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28 Serging Skills Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize how the serger functions.

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Presentation on theme: "28 Serging Skills Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize how the serger functions."— Presentation transcript:

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2 28 Serging Skills

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize how the serger functions.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. How the Serger Functions Sergers provide a factory-like finish to home-sewn garmentsSergers Also called overlock or overedge machines In one step, sergers –join two layers of fabric to form a seam –trim extra seam allowance –and overcast fabric edges continued

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. How the Serger Functions Sergers cannot be used for all sewing tasks Most sergers only stitch on fabric edges and not inside areas continued © BERNINA of America, Inc.

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. How the Serger Functions Newer machines have stitches similar to regular sewing machine stitches but cannot embroider, make buttonholes, or insert zippers Most home sewers use the serger to supplement—not replace—a conventional sewing machine continued

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. How the Serger Functions Advantages of using a serger –Works well on fabrics from lightweight chiffon to heavyweight denim, as well as knit and woven fabrics –Make doing hems and ruffles quick and easy –Give a professional seam finish to garments such as unlined jackets, curtains, place mats, and other items continued

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. How the Serger Functions A serger uses two, three, four, or five cones of thread depending on the modelcones It uses one, two, or even three needles Instead of bobbins, it has upper and lower loopers that form the stitchloopers continued © Dmitry Kalinovsky/Shutterstock

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. How the Serger Functions A serger loops thread around the needle thread, encasing the fabric edge (a sewing machine creates stitches by interlocking bobbin and needle threads) Looper threads do not penetrate the fabric The needles and loopers form stitches over the fabric edge as it passes through During stitching, knife blades trim the seam allowances continued

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. How the Serger Functions A serger performs many functions at the same time to create the stitches –As you feed fabric into the machine, it reaches the feed dogs first –As fabric moves along, the knives trim the edge –Then loopers and needles form the stitches on the fabric –Fabric then feeds off the stitch finger behind the needle continued

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. How the Serger Functions A serger runs much faster than a conventional sewing machine Using a serger can reduce the sewing time of a project by as much as half

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Why does using a serger reduce the time needed to sew a garment? Think About It © Levent Konuk/Shutterstock

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Identify serger machine parts and basic serger stitches.

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serger Machine Parts Although there are a variety of types and models of sergers, they have many similarities The instruction manual for a serger identifies the parts of the machine and the function of each

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Basic Serger Stitches Serger stitches vary with machine make and model Aside from common stitches, sergers can produce decorative stitches for an interesting look and extra emphasis

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Overedge Stitch Overedge stitch is used solely as an edge finish on garmentsOveredge stitch Uses one needle and one looper Can prevent raveling in sheer and lightweight fabrics Least bulky stitch © BERNINA of America, Inc.

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Flatlock Stitch Flatlock stitch uses one needle and one looper to join a seam; a three- thread stitch uses two loopersFlatlock stitch Used in sportswear or lingerie elastic application Seam is visible from right side of garment © BERNINA of America, Inc.

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rolled Edge Stitch Rolled edge stitch creates a rolled hem; seaming for sheers, laces, or silkRolled edge stitch Use to stitch narrow rolled hems to finish scarves, ruffles, etc. Use three-thread machines for light- to medium-weight © BERNINA of America, Inc.

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Overlock Stitch Overlock stitch is a three-, four-, or five-thread stitchOverlock stitch Core serger stitch Stitches, trims, and overedges a seam in one operation Suitable for a wide variety of weights and types of fabric © BERNINA of America, Inc.

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cover Stitch Cover stitch is a stretchable stitch mainly used for hemming knitsCover stitch One looper thread interlocks all the needle threads Does not use cutting blade © BERNINA of America, Inc.

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chain Stitch Chain stitch does not overlock fabric edgeChain stitch Functions as a standard straight stitch when cutting knives are disengaged Top side looks like a straight stitch; underside resembles a chain © BERNINA of America, Inc.

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize how to select thread and accessories for the serger.

