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BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Gendered Discourses on war at the intersection between party affiliation and institutional.

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Presentation on theme: "BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Gendered Discourses on war at the intersection between party affiliation and institutional."— Presentation transcript:

1 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Gendered Discourses on war at the intersection between party affiliation and institutional role The case of legislative Assemblies Cinzia Bevitori (University of Bologna at Forlì)

2 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Outline of talk Background issues Parliamentary discourse The question of gender in institutional domains Research questions Corpus, Tools and Methods The HoC and HoR subcorpora Tools and Methods Corpus-assisted Discourse Analysis Case study war, people of Iraq, we must

3 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Background issues i. parliamentary discourse ii. gender and institutional discourse iii. research questions

4 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Background issues i. parliamentary discourse sub-genre of political language (Carbò 1996, Van Dijk 2000, Bayley 2004) ritualized and rule-bound typically adversarial - deliberate dispute (Adams 1999) typically male-dominated institutional space (Shaw 2000, Walsh 2001, Wodak 2003)

5 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Background issues ii. gender and institutional discourse gender in context and situated meanings meanings as contextually-dependent (Halliday 1994) within communities of practice (CofP) (Eckert and McConnell- Ginet 1992) performative (Butler 1990,1999), i.e. enacting gender gender as a dynamic/fluid concept ( inter alia Litosseliti 2002, Sunderland and Litosseliti 2002 ) as well as a fixed concept ( Walsh 2001 ) gendered identities at the intersection with other institutional variables ( Cameron 1997, Walsh 2001)

6 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Background issues iii. research questions Do different/similar semantic patterns emerge in the talk of male and female MPs in the House/s? Are they statistically salient or semantically primed (Hoey 2005) to tell us anything about gendered discourses within this domain? If (and to what extent) does positioning depend on variables of party affiliation and/or institutional role intersecting with gender? If (and to what extent) do shared/unshared values in this given context impinge on gender?

7 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Corpus, Tools and Methods i. the corpus ii. tools and methods iii. corpus-assisted discourse studies

8 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 The Corpus HoC 2003 Original corpus: transcripts of all 152 sittings Tokens: 9,800,000 (approx. Wsmith counting procedure) Iraq subcorpus: 73 parliamentary events tokens: 960,293 (approx.) 412 speakers

9 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 The Corpus HoR 2003 Original corpus: transcripts of all 135 sessions Tokens: 17,000,000 (approx. Wsmith counting procedure) Iraq subcorpus: tokens: 1,394,163 (approx.) 376 speakers

10 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 HoC and HoR and CorDis CorDis: multigeneric corpus 5 million tokens ca. (see Morley and Bayley ed. 2009) Encoded according to TEI standard to be interrogated by Xaira (XML Aware Indexing and Retrieval Application, Oxford University Computing Service) POS-tagged (CLAWS7, Lancaster)

11 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Taking the Floor about Iraq HoC party/sex distribution of tokens

12 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Taking the Floor about Iraq HoC Speaker role - Labour: Gov and Bb

13 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Taking the Floor about Iraq HoR party/sex distribution of tokens

14 Methodology: a two-fold gaze Corpus-assisted Discourse Studies (CaDS) (Partington 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009) Combining CL techniques with the analytical tools of discourse analysis (inter alia, Hardt-Meutner 1995, Stubbs 1996, 2001, Baker 2006, Baker et al 2008, Bayley 1999, 2004, 2008, Miller 2006,Thompson and Hunston 2006, Bayley and Morley 2009) BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010

15 typically implies: close reading of select text and text segments emerging as significant from quantitative research or shunting (Halliday [1961] 2002: 45, Miller 2006), from concordance to text (and intertext) typically characterised by: compilation of ad hoc specialized corpora; use of other corpora for comparative purposes SFL-based discourse analysis and Appraisal (Halliday 1994, Martin and Rose 2000, Martin and White 2005) Methodology: a two-fold gaze CADS continued BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010

16 Case study war people (of iraq) we must

17 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Distribution of war and conflict

18 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 war/conflict party/sex distribution (r.f.)

