Presentation on theme: "PC-reading Erik Arendal, Consultant MEd in Special Needs Education The Danish Centre for Assistive Technology"— Presentation transcript:
PC-reading Erik Arendal, Consultant MEd in Special Needs Education The Danish Centre for Assistive Technology
This session A brief introduction to: –Danish thoughts and ongoing discussion to reading and solutions for dyslexics. –WHO – the ICF Model on disability Project PC- Reading Danish national research project for adults with dyslexia using AT Questions and discussion
Dyslexia/reading difficulties High demands for reading in modern life In Denmark about 20% have poor reading skills, creating difficulties in everyday life, work and education The traditional solutions in Denmark: –Reading/writing courses for adults
What is reading Reading = decoding X understanding A cognitive processes in the brain Decoding - getting new input from text By eyes, ears or fingers (Braille) –And Understanding the input
Dyslexic readers/writers The major problem is decoding the text –In writing the major problem is coding the text (spelling) No (or minor) understanding problem Compensation can be done by helping decoding the text. –Assisted reading: E.g. text read out aloud by TTS software –Assisted writing: E.g. assisted by word prediction software
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health by WHO ( ICF)( ICF) Body function Activities Participation and structures Health condition (disorder/disease) Environmental Personal Factors
Interaction between components of ICF – Traditional reading courses Body function Learn Participation and structures to r ead Health condition (dyslexia) Environmental Personal Factors problem ?
Interaction between components of ICF – Assisted reading or “PC-reading” Body function PC Participation and structures r eading Health condition (dyslexia) Environmental Personal Digital texts Factors Assistive Tech./AT
A Danish concept: ICT rucksack for people with dyslexia
ICT rucksack – to assist reading and writing Laptop Computer - including: –Text-to-speech software - TTS –Word prediction software –Scanner and OCR software C-pen (Scannerpen) –Word-processor –Internet, etc. –E.g. digital and accessible texts
Danish government solution for people with dyslexia Students: (from age 16 and up): –Ministry of Education (www.spsu.dk)www.spsu.dk –ICT rucksack –Digital textbooks (scanning/OCR) At work –Job centre (municipality) –ICT rucksack + Smartphones/tablets with TTS (just starting) etc.
PC-reading A national Danish research project –Nationwide: 11 of 14 counties –Start: 2005 –End: 2010 Final report, other documentation and English summary: Target group: adults with dyslexia eligible for ICT rucksack grant –To be used at study or at work
Participants 121 adults with dyslexia enrolled consecutively 89 participants stayed in the study (74%) –Age years (mean 30 years) –39 studied, –28 had jobs, –the remainder: unemployed, pensioners etc.
Tests Basic dyslexia test: –Specific reading problem Decoding words (e.g. reading “non-word” test) –See Danish research and tests (in English) – click hereclick here Screen reading test (SRT) –New test developed by the project Semi structured Interview –Start: “How is your situation at work or study” –End: “Does assistive technology/AT help you” In-depth interview of 3 selected interviewees - with severe dyslexia –As part of the research in my MEd degree
Screen reading test without ICT rucksack (SRT) Dyslexia test Semi structured interview Screen reading test with IT rucksack (as a PC-reader) Learn to use IT rucksack Screen reading test with IT rucksack Semi-structured interview 1 year as pc reader Project - procedure In depth interview of 3 participants with severe dyslexia.
