other People’s Wants Ahead of Your Own 2.Unassertiveness and Tolerance of Disrespect 3.Decision Making Driven by “Supposed To’s” 4.Inability to Deal with Hostility 5.Negative Self Talk Source: Healing from the Trauma of Domestic Violence: A Workbook for Women, Edward S. Kubany, PH.D., Mari A. McCaig, MSCP, Janet R. Laconsay, MA ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

29 "Families under stress produce children under stress. If a spouse is being abused and there are children in the home, the children are affected by the abuse." (Ackerman and Pickering, 1989) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

30 Dynamics of domestic violence are unhealthy for children Control of family by one dominant member –Creating role models that perpetuate the violence. Abuse of a parent –Undermining the mother's authority. –Retaliating against the mother for her efforts to protect the children. –Using the children as weapons against the mother. Isolation –Sowing divisions within the family. –Protecting the "family secret.” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

31 Lessons Children Can Learn When They Live With Family Violence Violence has a place within family interactions. Power is hierarchical and coercive. Abuse and violence reinforce power. Violence works – it is a solution to problems, not a problem in & of itself The safest place for me (the child) is in the arms of the abusive parent. Negative and rigid gender roles and identifications. Victims of violence are at best to tolerate this behavior and, at worst, to examine their responsibility in bringing on the violence. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

32 Lessons Children Can Learn When They Live With Family Violence Continued Fear is the emotion that permeates a relationship and governs the interactions. To react, not initiate. Violence is an appropriate means of stress management. Intensity determines recognition, difficulty recognizing low- level emotions. Gentleness, compassion & empathy are signs of weakness. If violence is reported to others in the community, including mental health and criminal justice professionals, there are few if any consequences. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

33 Exposure to Domestic Violence SeeingHearing ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

34 Exposure to Domestic Violence Exposure is important because.. Children are frequently involved in violent incidents High co-occurrence of child abuse and adult dv Exposure to violence affects child development Kids Know What is Going On! 46% of caregivers say kids are exposed 77% of kids report exposure (Johnson et al 2002) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

35 Children Involved in Domestic Violence 36% of children frequently or very frequently yelled to stop violent conflicts 11.7% of children frequently or very frequently called someone to help during a violent incident 10.8% of children frequently or very frequently physically intervened to stop violence (Edleson et al. (2003)) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

36 Children abused in homes where there is Domestic Violence 50% of children are threatened 33% of children accidently injured 25% of children intentionally injured 50% of mothers were abused stopping child abuse (Edleson et al. (2003)) More than 1/3 of exposed children had also been physically maltreated in the past year compared to 8.6% of non-exposed children (Humbly et al 2010) Mothers who are battered may be more likely to physically abuse their children than mothers who are not battered. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

37 Lisa’s Tape ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

38 Behavioral Emotional Physical Social Development with Peers and Adults Intellectual and Academic Performance Domestic Violence Can Interfere with Healthy Child Development ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

39 First Impressions… Exposure to Violence and A Child’s Developing Brain California Attorney General’s Office Crime & Violence Prevention Center VIDEO ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

40 Human Danger Response Fight= Physiological arousal Aggression Irritability/anger, trouble concentrating, hyperactivity or “silliness” Flight = Withdrawal and escape Social isolation, avoidance of others (sitting alone in class or at recess), running away Freeze = Stilling and constriction Constricted emotional expression, stilling of behavior, over compliance and denial of needs DV & Trauma Can Interfere with Healthy Child Development Blaustein Margaret & Kinniburgh Kristine, Treating Traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents, Pg. 27 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

41 The belief systems of children who have experienced trauma may include the following: “I’m not safe.” “People want to hurt me.” “The world is dangerous.” “If I am in danger, no one will help.” “I’m not good/smart/worthy enough for people who care about me.” “I’m not powerful.” “It will never get better.” DV & Trauma Can Interfere with Healthy Child Development Blaustein Margaret & Kinniburgh Kristine, Treating Traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents, Pg. 24 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