19 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 war/conflict party/sex distribution (r.f.)

20 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 gulf crimes cold against go six-day530.0 inevitable syndrome827.6 prisoners opposed prospectus523.8 run-up terrorism case justification resort aftermath avoid iraq the terrorism terror against prisoners gulf preemptive world profiteering cold iraq cost persian win during vietnam this prisoner winning preventive aftermath war HoCHoR a.f. z-score

21 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 gulf crimes cold against go six-day530.0 inevitable syndrome827.6 prisoners opposed prospectus523.8 run-up terrorism case justification resort aftermath avoid iraq the terrorism terror against prisoners gulf preemptive world profiteering cold iraq cost persian win during vietnam this prisoner winning preventive aftermath war a.f. z-score

22 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 war - top collocates (z-score) variables of sex/party/inst. role Lab Gov (M): crimes, prisoners, syndrome, gulf, cold, avoid, decisions, criminals, sanctioned Lab Gov (F): prospects, disorderly, troubled, cold, raging, suffering, catastrophe, bitter, avoided, scenario Labour: Government

23 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Gov. (F): war y of the record from the Gulf war onwards in relation to requests me from this crisis without a war that would cause great sufferin t there should be no rush to war. troubled by the prospects of war. troubled by the prospects of war and does not relish the prospec s not relish the prospects of war, and that people are willing to y that there should not be a war that inflicts great suffering o rian purposes in the event of war. raging about the prospect of war. penly about the prospects of war or military or humanitarian pre hat the best scenario is that war should be avoided if possible. n the middle east because any war would be a human catastrophe. splacing him without going to war and inflicting more hurt and su le of Iraq further suffering, war and the chaos that has come aft

24 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Gov. (F): war and prospects y of the record from the Gulf war onwards in relation to requests me from this crisis without a war that would cause great sufferin t there should be no rush to war. troubled by the prospects of war. troubled by the prospects of war and does not relish the prospec s not relish the prospects of war, and that people are willing to y that there should not be a war that inflicts great suffering o rian purposes in the event of war. raging about the prospect of war. penly about the prospects of war or military or humanitarian pre hat the best scenario is that war should be avoided if possible. n the middle east because any war would be a human catastrophe. splacing him without going to war and inflicting more hurt and su le of Iraq further suffering, war and the chaos that has come aft

25 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Gov. (F): war and prospects and suffering y of the record from the Gulf war onwards in relation to requests me from this crisis without a war that would cause great sufferin t there should be no rush to war. troubled by the prospects of war. troubled by the prospects of war and does not relish the prospec s not relish the prospects of war, and that people are willing to y that there should not be a war that inflicts great suffering o rian purposes in the event of war. raging about the prospect of war. penly about the prospects of war or military or humanitarian pre hat the best scenario is that war should be avoided if possible. n the middle east because any war would be a human catastrophe. splacing him without going to war and inflicting more hurt and su le of Iraq further suffering, war and the chaos that has come aft

26 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 a war that inflicts great suffering on the already long-suffering necessary bombardment and suffering for the people of Iraq, which inflicting more hurt and suffering on the people of Iraq. We did ons were causing enormous suffering to the people of Iraq. But of President Mugabe. The suffering and destruction that he has is necessary to minimise suffering and to maximise the speed wit possible to minimise the suffering of children without minimi ty now is to minimise the suffering of the people of Iraq during t en without minimising the suffering of civilians, of their mothers our power to minimise the suffering of the people. It is not possi eople of Iraq are already suffering a humanitarian catastrophe. So detailed accounts of the suffering of people and children at Ha ering on the already long-suffering people of Iraq, it is our duty courts for the terrible suffering and breach of international la omy, thuggery, hunger and suffering. My instinct is that the end i horror, chaos, death and suffering of war. As a result of the sec he people of Iraq further suffering, war and the chaos that has co ere and then minimise the suffering of the people. The hon. Memb there would be much less suffering for the people of Iraq, and th ar that would cause great suffering to the people of Iraq. I am no s brutal, the people were suffering, our Attorney-General belatedl which we can minimise the suffering of the people of Iraq in terms Gov. (F): suffering

