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Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Confrontation Between Two Perspectives ?! On Learning from Games.

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Presentation on theme: "Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Confrontation Between Two Perspectives ?! On Learning from Games."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Confrontation Between Two Perspectives ?! On Learning from Games

3 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Todays Articles Clark, R. E. (2007). Point of View: Learning from serious games? Arguments, Evidence, and Research Suggestions. Educational Technology, May-June 2007. Mayo, M. J. (2007). Games for science and engineering education. Communication of ACM, 50(7), 31-35.

4 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Merrilea J. Mayo The Crisis of Engineering and Science Education The Potential Role of Video Games Massive reach Effective learning paradigms Enhanced brain chemistry Time on task Learning outcomes data Video Games as a Bronze Bullet

5 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games 73 1 Rank 91 The rate of choosing science and engineering major as their bachelor's degree (NSF, 2002) 73 Merrilea J. Mayo The Crisis

6 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games 90 By 2010, 90% of the worlds Ph.D. scientists and engineers will be Asians living in Asia. – Rick Smalley, Nobel Laureate (Chemistry) The Crisis Merrilea J. Mayo

7 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games In the world in math: 4th Graders: 12th 8th Graders: 14th 12th Graders: 24th The 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and Program for International Students Assessment tests In the world in Science: 12 th Graders: 22 nd Only a portion of US k-12 students are well-prepared for a college career in math, science, or engineering. The Crisis Merrilea J. Mayo

8 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games The Crisis 50% of self-declared engineering majors in a national sample of four-year institutions drop out. The first year instructional experience, tending to discourage individuals from pursuing science and engineering. Almost all of them (98%) cite poor teaching (the lecture format) by faculty as a major concern. Force Concept Inventory (FCI): What is surprising about the result is not that mass lectures are an intrinsically poor learning vehicle but that the quality of the lecturer matters not at all. WHY? Merrilea J. Mayo

9 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games The Potential 1. Massive Reach Over 250,000 subscribers 5,000,000 subscribers Downloaded 800,000 times 38% of computer and console game players 21% of graduating bachelors degree holder engineers 400,000 bachelors of science and engineering students Merrilea J. Mayo

10 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games 2. Effective Learning Paradigms The Potential Merrilea J. Mayo Experimental learning (If you do it, you learn it) Inquiry-based learning (What happens when I do this?) Self-efficacy (If you believe you can do it, youll try longer/harder, and youll succeed more often than you would otherwise) Goal setting (You learn more if you are working toward a well-defined goal) Cooperation (Team leaning) Continuous feedback, tailored instruction, cognitive modeling

11 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games 3. Enhanced brain chemistry - The Potential Merrilea J. Mayo A 1998 Study found that playing video games stimulates subtantial dopamine release Dopamine is a chemical precursor to the memory storage event

12 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games 4. Time on task - The Potential Compelling video games that could also deliver educational content would double the time spent learning at home. A numerical methods course taught using a race-car game as the homework resulted in students spending roughly twice the time working on the course outside of class compared to other mechanical engineering courses. Merrilea J. Mayo

13 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games 5. Learning Outcome Data (1) - The Potential Merrilea J. Mayo Squire, K, et al. (2004) The 32 students in the control group improved their understanding by 15% over their pretest scores; the 58 students who played the game improved their understanding by 28%. Among girls, the control group improved on their pretest scores by only 5% and the game group by 23%. - Learning electrostatics

14 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games 5. Learning Outcome Data (2) - The Potential Merrilea J. Mayo - Learning geology and cell biology McClean, P. et al. (2001) Lectures produced the lowest learning outcomes Web-presented information: not statistically significant (geology) 13%–30% (cell biology). Games: 15%–40% (Geography Explorer - geology) 30%–63% (Virtual Cell – cell biology)

15 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games - Conclusion Merrilea J. Mayo Video games have the potential to directly provide massive parallel education in science and engineering. Scale.Anytime. Compelling.Brain chemistry.Better than a lecture. While they will never be a silver bullet for science and engineering education, video games have the potential to be, perhaps, a bronze bullet.

16 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark A brief view A few problems Some suggestions Possible application of games

17 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Brief View Games are enormously popular among adolescents and young adults. Advocates for games suggest that they are highly motivating vehicles that could support learning, problem solving, and collaborative skills. HOWEVER…

18 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Brief View Use of games for education is apparently not widespread at this point. Educational decision-makers may, out of bias and/or a lack of understanding, discount or discourage an investment in serious games and so ignore an innovative way to motivate, teach, and train. The development cost of serious video games is considerable BECAUSE… QUESTIONS…

19 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Brief View Do people who play serious games learn enough from them to justify the investment when games are tested against viable and less expensive alternative ways to teach the same knowledge and skills? Do games motivate players to learn more than other, less expensive alternatives? Are some skills or knowledge most effectively and/or efficiently taught via serious games?

20 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Few Problems Common conclusion of empirical researches on learning and motivation from serious games People who play serious games often learn how to play the game and some factual knowledge related to the game. BUT There is NO evidence in the existing studies that games teach anyone anything that could not be learned some other, less expensive, and more effective way.

21 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Few Problems Chen and ONeil (2005) and ONeil, Wainess, and Baker (2005) Reviews of serious games

22 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Few Problems They provide a detailed analysis of the learning and transfer measures used in all 19 studies and concluded that …positive findings regarding the educational benefits of games…can be attributed to instructional design and not to games per se. Also…many studies claiming positive outcomes appear to be making unsupported claims for the media (ONeil et al., pp. 461–462).

23 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Few Problems All of the methods used in games could (and have) been used effectively in non-game instructional programs and are not unique to games. None of the peer reviewed studies reported compelling evidence that games produced significantly more learning or motivation than other instructional platforms (Gredler, 1996)..

24 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Few Problems …the research shows no instructional advantages of games over the other instructional approaches (such as lectures)…. The research does not allow us to conclude that games are more effective than other well designed instructional activities Only poorly designed studies find learning benefits from games. Hayes (2005)

25 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - A Few Problems Existing Serious Games Researches tend to IGNORE most of the issues Prior Knowledge Differences Are Important Comparing Games with Nothing Is Useless Serious Games Are Often Confused with Simulations Opinions About Learning and Motivation Are not Reliable Pedagogy Decisions Are Critical

26 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Richard E. Clark - Suggestions Suggestions for the Design of Serious Game Studies Measurement Game Pedagogy Comparison Treatments Cost-Benefit Ratios

27 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games The evidence is solidly against the proposition that games will replace direct instruction. If we can accept that evidence, we might be able to consider other potentially valuable applications. - Conclusion Richard E. Clark Games designed to support transfer are IDEAL vehicles to motivate people to practice and accept corrective feedback.

28 Confrontation Between Two Perspectives on Learning from Games Discussion Where are you? Do you agree with Mayo or Clark? Why? What is the unique features that only video games have for education? Is there any other considerable ways to solve the current crisis of science and engineering education? If we accept the point of view of Clark, why do people (or should we) research video games instead of seeking other alternative methods that are cheaper or more effective? Any other questions?


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