Presentation on theme: "IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT ByFUNMILAYO AKINBODEWALDEN UNIVERSITYPUBH Environmental HealthINSTRUCTOR: DR STEPHEN ARNOLD
2 INTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this presentation is to elaborate and increase readers awareness on the potential solid waste (hazardous, non hazardous and mixed waste) disposal poses to human health and the environment.Characteristics of waste and types of solid wasteCausal of increase in solid wasteWaste treatment and disposalHealth and environment impacts of solid wastes based on reports from studiesPreventive measuresSolid waste management has become an important health issue that need to be addressed due to several reasons raging from its impact on health and the environment. Increase public awareness on solid waste will result in reduction of waste volume and enhance proper management of solid waste.
3 Learning outcomesIncrease knowledge in characteristics, treatment and disposal of solid wasteIdentify points of contact and sources of exposure to solid wasteUnderstand the impact of solid waste on health and environmentKnowledge on preventive measures in reducing volume of wastes and waste management.
4 What is solid wasteSolid waste is defined as any garbage, refuse, sludge from waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other materials, including solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gaseous resulting from industrials, commercials, mining and agricultural operations from community activities ( Moeller, 2005).
5 There are more than 200,000 sites in United State that is now being used or were formerly used sites for disposal of municipal wastes (Moeller,2005).
6 Characteristics of wastes Corrosive: these are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding mental containers, e.g. tanksIgnitability: this is waste that can create fires under certain condition, e.g. waste oils and solventsReactive: these are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic fumes when heated.Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb.Until the mid-twenty century, most solid waste is garbage, yard waste, news papers, bottle, street sweeping and discarded building materials(Moeller,2005).
7 Types of wasteNon Hazardous waste: refuse, garbage, sludge, municipal trash.Hazardous waste: solvents acid, heavy metals, pesticides, and chemical sludgesRadioactive: high and low-level radioactive wasteMixed waste: Radioactive organic liquids, radio active heavy metals. ” ( Moeller, 2005).
8 Waste treatment and disposal Waste disposalIncinerationSolidificationHeat treatment:Chemical treatmentMoeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University PressLandfillsUnderground injection wellsWaste pilesland treatmentIn less developed countries flowing rivers
9 Waste treatments Incineration: Solidification: solid waste are melted or evaporated to produce a sand like residue.Heat treatment: Heat applied at moderate temperature, is used in treating volatile solvents.Chemical treatment: is the application of chemical treatment in the treatment of corrosive solid.It is important to develop a great system to effectively treat waste. Waste treatment is the process of changing; chemical, biological or physical characteristic of hazardous waste into nonhazardous, less hazardous or make it safer to transfer, or store or dispose.
10 Waste DisposalLandfills: waste is placed into or onto the land in disposal facilities.Underground injection wells: waste are injected under pressure into a steel and concrete-encased shafts placed deep in the earth.Waste piles: is accumulations of insoluble solid, non flowing hazard waste. Piles serves as temporary or final disposal.Waste disposal: are the routes taken to dump, or the deposition of solid or liquid waste onto water or land.
11 Waste Disposalland treatment: is a process in which solid waste, such as sludge from wastes is applied onto or incorporated into the soil surface.Waste are disposed in flowing rivers in less developed countries.Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press
12 Landfill site and Incineration site In 2006, U.S. residents, businesses, and institutions produced more than 251 million tons of municipal solid waste, which is approximately 4.6 pounds of waste per person per day (EPA,2009). American industrial facilities generate and dispose of approximately 7.6 billion tons of industrial solid waste each year.
13 Causal of increase in solid waste Population growthIncrease in industrials manufacturingUrbanizationModernizationModernization, technological advancement and increase in global population created rising in demand for food and other essentials. This has resulted to rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. 158 million tons of municipal solid waste is produced annually in U.SCharacteristic of solid waste changed and its volume also increased due to advancement in technology.
14 Groups at risks due to solid waste The groups at risk from the unscientific waste disposal include:Populations in areas where there is no proper waste treatment method.childrenWaste workersPopulations living close to waste dumpAnimals
15 SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURES Exposures occurs throughIngestion of contaminated water or foodContact with disease vectorsInhalationDermal
16 Points of contact Soil adsorption, storage and biodegrading Plant uptakeVentilationRunoffLeachingInsects, birds, rats, flies and animalsDirect dumping of untreated waste in seas, rivers and lakes results in the plants and animals that feed on it
17 Impacts of solid waste on health Chemical poisoning through chemical inhalation Uncollected waste can obstruct the storm water runoff resulting in flood Low birth weight Cancer Congenital malformations Neurological diseaseNumerous epidemiology studies have been conducted to evaluate whether the health of people living near hazardous waste disposal sites is being adversely affected(Moeller,
18 Impacts of solid waste on health Nausea and vomitingIncrease in hospitalization of diabetic residents living near hazard waste sites.Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high levels of mercury.Goorah, S., Esmyot, M., Boojhawon, R. (2009). The Health Impact of Nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal in a Community: The case of the Mare Chicose Landfill in Mauritius. Journal of Environment Health, 72(1) 48-54Kouznetsova, M., Hauang, X., Ma, J., Lessner, L. & Carpenter, D. (2007). Increased Rate of Hospitalization for Diabetes and Residential Proximity of Hazardous waste Sites. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(1)75-75Barlaz, M., Kaplan, P., Ranjithan, S. & Rynk, R. (2003) Evaluating Environmental Impacts of solid Waste Management Alternatives. BioCycle,
19 Effects of Solid Waste on Animals and Aquatics life Increase in mercury level in fish due to disposal of mercury in the rivers.Plastic found in oceans ingested by birdsResulted in high algal population in rivers and sea.Degrades water and soil quality
20 Impacts of solid waste on Environment. Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane, a potent greenhouse gasChange in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradableLittering, due to waste pollutions, illegal dumping, Leaching: is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them.U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2009)
21 PREVENTIVE MEASURES Proper management of solid waste Involving public in plans for waste treatment and disposalProvide the public accurate, useful information about the whole projects, including the risks and maintain formal communication with publicEducate people on different ways of handling waste.
22 PREVENTIVE MEASURESWaste Minimization is a process of reducing waste produce by individuals, communities and companies, which reduces the impact of chemical wastes on the environment to the greatest extent.Household level of proper segregation of waste, recycling and reuse.Process and product substitution e.g. use paper bag instead of plastic bags.Moeller,2005
23 Recommended Reading U.S Environmental Protection Agency Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press
24 ReferencesMoeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.Centers for Disease and Control. (2009). Solid Waste. Retrieved July 16, from
25 ReferencesU.S. Environment Protection Agency (2009). Proposed Revision to Definition of solid waste- frequent Questions. Retrieved July17, 2009 fromGoorah, S., Esmyot, M., Boojhawon, R. (2009). The Health Impact of Nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal in a Community: The case of the Mare Chicose Landfill in Mauritius. Journal of Environment Health, 72(1) 48-54
26 ReferencesKouznetsova, M., Hauang, X., Ma, J., Lessner, L. & Carpenter, D. (2007). Increased Rate of Hospitalization for Diabetes and Residential Proximity of Hazardous waste Sites. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(1)75-75Barlaz, M., Kaplan, P., Ranjithan, S. & Rynk, R. (2003) Evaluating Environmental Impacts of solid Waste Management Alternatives. BioCycle,