27 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 a war that inflicts great suffering on the already long-suffering necessary bombardment and suffering for the people of Iraq, which inflicting more hurt and suffering on the people of Iraq. We did ons were causing enormous suffering to the people of Iraq. But of President Mugabe. The suffering and destruction that he has is necessary to minimise suffering and to maximise the speed wit possible to minimise the suffering of children without minimi ty now is to minimise the suffering of the people of Iraq during t en without minimising the suffering of civilians, of their mothers our power to minimise the suffering of the people. It is not possi eople of Iraq are already suffering a humanitarian catastrophe. So detailed accounts of the suffering of people and children at Ha ering on the already long-suffering people of Iraq, it is our duty courts for the terrible suffering and breach of international la omy, thuggery, hunger and suffering. My instinct is that the end i horror, chaos, death and suffering of war. As a result of the sec he people of Iraq further suffering, war and the chaos that has co ere and then minimise the suffering of the people. The hon. Memb there would be much less suffering for the people of Iraq, and th ar that would cause great suffering to the people of Iraq. I am no s brutal, the people were suffering, our Attorney-General belatedl which we can minimise the suffering of the people of Iraq in terms Gov. (F): suffering

28 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 C. Short: While I welcome the concern among the people of our country that there should not be a war that inflicts great suffering on the already long-suffering people of Iraq, it is our duty to send the firm message to Saddam Hussein that this time the UN is in business, is invincible and will not go away, and that there must be disarmament. Opposition-initiated debate, 30th Jan. 2003

29 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Question Time 26 Feb 2003 Mrs. Spelman (Con): The whole House is aware of, and sympathetic to, the doubts and concerns that the Secretary of State has publicly admitted about the prospect of war in Iraq. However, does she accept that the effect of those doubts has been to prevent her from engaging properly in all attempts to discuss what humanitarian plans would be in place to mitigate the consequences of war? Does she also accept that, ironically, that could have grave consequences for the people of Iraq?

30 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Labour: Gov node: people (z-score) iraqi 52.3 fed 26.7 benefit24.6 displaced22.9 minimise19.2 iraq 18.6 own 17.8 brutalised17.6 quarrel17.0 benefiting16.5 suffering16.4 internally16.3 educated15.5

31 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Labour: Gov node: people (z-score) iraqi 52.3 fed 26.7 benefit24.6 displaced22.9 minimise19.2 iraq 18.6 own 17.8 brutalised17.6 quarrel17.0 benefiting16.5 suffering16.4 internally16.3 educated15.5

32 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 M iraqi55.6 benefit23.8 own19.8 brutalised19.1 quarrel18.5 benefiting17.9 iraq16.7 innocent15.6 who15.1 thousands14.0 F fed 50.1 displaced 46.0 minimise 44.4 suffering 34.8 educated 33.6 livelihoods 26.3 handouts 25.6 movements 23.6 one-off 22.2 disadvantaged 22.2 Labour: Gov (combined variables) node: people (z-score)

33 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 people of Iraq/Iraqi people dominant semantic motifs Govs positioning (M) benefiting/helping (the people of Iraq) empowerment (take responsibility for government) brutality and suffering (of the regime) Govs positioning (F) > [Clare Short]: minimize the suffering of the people (of Iraq) (negative) prospects of war > e.g. humanitarian ( Bayley and Bevitori 2009: )

34 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Lab Bb (M): against, gulf, discrete, opposed, go, terrorism, excuses, pre-emptive, wrongs, avoid, alternative, case, iraq, rushing, voted Lab Bb (F): crimes, indictments/indicting, deadliest, humanity, proportionate, aims, gulf, against, inevitable, brink, refugees, consequence, sceptical Labour: Back Benchers war top collocates (variables of sex/party)

