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Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiological Signatures with Penetrators on Europa Astrobiological.

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Presentation on theme: "Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June 25 2009 MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiological Signatures with Penetrators on Europa Astrobiological."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiological Signatures with Penetrators on Europa Astrobiological Signatures with Penetrators on Europa Rob Gowen (MSSL/UCL, UK) on behalf of Penetrator Consortium Alan Smith 1, Richard Ambrosi 6, Olga Prieto Ballesteros 16, Simeon Barber 2, Dave Barnes 11, Chris Braithwaite 9, John Bridges 6, Patrick Brown 5, Phillip Church 10, Glyn Collinson 1, Andrew Coates 1, Gareth Collins 5, Ian Crawford 3, Veronique Dehant 21, Michele Dougherty 5, Julian Chela-Flores 17, Dominic Fortes 7, George Fraser 6, Yang Gao 4, Manuel Grande 11, Andrew Griffiths 1, Peter Grindrod 7, Leonid Gurvits 19, Axel Hagermann 2, Tim van Hoolst 21, Hauke Hussmann 13, Ralf Jaumann 13, Adrian Jones 7, Geraint Jones 1, Katherine Joy 3, Ozgur Karatekin 21, Günter Kargl 20, Antonella Macagnano 14, Katarina Miljkovic 7,Anisha Mukherjee 5, Peter Muller 1, Ernesto Palomba 12,Tom Pike 5, Bill Proud 9, Derek Pullan 6, Francois Raulin 15, Lutz Richter 18, Keith Ryden 2, Simon Sheridan 2, Mark Sims 6, Frank Sohl 13, Joshua Snape 7, Paul Stevens 10, Jon Sykes 6, Vincent Tong 3, Tim Stevenson 6, Werner Karl 5, Lionel Wilson 8, Ian Wright 2, John Zarnecki 2. 1: Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, 2: Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, Open University, UK. 3:Birkbeck College, University of London, UK. 4: Surrey Space Centre, Guildford, UK. 5: Imperial College, London, UK, 6: University of Leicester, UK. 7: University College London, UK. 8: Lancaster University, UK. 9: Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, UK. 11: University of Aberystwyth, UK. 12: Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario-INAF, Roma, Italy. 13: DLR, Berlin, Germany. 14: Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystem-CNR, Roma, Italy. 15: Université Paris, France. 16: Centro de Astrobiologia-INTA-CSIC, España. 17: Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. 18: DLR, Bremen, Germany. 19: Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE), Dwingeloo, The Netherlands. 20: IWF, Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria. 21: Royal Observatory, Belgium

2 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Contents Mission to Europa Mission to Europa Europa Europa Penetrators Penetrators Instruments Instruments Astrobiology Astrobiology Conclusions Conclusions

3 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Mission to Europa Mission to Europa Europa Europa Penetrators Penetrators Instruments Instruments Astrobiology Astrobiology Conclusions Conclusions Contents

4 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK

5 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Mission to Europa EJSM – joint ESA/NASA mission to Jovian system. JEO – Jupiter/Europa Orbiter (NASA element) launch nominally 2020 arrive Europa 2028 observe 9 months (heavy radiation) may include penetrators…

6 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK

7 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Descent Module release from Orbiter Reorient Spin-up & Decelerate Penetrator Separation Penetrator & PDS surface Impact Spin-Down Penetrator delivery Delivery sequence courtesy SSTL Operate from below surface

8 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Europa Astrobiology potential ? atmosphere – trace Oxygen ( Earth) surface material - water ice strong tidal forces subsurface ocean ? rocky ocean floor bottom habitable ? habitable ? life ? life ? Basic parameters mass : 0.7 Moon surface gravity : 0.8 Moon radius : 0.9 Moon orbital period : 3.5 day surface temp : K surface radiation: Mrads

9 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Japanese Lunar-A Continuous launch delays Several paper studies surface features

10 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK 10Km high resolution

11 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Accessing Astrobiological Material upwelled material available in striations from ocean beneath (may contain astrobiological material) evidence of sulphates in striations. young surface: 5-60 Ma (minimise radiation and meteroid damage) but surface mostly very rough Image from Proctor (JHU), Patterson (APL) & Senske (JPL) (2009, Europa Lander Workshop, Moscow)

12 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK From Proctor (JHU), Patterson (APL) & Senske (JPL) (2009, Europa Lander Workshop, Moscow)

13 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Impact Site Characteristics Feature TypeYoung ? Upwelled material ? Flat / smooth ? Ridges & troughs yes many ?no Bandsnoyesno Chaos & Lenticulaeyes some areas Impact featuresyes no Based on Proctor (JHU), Patterson (APL) & Senske (JPL) (2009, Europa Lander Workshop, Moscow)