SRT test Text reading Simple text Without - and later with TTS 5 texts = 30 items: score 0-30
Research results in 3 parts: SRT – Screen Reading Test Follow up interview after one year as a pc-reader using AT –All participants both students (some with minor reading difficulties) and workers (skilled/unskilled – some with major difficulties) In- depth interview of 3 participants –Unskilled workers with severe dyslexia
SRT test - results Correct answers – NON pc-reader: 8/30 One column = One participant Correct answers – pc-reader: 29/30
SRT test - short term efficacy Major effect for people with severe difficulties –They PC-read and understand immediately, no long time training is necessary. –This group represents mostly skilled and unskilled workers No or less validated results for people with minor difficulties –They solve the test without using TTS (the texts were too short and easy for them in this test) –This group represents mostly students
Follow up interview How does AT influence your reading ? How often do you use AT when you read –Always, usually or now and then 79 % How is your reading now using AT compared to earlier without AT? –I read more 81 % –I read faster70 % –I can easier understand the text 92 % –I read more difficult texts78 %
Follow up interview How does AT influence your writing ? Do you use AT for writing ? 94 % How is your writing now using AT compared to earlier without using AT? –I write more81 % –I write faster57 % –I make fewer errors82 % –I use a larger vocabulary79 % –I write longer texts 73 %
Follow up interview How does AT influence your education - students only Do you use AT in your study 92 % Does AT positivly influence your study –(None, Some, Very much) Very much Very much + Some –Complete your education77% 100% –Easier overcome the curriculum 61% 87% –Get/got better grades in examination68% 87% The value of AT is great for students also
Follow up interview How does AT influence your job - all participants Do you use AT at your job 29% –Both full time and parttime jobs (students) IF Yes: –Does it help you at work 56%
Follow up interview How does AT influence you as a person – overall ? Positively influence for: –None, Little, Some, Very much Very much + Very Much Some –Your self-confidence 38% 75% –Your independence 40% 83% –Your believe in wanted education 32% 62% –Your believe in wanted job 33% 67%
In- depth interview 3 selected participants –Severe dyslexics (Score = 0 in SRT without AT) –Great short term efficacy (Score > 20 in SRT with AT) Unskilled workers – all men –All 3 had jobs - Age 23, 40 and 56 years Granted equipment –Ict rucksack (laptop, TTS, scanner, OCR ) Focus on whole life situation –Both before and after - when using AT
The equipment/AT was not used at work All 3 had chosen jobs, which demanded very little reading and writing –Unskilled workers - wood- and metal production Difficult to use at work –Dust and dirt at the workingplace –Hard texts to scan/OCR (complicated layout) –Long time to use AT was not working with computers and other technology at the working place
The equipment/AT was used very much at home/privat Scanning, OCR and reading of manuals etc – from the job –Very difficult, but they tried and it was of great help. Scanning of letters –E.g. official letters from municipality Internet, m.m. –Newspapers, hobbies, family, friends etc.
Potential at work - as the 3 participants see it AT (TTS) on the machine/computer at work Manuals etc. in a digital accessible format. –On computers at work or send by At education and professional courses –Books an other course materials in digital accessible formats
Largest value in their whole life situation Independence of others ”helping” them –Quote: ”It can read everything for me, now I don’t depend on others to read for me” Self-confidence –Quote: ”Now I can do whatever I want” New believe in education and jobs –Quote: ”I can be professional educated, and I can attend professional courses” –Quote: ”I can manage a job where I have to read – if I wish to change job”
Summary Great and immediate value –Both participants with severe dyslexia (SRT) –And students with better reading skills reading more difficult texts (Follow up interview) Follow up interview: Great value for all –A majority in both groups say they read and write significantly more and better using AT. –More self-confidence and believe in education and jobs In-depth interviews: –Great value in private life, but not used at work (so far) –Independence and self-confidence is the key words for them
Perspectives The research project points at 3 themes as an outcome of the results: –Greater and general use of AT –Greater and general use of digital accessible texts –A changed attitude on reading and new solutions for dyslexics
Greater and general use of AT AT software installed on ”every” computer in education –Inclusion of dyslexics –Not only dyslexics can benefit from AT (e.g. word prediction) AT as a possibility on computers/technology at work –E.g. installed on computers or as an USB-device Use of mobile technology –Smartphones/iPhone, Tablets/iPad, Smart/QR- codes, Videos etc.
Greater and general use of digital accessible texts Digital and accessible formats of books and text-materials –Both in education and at work. Directly from the publisher. And or Made accessible and available by the institution of education, or by the employer
A change in attitude on reading and new solutions for dyslexics From training/learning to read as the ”goal” –To read for learning (e.g. as a Pc-reader) –To equal participation - in spite of dyslexia –To acceptance of Pc-reading and diverse learning From an individual learning disability –To environmental responsibility –To implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
UN - Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Denmark has signed the convention and a ratification is ongoing - e.g.: –Article 9 - Accessibility Including information/knowledge and ICT –Article 24 - Education Are the 3 themes an ”easy” way to implement CRPD for dyslexics ?
More information and documentation –Research report – methods and results –Summary in English –Masterproject (Masterafhandling) –Danish: Voksne ordblindes anvendelse af it-hjælpemidler –Abstract in English –Information-booklet Cases and summary conclusions –Only in Danish