35 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Question Time, 21 Jan Mrs. Alice Mahon (Halifax): Is my hon Friend the Member for Cynon Valley [Ann_Clwyd ] not correct in saying that Saddam needs to be dealt with because of his responsibility for these matters? The Government have taken a leading role in international tribunals that deal with war crimes and crimes against humanity, so, instead of letting people off the hook, is it not now time to find a way of bringing them to book? How will the British Government go about doing that?

36 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Lab Bb (M): against, gulf, discrete, opposed, go, terrorism, excuses, pre-emptive, wrongs, avoid, alternative, case, iraq, rushing, voted Lab Bb (F): crimes, indictments/indicting, deadliest, humanity, proportionate, aims, gulf, against, inevitable, brink, refugees, consequence, sceptical war top collocates (variables of sex/party)

37 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Lab: Bb (M) war and terrorism Clearly, any war against terrorism has many differ If we are to have a war against terrorism, and it is again In relation to the war against terrorism, the Chancellor e rights and wrongs of a war against terrorism, and about the mi reign policy aspects of a war on terrorism, we must realise that Let us prosecute the war against terrorism through the Unit he war has no link to the war against terrorism and will exacerba d July this year, on the war against terrorism. This is a war that will have no end, so long as p support the more general war on terrorism. war on terrorism. War is justified if we or our allies ar id, I support the general war on terrorism. as a logical step in the war on terrorism- in fact, I thought th gative consequence on the war on terrorism because the internat tting co-operation in the war on terrorism from generally unreli was the right move in the war on terrorism; some wanted Saddam to back to the tasks of the war on terrorism and the building of th

38 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Lab: Bb (M) war and terrorism Clearly, any war against terrorism has many differ If we are to have a war against terrorism, and it is again In relation to the war against terrorism, the Chancellor e rights and wrongs of a war against terrorism, and about the mi reign policy aspects of a war on terrorism, we must realise that Let us prosecute the war against terrorism through the Unit he war has no link to the war against terrorism and will exacerba d July this year, on the war against terrorism. This is a war that will have no end, so long as p support the more general war on terrorism. war on terrorism. War is justified if we or our allies ar id, I support the general war on terrorism. as a logical step in the war on terrorism- in fact, I thought th gative consequence on the war on terrorism because the internat tting co-operation in the war on terrorism from generally unreli was the right move in the war on terrorism; some wanted Saddam to back to the tasks of the war on terrorism and the building of th

39 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Vernon Coaker (Gedling): While we talk about the rights and wrongs of a war against terrorism, and about the military side of any campaign, it is important, if we are to demonstrate that what we are doing is against the regime in Iraq and not against the people, that we plan for the humanitarian consequences of any conflict, and that we do what we can to protect the ordinary people of Iraq. […] Gov-initiated debate, 11th March 2003 War against terrorism

40 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Lab: Bb (F) war and terrorism Mrs. Alice Mahon (Halifax): The policy of merging the issue of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq with the aims of the war on terrorism is no substitute for any hard evidence of weapons of mass destruction or, indeed, a link with al-Qaeda. Does the Foreign Secretary realise that many will view this attempt as disingenuous? It is also a disaster for good international relations and in terms of protecting the people of this country, it is downright dangerous. (Statement to the House, 21 January 2003)

41 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Opposition-initiated debate, 9 Sept Alice Mahon (Halifax): However, now is not the time for that. It is timely to remind Hon Members of the genuine consequences of the illegal and immoral war for the people of Iraq. It is proper to examine the way in which millions of ordinary Iraqi people are suffering now. We should also consider the destabilisation of the middle east.