14 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Vertical exagguration x20. Vertical height ~ 1km. Landing ellipse ~5km into smooth area, equatorial From Proctor (JHU), Patterson (APL) & Senske (JPL) (2009, Europa Lander Workshop, Moscow)

15 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Penetrators

16 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Micropenetrator & Instruments Low mass [~5-15Kg] Very tough [~ m/s, impact ~10-50kgee] Perform science from below surface [~0.5-few m] Example Payload (~2kg) Science Capability Micro seismometers (radio beacon, magnetometer) sub-surface ocean, inner body structure tectonics, cryovulcanism Chemistry package (mass spect.)organics and inorganics Soil/environment package (accel, magnetometer,therm,...) soil mechanical properties, thermal & electrical properties Sample imager/astrobiology camera Mineralogy, UV DNA flouresence Descent cameraimpact site context & PR ~20-60cms

17 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Post Impact Target area of upwelled material (astrobiology) Target area of upwelled material (astrobiology) ~0.5 to few metres below surface (reduced radiation) ~0.5 to few metres below surface (reduced radiation) 2 penetrators - derisk/improve performance 2 penetrators - derisk/improve performance Lifetime: few hours (geochemistry/astrobiology, soil properties) to few orbits (seismic measurements) Lifetime: few hours (geochemistry/astrobiology, soil properties) to few orbits (seismic measurements)

18 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Instruments and TRL Previous Mars96, DS2, Lunar-A developments Previous Mars96, DS2, Lunar-A developments UK currently developing technology for lunar mission UK currently developing technology for lunar mission Most instruments have existing space heritage. Most instruments have existing space heritage. + successful full scale impact trial in UK. + successful full scale impact trial in UK. Micro-seismometer Imperial College (ExoMars) Prototype, ruggedized ion trap mass-spectrometer Open University (Rosetta)

19 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Impact trial – internal architecture Radiation sensor Magnetometers Batteries Mass spectrometer Micro-seismometers Drill assembly Accelerometers Power Interconnection Processing Accelerometers, Thermometer Batteries,Data logger

20 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Trial Hardware Inners Stack

21 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Impact Trial - Configuration Rocket sled Rocket sled Penetrator Penetrator

22 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Target Dry sand Dry sand 2m x2m x6m 2m x2m x6m Small front entrance aperture (polythene) Small front entrance aperture (polythene)

23 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Real-Time Impact Video

24 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Firing

25 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiology

26 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Any life on Europa?? Comets deliver organics Radiation from Jupiters magnetosphere forms oxidants at surface that could be used as food source 10cm radiation danger Clinging life forms could use food brought by current Photosynthetic plants could take advantage of sunlight Floating forms could move up and down with the tides Strong daily tidal currents Warm ocean Habitable zone Image: University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory Adapted from Biogeochemistry of the Europa icy surface, by Katarina Miljkovic, OU Feb07

27 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Another model… Adapted from K.Hand et. al. Moscow09, who adapted it from Figueredo et al habital zone on ocean floor adjacent to nutrients 2. communication of life forms to surface 3. astrobiological spectral signatures

28 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiology Signatures ? Presence of habitat Body image and motion Organic chemical inventory and proportions Isotopic ratios (sulphur) (weak spectral component ) Spectral signatures (complex)

29 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Astrobiology Investigations Microseismometers/Radio beacon/Magnetometer - Determine existence and characterise potentially habitable subsurface ocean. Chemical sensing – via sample acquisition or e.g. stand-off laser ablation (mass spectrometer, quartz micro-balance and electronic noses, etc…) – –mass spec can determine presence of organic molecules and their relative abundances. – –mass spec can determine 32 S/ 34 S isotopic ratio which is expected to have quite different value whether origin is biological or geological. (very difficult to detectable spectrally) Spectral sensing – remote (but close) chemical determination. (dont yet have candidate instrument for spectral signal !) Raman. Astrobiology imager – view either remote or acquired sample. Image life forms but more likely look for uv fluorescence (RNA/DNA)

30 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Questions ? What does discovery of a rejected grant application form mean ? What does discovery of a rejected grant application form mean ? How many different measurements to prove life ? How many different measurements to prove life ? What are best measurements to make to prove life ? What are best measurements to make to prove life ? 2 penetrators better than 1 ? 2 penetrators better than 1 ?

31 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK Conclusions Earth is only body currently known to contain life... Detection of biosignatures on Europa or exoplanet could inform other field. Detection of life on Europa or exoplanet could inform other field. Heavy surface radiation is not necessarily an impediment to life. Penetrators may also detect biosignatures on other planetary bodies (e.g. Moon, Mars). Are there any other commonalities/useful connections with in-situ search for astrobiological signals ? Good luck with hunting astrobiology signals from exoplanets !

32 Biosignatures on Exoplanets Workshop – Mulhouse, France. June MSSL/UCL UK - End -


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