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Active Citation: The Coming Revolution in Qualitative Methods Andrew Moravcsik Princeton University Midwest Political Science Association Chicago 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Active Citation: The Coming Revolution in Qualitative Methods Andrew Moravcsik Princeton University Midwest Political Science Association Chicago 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Active Citation: The Coming Revolution in Qualitative Methods Andrew Moravcsik Princeton University Midwest Political Science Association Chicago 2013

2 QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY ANALYSIS IMPORTANT 90% of scholars use some qualitative methods Qualitative work is more policy-relevant Qualitative work fosters area, functional and policy knowledge Even statistical work relies on qualitative coding BUT NOT BEING SUSTAINED The number and prestige of qualitative scholars is declining (e.g. top journals, universities, gatekeeper positions) Area and functional knowledge is declining Quality of scholarship is declining Qualitative scholars cannot demonstrate excellence Neighboring fields (e.g. diplomatic history) weak The Crisis of Qualitative Political Science

3 ACTIVE CITATION Hyperlink footnotes to precisely cited, fully annotated excerpts from sources in appendix QUALITATIVE DATA ARCHIVING GRADUATE SOCIAL SCIENCE AND POLICY TRAINING IN QUALITATIVE METHODS One Response: Greater Transparency in Qualitative Analysis

4 Best Practices: Political Science

5 Best Practices: Natural Science Example: When did Polar Bears Evolve? Article Supplementary Materials

6 Best Practices: Legal Academia (Yale On-Line Law Review)

7 Best Practices: Policy Analysis

8 Best Practices: Journalism

9 Best Practices: Classified Intelligence Reports

10 Moravcsik, The Choice for Europe (1998)

11 MAIN TEXT OF PAPER, ARTICLE OR BOOK French agriculture lay at the center of President de Gaulles calculations about the European Economic Community (EEC) and British membership in it. Indeed, agriculture was a paramount foreign policy interest of France. At one meeting, de Gaulle identified divergent agricultural interests as the major reason why agreements within the EEC had been so difficult to reach. He noted that British membership would not just call the Common Agricultural Policy into question; it would transform the EEC into a wholly different organization. He referred to the transformation of agriculture as Frances greatest problem, now that the Algerian war had been settled, and added, strikingly, that if we do not surmount it, we could see another Algerian affair on our own soil. (Peyrefitte, Cétait de Gaulle, I, p. 302)Peyrefitte, Cétait de Gaulle, I, p. 302 What does an active citation look like? 1 of 3

12 TRANSPARENCY APPENDIX Annotation: De Gaulle held this confidential discussion with his press spokesman Alain Peyrefitte on 6 June 1962, following a cabinet meeting that discussed a recent summit between de Gaulle and Macmillan. At the summit, the British had displayed an unexpected willingness to do whatever it takes to enter the EEC. This forced de Gaulle to clarify the extent of his essential opposition to British membership. This source confirms the quotation in the main text verbatim, providing emphatic and unambiguous evidence of the central importance of agriculture in de Gaulles conception of French domestic, foreign and European policies. Source Material: « Le sort de notre agriculture est désormais, après le règlement de l'affaire algérienne, notre plus grand problème. Et si nous ne le réglons pas, nous pouvons avoir une autre affaire dAlgérie sur notre propre sol. Notre industrie peut affronter la concurrence, mais si notre agriculture devait rester en dehors du Marché commun, la charge qui en résulterait pour nos industriels ne serait pas supportable. Seulement, ça a été si difficile de s'entendre avec nos partenaires pour lagriculture, et il reste encore tant de difficultés, que je ne vois pas comment on pourrait maintenant élaborer un autre régime. De toute façon, l'entrée de l'Angleterre serait un tel bouleversement, qu'il s'agirait alors d'un autre Marché commun.» Henceforth the fate of our agriculture is, after the resolution of the Algerian affair, our greatest problem. And if we do not surmount it, we could see another Algerian affair on our own soil. Our industry can handle the competition, but if our agriculture remains outside of the Common Market, the resulting burden for our industrial firms would be unbearable. Only, it has been so difficult to reach agreement with our (six EEC) partners on agriculture, and there remain many difficulties, that I dont see how we could now elaborate another different scheme. To the contrary, the entry of England would be such an upheaval, that it would then amount to a different Common Market. [Translation: Andrew Moravcsik] Full Citation: Alain Peyrefitte, Cétait de Gaulle (Paris: Fayard, 1994), p of 3

13 Scans and Hyperlinks to Original Text (or Non- Textual Sources) Can Be Added 3 of 3

14 Traditional Footnotes vs. Active Citations Traditional CitationActive Citation PrecisionOftenAlways Inferential Connection RarelyAlways Data AccessNever Excerpt or summary, and source if possible

15 Active Citation: Potential Benefits Two clicks reveal the full richness of qualitative evidence and context. Readers can cost-effectively check, critique and debate work, creating interest and exposing those who lack area and functional knowledge. Qualitative Scholars can demonstrate excellence and advance in the field, creating an incentive to invest in intensive field research, languages and area studies, policy knowledge, interviews, archival work, and detailed process-tracing of case studies. Qualitative work is more open-ended, fueling theoretical innovation. Evidence is a public good: it can be reused for scholarly or public policy purposes. Those with specific functional, area and policy expertise will be in greater demand on journal review boards, book series, prize committees, and disciplinary governance groups, thereby enhancing their prestige and influence. Greater opportunities are created for interdisciplinary cooperation with policy, history, law, journalism.

16 Active Citation: What have we done? Produced Articles, Proposals and Workshops and Qualitative Data Repository (QDR) Secured APSA Approval New Transparency/Replicability Guidelines Awarded NSF Funding Working on Legal, Human Subject, and Logistical Issues Creating NSF/QDR Demonstration Website 20+ scholars retrofitting classic articles and chapters Younger scholars preparing new and forthcoming work Designing New Software

17 ACE Word Add-in Active Citation… Translate… Look Up Active Citation… Translate… Look Up OUTPUT: -Word Document -Web Document -Database (Access, Atlas…)

18 Active Citation: The Future Agenda Expand demonstration website to include work in Policy Analysis, Human Rights, Human Security, Development and Political Economy, Regional and Area Studies, Environment and other functional global issues. Work with Journal Editors, Publishers to Secure Adoption Develop Teaching Materials for Undergraduate, Graduate, Policy Analysis Establish Prizes, Training Courses, Recognition, Publicity Expand Free Word-processing Software Options (e.g. ad-ons for other WP) Work with Major Software Providers (e.g. database software) Establish inter-disciplinary links with history, law, policy schools Reach out to Journalists, Policy-makers, Government agencies, NGOs, Policy Analysts to exchange ideas and develop common standards

19 Active Citation: Qualitative Methods and the Coming Methodological Revolution Andrew Moravcsik Princeton University Midwest Political Science Association Chicago 2013


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