42 Negative Coping Strategies Emotional numbing / constriction Withdrawal/avoidance of others Indiscriminant attachments Hyper-control of the environment/rigidity Substance use / abuse Alterations in eating patterns Constricted or excessive sexual behaviors Self injury Sensation seeking behaviors Aggressive or other externalizing behaviors DV/Trauma Can Interfere with Healthy Child Development ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

43 Emotional/Relational Needs Emotionally demanding behavior (whiny, interrupting, dramatic) Seeking negative attention (acting out) Poor interpersonal boundaries (too much sharing) Attempts to control the environment (may be described as “lying” or “manipulative” Physical Physical nurturance-seeking behavior Hoarding or stealing food, clothing, objects Need Fulfilling Behaviors that are Common Among Children Who Received Inconsistent Early Care Blaustein Margaret & Kinniburgh Kristine, Treating Traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents, Pg. 29 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

44 Child’s exposure to violence varies, therefore we need to have varied responses Variation depending on… The frequency, severity and chronicity of the violence Child’s involvement, what they saw and heard Protective & risk factors in a child’s environment Children’s own internal capacity ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

45 RESILIENCE the ability to recover from or adjust to misfortune or change ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

46 Mind-body connection with an emphasis on relaxation Working with emotions with an emphasis on fear Expanding coping strategies Finding meaning in traumatic and difficult events Four Components of Resilience

47 What You Can Do To Help Children Cope with Stress & Trauma? Attachment Self Regulation Developmental Competencies Support development in three key areas… ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

48 Attachment Be educated about trauma and trauma response Learn about consistent responses to actions/events Support routines & rituals Support parent/guardian When faced with people, situations, places, or things that remind them of traumatic events, children may re-experience the intense and disturbing feelings tied to the original traumatic event. These “trauma reminders” or “triggers” can lead to behaviors that seem out of place in the current situation, but were appropriate -- and perhaps helpful– at the time of the original traumatic event. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

49 Common Triggers for Children who Have Experienced DV & Trauma Unpredictability or sudden change Transition Loss of control Feeling vulnerable Feeling rejected Confrontation Loneliness Sensory overload (too much stimulation from the environment) Intimacy (safety, love, security, family) Peace/calm/quiet ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

50 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12 Self Regulation Identify Emotions Manage Arousal Children express feelings in different ways than we do as adults. Young children often do not have the words to describe their feelings. Sounds, body language, and movement are ways that may communicate children’s stress to us. We can help children explore their feelings by allowing them to have feelings without judging them and helping children name their feelings. We want to be prepared to respond in a nurturing manner.

51 Ensure safety of child and others “Define” what happened, if possible Differentiate past from present Help child to stop & take several long, deep breaths Use a “stress buster” Offer food & water Activity (e.g. running, reading a story) Provide sensory experience (e.g. play dough) Seek help if needed Coping with Trauma Reminders/Response Consistent Response to Actions/Events ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

52 Developmental Competencies Engage Executive Functioning Problem Solving and Planning The Importance of Information & Explanations During times of crisis all people, including children, need information. It is important that the adults in charge give children as reliable, trustworthy and reassuring information as possible at a level that is easy for them to understand. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

53 M Engage Executive Functions/Planning Promoting Safety for Children Make the Mind-body Connection Let them know what will happen next Set limits Give them some control over some aspect of their lives Take their concerns seriously Acknowledge and respect their fears Respond calmly but firmly Manage emotional “hot spots” Drop off & Pick up Food & snack time Circle time Seek help if needed ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

54 CASA and Domestic Violence Advocates have a unique opportunity to support victims/survivors of domestic violence ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

55 Healthy Relationships ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12

56 Walnut Avenue Women’s Center’s Domestic Violence Services 24-hour domestic violence hotline Support groups for (survivors & children) One-on-one peer counseling Restraining orders & court accompaniment Social service advocacy Danger assessment & safety planning Emergency interim shelter Basic needs assistance Community education & youth programs ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Walnut Avenue Women’s Center : Domestic Violence Training for CASA 3/19/12


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