Presentation on theme: "Establishment of Rhizoma Perennial Peanut in Subtropical Florida P. Mislevy and M.B. Adjei UF/IFAS ABSTRACT Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP), arachis glabrata."— Presentation transcript:
Establishment of Rhizoma Perennial Peanut in Subtropical Florida P. Mislevy and M.B. Adjei UF/IFAS ABSTRACT Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP), arachis glabrata Benth is a warm season perennial legume, that has good dry biomass (DB) yield, high nutritive value, drought tolerance, persistence, and can tolerate close grazing, however, establishment could require up to 2 yr or more. A split-split plot experiment was established during February 2004 and 2005 to study the influence of four RPP entries, three planting methods, and two planting rates. The spread of RPP [percentage ground cover (GC) with exposed leaf] was dependent on planting method (P<0.001) and peanut entry (P<0.05) for the first four months after planting. Crimp and roll generally provided the fastest spread when compared with row planting. With the exception of April and May 2004, little difference was observed in vegetative spread between RPP entries. A significant interaction between planting method and rate revealed that the 3360kg ha -1 planting rate with the disk and roll and crimp and roll planting methods provided the highest peanut spread initially after planting. At five months, all planting methods, entries, and rates provided between 90 and 100% GC with leaf exposed. These data indicate RPP can be successfully established within one year in central Florida. INTRODUCTION Rhizoma peanut is a long-lived tropical legume with high nutritive value and good drought tolerance (Ocumpaugh, 1990; Prine et al., 1981). Currently there are about 7,000 ha of RPP growing in the southeastern USA, with most plantings predominantly in Florida and Georgia. Growers are reluctant to incorporate this legume into their forage programs because of vegetative establishment, since RPP produces little or no seed. Vegetative establishment is generally very slow because of inconsistent rainfall patterns. Presently 2 to 3 yr are required for stands to reach full ground cover. MATERIALS AND METHODS -Experimental design: split-split plot with RPP entries as the main plot, planting method as subplot, and planting rate as sub-subplot. -Rhizoma peanut entries: Ecoturf, PI 262826, PI 262833, and Florigraze -Planting method: broadcast, disk, and roll; broadcast, crimp, and roll; 61 cm row planting and roll. -Rhizoma peanut rate: 1680 and 3360 kg ha -1 -Planting date: First week of February 2004 and 2005 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Establishing RPP using the crimp and roll method provided the fastest vegetative spread. Broadcast planting RPP at 3360 kg ha -1 always resulted in greater vegetative spread than 1680 kg ha -1. Generally the establishment rate of RPP entries tested were very similar. The establishment of RPP was generally very slow when planted in rows 61 cm apart. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Ocumpaugh, W.R. 1990. Production and nutritive value of Florigraze rhizoma peanut in a semiarid climate. Agron. J. 82:179-182. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore, and R.D. Rouse. 1981. Florigraze rhizoma peanut, a perennial forage legume. Circ. S-275. Florida Agric. Exp. Stn. Gainesville. PURPOSE This experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of peanut entry, planting method, and planting rate on the spread of rhizoma peanut The spread of RPP was affected independently by planting method and peanut entry for the first four months after planting. Plants that were established using the crimp and roll method generally had greater (P<0.05) percentage GC of exposed leaf after planting, than the row and roll method from March thru June during both 2004 and 2005 (Table 1). However by July little difference was observed between planting methods with all treatments ranging better than 90% GC of leaf exposed. With few exceptions, little difference was observed on vegetative spread between RPP entries (Table 2). During August and September 2004 flooding conditions from hurricanes caused a major setback to the experiment. The most tolerant entry to saturated soil was PI 262833 expressed excellent canopy cover. There was an interaction (P<0.008) between rhizome planting rate x planting method during the first four months after planting in 2004 and in April 2005. The higher planting rate always had greater vegetative spread than the low planting rate for the disk and roll and crimp and roll but not for row and roll (Table 3). In 2005 the high planting rate provided the greatest vegetative cover through July when compared with the low rate (Table 4). Table 1. Effect of rhizome planting method on vegetative spread [Ground cover (GC) of exposed leaf] following a February planting (2004 and 2005). Sampling date Planting methodMarch April MayJune July - - - - - - - GC with exposed leaf, % - - - - - - - 2004 Disk and roll25.7 b 32.5 b65.4 a70.9 ab 91.9 a Crimp and roll31.2 a 37.2 a68.8 a74.2 a 95.2 a Rows and roll19.3 c 28.3 c56.1 b62.5 b 94.2 a 2005 Disk and roll32.5 a 32.5 b84.3 a94.8 a 98.5 a Crimp and roll33.7 a 37.2 a86.3 a97.9 a 99.8 a Rows and roll23.5 b 28.3 c66.2 b86.3 b 93.2 b Table 2. The effect of rhizoma perennial peanut entry on vegetative spread [ground cover (GC) of exposed leaf] following planting in February. Sampling date Peanut entryMarchApril May June - - - - - GC of exposed leaf, % - - - - - 2004 Ecoturf23.4 a30.0 b 57.7 b 62.3 a PI 26282626.4 a36.0 a 67.2 a 72.6 a PI 26283326.1 a30.9 ab 57.2 b 66.7 a Florigraze25.7 a33.5 ab 70.3 a 74.1 a Table 3. The interactive effect of rhizoma peanut planting rate x planting method on vegetative spread [ground cover (GC) of exposed leaf] following February planting. Planting method Rhizome rate Disk and roll Crimp and roll Rows and roll M Kg ha -1 - - - - - - - - - GC of exposed leaf, % - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - March, 04 - - - - - - - - - - 1680 16.9 b 23.9 b16.6 a 19.4 3360 33.4 a 38.9 a21.9 a 31.2 - - - - - - - - - - April, 04 - - - - - - - - - - - 1680 24.8 b 27.3 b25.0 a 25.7 3360 39.3 a 47.7 a31.3 a 39.3 - - - - - - - - - - May, 04 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1680 57.4 b 57.1 b53.2 a 55.8 3360 72.4 a 81.3 a58.8 a 70.6 - - - - - - - - - - June, 04 - - - - - - - - - - - 1680 65.7 b 68.5 b62.6 a 65.6 3360 75.3 a 80.3 a62.3 a 72.4 - - - - - - - - - - April, 05 - - - - - - - - - - - 1680 52.8 b 55.9 b44.0 a 50.9 3360 70.9 a 71.5 a52.7 a 65.0 Table 4. Influence of rhizome planting rate on vegetative spread [ ground cover (GC) of exposed leaf] following a February planting, 2005. Sampling date Planting rateMarch April MayJune July kg ha -1 - - - - - - - - - - GC of exposed leaf, % - - - - - - - - - 1680 23.7 b50.9 b72.9 b90.2 b95.8 b 336036.1 a65.0 a85.2 a95.8 a98.6 a Significant interaction between planting rate and method.