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting Thread and Accessories Special serger threads are available on cones or tubes Advantages of serger threads include –fineness for delicate finishing and less bulk –strength –cross-winding for smooth top feeding during high-speed sewing –larger quantities –economy continued

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The cone adapter is used when the thread is on a conecone adapter Selecting Thread and Accessories continued © BERNINA of America, Inc.

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting Thread and Accessories Place a spool cap (or unreeling disk) over the spool to provide even feeding of threadspool cap continued © BERNINA of America, Inc.

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting Thread and Accessories Some slippery or specialty threads require the use of a thread net that helps prevent thread tangling thread net © BERNINA of America, Inc.

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Demonstrate how to thread and operate the serger, adjusting thread tensions and stitches as needed.

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Threading the Serger Follow the directions in the owner’s manual provided with your serger Many machines are marked with a color-coded threading guide Thread the loopers and needles in the correct order; otherwise, the threads may break or stitches may not form properly continued

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Threading the Serger Always thread the loopers before the needles—the upper looper first Each time you change thread, you can tie threads from the new spools to the old threads to save time

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Operating the Serger continued © Alex Hinds/Shutterstock 1.Set all tension dials to 5 (or as directed by the instruction manual) 2.Make sure the upper knife is lowered and in the cutting position 3.Lower the presser foot

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Operating the Serger 4.Holding the thread chain or tails lightly behind the presser foot, serge a 2- to 3-inch thread chain; this is called chaining off chaining off 5.Place the fabric in front of the presser foot where the longer feed dogs will pull the fabric forward; do not push or pull the fabric continued

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 6.At the end of the seam, continue sewing to form a 3-inch thread chain; do not raise the presser foot Operating the Serger continued © BERNINA of America, Inc.

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Operating the Serger 7.Holding the fabric in one hand, pull the thread chain over the thread cutter on the presser foot shank

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Adjusting Thread Tension Thread tensions may need to be adjusted for changes in fabrics, threads, stitch type A serger has a tension regulator for each thread To make tension adjustments, turn the dial by only half or one number; test sew and check the results

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Adjusting Stitch Length and Width When fabrics, threads, or stitches are changed, the stitch length and width may need to be adjusted Use shorter, narrower stitches for lightweight fabrics Use longer, wider stitches for heavyweight fabrics continued

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Adjusting Stitch Length and Width Length of the stitch is distance in millimeters (mm) between needle penetrations Width of the stitch is distance in millimeters between the needle thread and the trimmed edge of the fabric continued Stitch length Stitch width

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Adjusting Stitch Length and Width To change the length of the stitch, use the stitch length adjustment dial To change the width of the stitch, some sergers have an adjustable dial; other sergers may require a change in the needle plate

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Demonstrate proper use of a serger to construct a garment.

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. A serger can be used three ways Using a Serger in Clothing Construction © BERNINA of America, Inc.

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. One-Step Method Seams are stitched, trimmed, and overcast all at one time by the serger Needle stitches on the seam line Knives automatically trim the correct amount

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Edge Finish Method Garment’s raw seam edges are finished with the serger Garment is then stitched together with a sewing machine continued

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Edge Finish Method Recommended when fit is uncertain and for tailored garments sewn from wools, linens, and silk Using the continuous overcasting technique can save timecontinuous overcasting technique

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Narrow Double-Stitched Seam Method Creates a narrow double-stitched seamnarrow double-stitched seam Ideal for light- to medium-weight woven fabrics or knit fabrics Use to reinforce areas of stress in a garment continued

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Narrow Double-Stitched Seam Method 1.Standard 5/8-inch seam is stitched using a sewing machine (two lines of stitching are shown to the right) 2.Seam allowances are serged together (with needle 1/8 inch from the first line of stitching) © Frank Zosky, Photographer

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mock Flat-Felled Seam Mock flat-felled seam uses both the conventional sewing machine and the sergerMock flat-felled seam Useful with denim and other heavyweight woven fabrics continued

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mock Flat-Felled Seam 1.Stitch a standard seam with right sides together using the sewing machine 2.Using a serger, overlock the seam allowances together, trimming slightly 3.Press seam allowances toward one side continued