42 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 people of iraq Lab: BB (M): top collocates: liberate, liberation, reconciliation, justifiable dominant motifs: variable stance upholding the Govs position: liberating the people from dictatorship empowerment: peace and reconciliation contesting the Govs position dire consequences Lab: BB (F): top collocates: suffering, immoral,inflicting, saving (no prospect of saving) dominant motifs: less varied contesting the Govs position war is illegal and immoral dire consequences (people are suffering now)

43 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Opposition-initiated debate 30 th Jan 2003 Joan Ruddock (Lewisham, Deptford): […] there are Hon Members who argueperhaps the Hon Member for North-West Cambridgeshire [Mawhinney_Brian Conservative:Bb] came closest to saying this that it might be better to have the war to save the people of Iraq from their existing fate. I can not accept that. It is, of course, not the purpose of resolution 1441, and it can not be part of the judgment that the Security Council will take on hearing the inspectors' reports. I cannot believe that that is the best way forward for the Iraqi people. We know what the immediate humanitarian results are likely to be, but the question is: what will follow the military onslaught? Like the hon. Member for Richmond Park (Dr. Tonge) and my hon. Friend the Member for Cynon Valley (Ann Clwyd), I want to refer to Afghanistan

44 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 american45.8 iraqi37.6 who 31.9 oppressed27.7 these 26.8 are 25.3 liberate24.9 own21.6 freeing21.5 oppress20.9 american149.1 who 29.5 deserve27.8 the 26.5 are 25.1 iraqi24.5 leveled24.5 young 23.0 congress22.7 behalf22.0 borrow20.9 Republicans people top 10 collocatesHoR Democrats

45 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Dem M: the people of iraq are better off/freer…but Mr. McDermott (Washington): […] There can be little argument about whether the people of Iraq are better off today than they were under Hussein. They are. But the 200 young Americans who have died and continue to die, one died last night, did not pledge their lives to make the people of Iraq better off. They pledged to protect the United States of America from real threats to our security. They died believing that they did. So far, I do not know why they died. (5 minutes speech, 15 July 2003) people of iraq HoR

46 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Mr. Udall of Colorado: […] The people of Iraq are freer with Saddam Hussein out of powerat least for nowbut our go-it-alone policies have left us with few friends willing to help cover the costs of his removal or Iraq's reconstruction. (Debate 17 Oct. 2003) Mr. Obey: […] If we are going to be bombing the devil out of a country, I suspect that we have a considerable moral obligation to the population afterwards to help repair the damage and to help repair the human misery. So I do not begrudge what we will be trying to do for the people of Iraq after this miserable war. What I do hope, however, is that we will be able to reduce and perhaps eliminate future tax cuts that are contemplated right now here at home …(Debate 3 April 2003) people of iraq HoR

47 Dem F : concern for our people (troops) and the people of iraq, civilians, victims; help them rebuild and reconstruct nocent lives, the victims, the people of Iraq for what might c ave a commonality with the people of Iraq, either by way for our troops, right for the people of Iraq, and worthy of sup we it to our troops and to the people of Iraq to acknowledge the e troops in the field and to the people of Iraq after the war; the their ability to represent the people of Iraq. From my study of fighting men and women and the people of Iraq. I join my colleag ies to our military and to the people of Iraq, and we will contin port of our allies to help the people of Iraq rebuild their countr the United States and to the people of Iraq to do our utmost to on with other nations and the people of Iraq and eliminate the ba mental with sympathy for the people of Iraq whose liberation has dam Hussein, and certainly the people of Iraq should not be saddl merican people, as well as the people of Iraq. First, this approp tes troops, civilians and the people of Iraq. But even before goi people of iraq HoR

48 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Case study war people (of iraq) we must a register specific feature in institutional deliberative dispute (Miller and Johnson 2009b)

49 we must across CorDis must we must

50 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 we must: party/sex distribution HoR

51 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 we must: verbs collocate: Dem F protect, construct, invest, care, ensure, recognize, believe, provide are secure abroad, we must also strive to protect our people n our Armed Forces. We must always undertake efforts to protect or Dodd's concerns. We must be as vigilant in protecting the j re of our veterans. We must protect our homeland. Each of their e safe and secure. We must protect and defend our cities at h tect our homeland. We must protect our hometowns. And as was not made in order. We must protect our homeland. We must prot also believe that we must protect the troops right here at hose trucks. And we must make sure that our homeland is prot ild Left Behind. We must take care of our veterans. We must ps in danger, then we must care enough to bring them home, bri

52 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 protect, construct, invest, care, ensure, recognize, believe, provide are secure abroad, we must also strive to protect our people n our Armed Forces. We must always undertake efforts to protect or Dodd's concerns. We must be as vigilant in protecting the j re of our veterans. We must protect our homeland. Each of their e safe and secure. We must protect and defend our cities at h tect our homeland. We must protect our hometowns. And as was not made in order. We must protect our homeland. We must prot also believe that we must protect the troops right here at hose trucks. And we must make sure that our homeland is prot ild Left Behind. We must take care of our veterans. We must ps in danger, then we must care enough to bring them home, bri we must: verbs collocate: Dem F

53 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 protect, construct, invest, care, ensure, recognize, believe, provide I believe that we must live up to our duty and support ; and I believe that we must first go to our allies in this pyer dollar, I believe we must have an answer to each and every ut I also believe that we must protect the troops right here at ho gress, I still believe we must do more. econdly, I believe that we must take immediate responsibility Lastly I believe that we must take immediate responsibility fo I believe we must finish the effort we began in Iraq ut, I also believe that we must be honest about what reconstructing we must: verbs collocate: Dem F

54 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 we must: verbs collocate: Dem F protect, construct, invest, care, ensure, recognize, believe, provide I believe we need to invest in rebuilding Iraq and protecting but, rather, that we can invest here at home. Imagine if we could invest those dollars here at home and c I think we should invest those dollars here at home and help the recession and how we invest our way out of it; we are talking terrorism requires us to invest deeply, if you will, in homeland se rs is eight times what we invest in Pell Grants for our college stu the same time, failing to invest in our children and grandchildren b ge this priority; we must invest in our children. e purposes, and instead invest it in homeland security- where it c is in Iraq, then we must invest in human rights. stays out, then we must invest in the teachers of Afghanistan.

55 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 invest: verbs collocate: Dem F here at home, in our children, in education I believe we need to invest in rebuilding Iraq and protecting but, rather, that we can invest here at home. Imagine if we could invest those dollars here at home and c I think we should invest those dollars here at home and help the recession and how we invest our way out of it; we are talking terrorism requires us to invest deeply, if you will, in homeland se rs is eight times what we invest in Pell Grants for our college stu the same time, failing to invest in our children and grandchildren b ge this priority; we must invest in our children. e purposes, and instead invest it in homeland security- where it c is in Iraq, then we must invest in human rights. stays out, then we must invest in the teachers of Afghanistan.

56 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 we must: verbs collocates: Dem M stand, pay, forget, rebuild, engage, stabilize, stand, hold, dismantle, invest, envision And, yes, we must pay for what we broke. scourge of terrorism, we must pay for it in an honest way. responsibilities, but we must be prepared to pay for them. We must pay now for the costs of our e But we must be prepared to pay for the he $100 b We must now all pay the price of That is why we must pay now for the costs of

57 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 we must: verbs collocates: Dem M stand, pay, forget, rebuild, engage, stabilize, stand, hold, dismantle, invest, envision Mr Evans (Illinois): Just as we stand vigilant against any further terrorist acts we must stand together to protect the entitlements and benefits that protect the members of our armed services when they return home. (Debate, 5 Feb 2003) Mr. Scott (Georgia): … we must stand up for the taxpayer as well, and that is the convoluted position we are in. (Debate, 15 Oct 2003)