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mock Flat-Felled Seam 4.Using a sewing machine, topstitch from the right side next to the seam line 5.Topstitch again 1/4 inch away from the first topstitching line through all layers

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think About It Which two methods of using a serger in clothing construction require the use of a sewing machine as well? © OfiPlus/Shutterstock © Levent Konuk/Shutterstock

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting a Pattern Many commercial patterns are designed specifically for serger sewing, but the serger can be used to sew a garment from any pattern to some degree Since sergers trim seam allowances as they sew, they are often used to sew loose, unfitted, knitted garments that do not require precise fitting

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Transferring Pattern Markings Mark garment pattern pieces with a water-soluble or air-erasable marking pen or tailor’s chalk Don’t use notches because stitching with a serger removes them

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fit Before You Sew Be sure to fit before you sew Once a seam is stitched, the seam allowance is trimmed away

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Construction Order Best way to assemble a serged garment is to use the flat method of constructionflat method of construction With this method, you sew flat pieces rather than pieces in the round For example, you finish necklines, armholes, sleeves, and hems before serging underarm and side seams

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. List the steps you would take in constructing a T-shirt using this method. Think About It © Thomas M Perkins/Shutterstock

54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Demonstrate how to serge various types of seams.

55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serging Seams Sewing seams with a serger is fast and easy The type of seam you choose depends on the garment design, type of fabric, and durability desired You need to know how to serge curves and corners and how to begin and end a seam

56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Overlock Seam Basic overlock seam is made using three or four threads Suitable for woven fabrics; ideal for knits because seams stretch Seam allowance is cut off as you sew so be sure of the fit before stitching To make this seam, place right sides of the fabric together and serge on the 5/8-inch seam line

57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serged and Topstitched Seam Also called an exposed seam; stitches show on garment’s right side (See right) A four- thread overlock stitch gave the decorative edge; a sewing machine stitched pocket to the garment © BERNINA of America, Inc.

58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lapped Seam This seam gives a decorative effect on the outside of the garment; ideal for reversible garments or thick, loosely woven fabrics 1.Serge to the seam line on one side of the seam; on the other side, skim the edge of the seam with serging, leaving the seam allowance continued

59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lapped Seam 2.Lap trimmed seam edge over the other, aligning the 5/8-inch seam lines; use fusible web or fabric glue to hold layers in place 3.Using a conventional sewing machine, topstitch the seam together

60 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. This seam offers a decorative effect and is used on knit sportswear Use for many fabric weights, but not with fabrics that ravel To make this seam, adjust your serger for flatlocking according to the serger manual Flatlocked Seam © BERNINA of America, Inc.

61 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serging Curves and Corners To accurately serge inside or outside curves, watch the knife rather than the needle When serging in a circle, serge around the circle and overlap the stitching for one inch, then serge off the fabric’s edge

62 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serging Corners For outside corners 1.Stitch along one side of the fabric and off the edge, leaving a chain 2.Stitch the next side, crossing and securing the first line of stitching continued

63 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serging Corners For inside corners 1.Mark the stitching line and cutting line 2.Clip corner to within 1/8 inch of stitching line 3.With the serger, stitch to the corner, stopping when the blade reaches corner cut marking 4.Pull the fabric toward you so the edge is straight, but a pleat forms to the left; continue stitching

64 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Securing Seam Ends Serger stitches unravel if not secured If seams are crossed by other stitching, ends are secured, otherwise you need to secure the ends Ways to secure seam ends –Knot the thread chain –Bury the chain –Secure the threads while stitching –Use liquid seam sealant continued

65 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Securing Seam Ends To “bury the chain” 1.after stitching, pull chain to smooth it out 2.thread it through a large- eyed needle or loop turner and run it under 1 to 2 inches of overlocked stitches 3.trim excess thread

66 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Stabilizing Seams Garment seams stitched with a serger may require stabilizingstabilizing Shoulder and neckline seams, front areas, and crotch seams are often stabilized One method is to use a row of straight stitching along the seam line Another method is to serge over twill tape, seam tape, or ribbon

67 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serger stitches can be easily ripped out Use a seam ripper or sharp scissors Removing Seams © BERNINA of America, Inc.

68 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Methods for Removing Seams Two-thread overlock—slide a seam ripper or scissors under stitches; pull out cut threads Three-thread overlock—cut loops every three or four stitches; pull the needle thread and the stitches will come undone Two-thread double chain stitch—cut needle thread at end of seam; pull looper thread and the stitches will come undone

69 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Perform routine care of the serger.

70 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serger Care The serger will operate effectively with proper maintenance Regularly clean the machine and oil with sewing machine oil as specified by the manufacturer Use a soft brush to remove the lint from the knife area continued

71 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serger Care Replace needles if stitches are not forming properly Replace blades when fabric is not cut smoothly

72 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 1.Name the three operations sergers can perform in one step. continued join two layers of fabric to form a seam, trim away extra seam allowance width, and overcast (finish) the fabric edges 2._____ in sergers replace the _____ in regular sewing machines that form the stitches. Loopers; bobbin

73 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 3.Which serger stitch is used to create a very narrow hem? continued rolled edge stitch 4.Which serger stitch is considered the core stitch because it can stitch, trim, and overedge a seam in one operation? overlock stitch

74 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 5.Name three advantages in using special serger thread when using a serger. (Name three) fineness for delicate finishing and less bulk, strength, cross- winding for smooth top feeding during high-speed sewing, larger quantities, economy continued

75 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 6.What is chaining off and when is it done? serging a 2- to 3-inch thread chain while holding the thread chain or tails lightly behind the presser foot; done before placing fabric in front of presser foot 7.Name the three methods of using a serger in clothing construction. one-step method, edge finish method, narrow double-stitched seam method continued

76 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 8.Why is it important to check the fit before you sew when using a serger? once a seam is stitched, the allowance is trimmed away, making it impossible to alter seams continued

77 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 9.Describe the flat method of construction and give an example. sew flat pieces rather than pieces in the round; example—finish necklines, armholes, sleeves, hems before serging underarm and side seams continued

78 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 10.Name four ways to secure seam ends. knot the thread chain, bury the chain, secure the threads while stitching, use liquid seam sealant 11.Name two ways to stabilize a serged seam. use a row of straight stitching along the seam line; serge over twill tape, seam tape, or ribbon

79 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. chaining off. Serging off the edge of the fabric until a 2- to 3-inch thread chain forms. chain stitch. A serger stitch that does not overlock the edge of the fabric, but functions as a standard straight stitch when the cutting knives are disengaged. cone adapter. A device that allows a cone of thread to be used on a spool pin.

80 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. cones. Large spools of thread. continuous overcasting technique. Lining up several garment sections so the stitching is not broken as you move from the edge of one garment section to the next. cover stitch. A serger stitch used mainly for hemming, producing two or three parallel rows of topstitching on one side.

81 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. flatlock stitch. A two-thread stitch that uses one needle and one looper to join a seam. flat method of construction. Serging flat pieces together rather than pieces in the round. loopers. The parts of the serger that form the stitch.

82 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. mock flat-felled seam. A seam formed by using both the sewing machine and the serger. Topstitching completes the seam on the outside of the garment. narrow double-stitched seam. After stitching garment seams together on the sewing machine, they are serged together, placing the needle 1/8 inch from the stitching line.

83 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. overedge stitch. A two-thread stitch used solely as an edge finish on garments. overlock stitch. A three-, four-, or five-thread serger stitch that is useful for seaming purposes. rolled edge stitch. A two- or three-thread serger stitch that produces a rolled hem.

84 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. sergers. Machines that provide a factory-like finish to home-sewn garments. These machines join two layers of fabric to form a seam, trim away extra seam allowance width, and overcast the fabric edges all in one step. Also called overlock or overedge machines.

85 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. spool cap. A device placed over the thread spool to provide even feeding of thread to the serger. stabilizing. Adding extra strength to seams and areas that receive stress during wearing. thread net. A device that helps prevent thread tangling.


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