58 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 we must: verbs collocates: Dem M stand, pay, forget, rebuild, engage, stabilize, stand, hold, dismantle, invest, envision he American people. We must now invest in our economic growth is in this country. We must invest in America's economic future national security. We must invest more in the creation of a work

59 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 we must: verbs collocates: Dem M stand, pay, forget, rebuild, engage, stabilize, stand, hold, dismantle, invest, envision Mr. DeFazio […] They say [Reps] it is necessary for the security of the American people that we are going to borrow $20 billion in the name of working Americans to invest and stimulate the Iraqi economy, to build their infrastructure, roads, bridges, highways, state of the art telecommunications, sewer and electric. Well, it is not going to boost our economy here at home, and that is the security that my constituents and most Members' constituents are worried about (1 min speech, 17 Oct 2003)

60 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 In sum… which picture emerges? Cross-examination: Lab (Gov/Bb) & Dem (F) a tendency to emphasize on the consequences (ethic of responsibility??) a tendency to resort to an emotionally-loaded language (ethic of caring??) hand-in-hand with a high degree of assertiveness; subjectification (e.g. I believe - see Bevitori 2007, Miller and Johnson 2009b) values of caring and protection do emerge in both male and female gendered discourse, but different collocational profiles point to different values (e.g. Lab: suffering; Dem we must + invest etc..).

61 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 a final note on method: lacunae strength and weakness of corpora methods and their use in discourse analysis (Baker 2006: 17-21) in this discourse domain: transcripts written, spoken, written to be spoken, hybrid? loss of prosodic features (Slembrouck 1992) possible speaker-idiosyncrasy (e.g. Clare Short) possible overgeneralization of data

62 BAAL Corpus Linguistics Event Lancaster University, 30 March 2010 Baker P. (2006), Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis, London: Continuum. Baxter J. (ed.) 2006,Speaking Out. The Female voice in public contexts, London: McMillan Bayley P. (ed.) 2004, Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parliamentary Discourse, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Bayley P. (ed.) 2004, Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parliamentary Discourse, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Bayley P., C. Bevitori 2009, 'Just War' or just 'war: Arguments for Doing the 'Right Thing', in: J. Morley and P. Bayley (eds.), pp Bevitori C. 2007, Engendering conflict? A corpus-assisted analysis of women MPs positioning on the war in Iraq, in M. Dossena and A. Jucker (eds.), (R)evolutions in Evaluation, Textus 20(1), pp. 137– 58. Butler J. 1990, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity, New York: Routledge. Eckert P. and S. McConnell-Ginet 1992, Communities of Practice: where language, gender, and power all live, in K. Hall, M. Bucholtz and B. Moonwomon (eds.), Berkely pp Martin, J.R and P.R.R., White 2005, The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English, London: Palgrave. Miller D.R., J.H. Johnson 2009, Strict vs. Nurturing Parents? A Corpus-Assisted Study of Congressional Positioning on the war in Iraq, in J. Morley and P. Bayley (eds.), pp Miller D.R. and J.H Johnson 2009b, Salient choice as probabilistic evaluative meaning: a corpus- assisted study of Congressional debate, paper given at 21st ESFL Conference & Workshop, July, 2009 Cardiff. Morley J. and P. Bayley (eds.) 2009, Corpus-Assisted Discourse Studies on the Iraq conflict. Wording the War, New York/London: Routledge: New York/London Show S. 2000, Language, gender and floor apportionment in political debates, Discourse and Society 11 (3), Sunderland J. and L. Litoselliti (eds.) 2003, Gender identity and discourse analysis: Theoretical and empirical issue in L. Litoselliti and J. Sunderland pp Thompson, G. and S. Hunston (eds.) 2006, System and Corpus: Exploring Connections, London: Equinox. Walsh C. 2001, Gender and Discourse: Language and Power in Politics, the Church and Organisations, Longman: Harlow. Wodak R. 2003, Multiple identities: The Roles of Female Parliamentarians, in J. Holmes and M. Meyerhoff (eds.), pp Thanks! Select Reference


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