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IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT By FUNMILAYO AKINBODE WALDEN UNIVERSITY PUBH-6165-4 Environmental Health INSTRUCTOR: DR STEPHEN ARNOLD.

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Presentation on theme: "IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT By FUNMILAYO AKINBODE WALDEN UNIVERSITY PUBH-6165-4 Environmental Health INSTRUCTOR: DR STEPHEN ARNOLD."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT By FUNMILAYO AKINBODE WALDEN UNIVERSITY PUBH Environmental Health INSTRUCTOR: DR STEPHEN ARNOLD

2 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this presentation is to elaborate and increase readers awareness on the potential solid waste (hazardous, non hazardous and mixed waste) disposal poses to human health and the environment. Characteristics of waste and types of solid waste Causal of increase in solid waste Waste treatment and disposal Health and environment impacts of solid wastes based on reports from studies Preventive measures

3 Learning outcomes Increase knowledge in characteristics, treatment and disposal of solid waste Identify points of contact and sources of exposure to solid waste Understand the impact of solid waste on health and environment Knowledge on preventive measures in reducing volume of wastes and waste management.

4 What is solid waste Solid waste is defined as any garbage, refuse, sludge from waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other materials, including solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gaseous resulting from industrials, commercials, mining and agricultural operations from community activities ( Moeller, 2005).

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6 Characteristics of wastes Corrosive: these are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding mental containers, e.g. tanks Ignitability: this is waste that can create fires under certain condition, e.g. waste oils and solvents Reactive: these are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic fumes when heated. Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb.

7 Types of waste Non Hazardous waste: refuse, garbage, sludge, municipal trash. Hazardous waste: solvents acid, heavy metals, pesticides, and chemical sludges Radioactive: high and low-level radioactive waste Mixed waste: Radioactive organic liquids, radio active heavy metals. ” ( Moeller, 2005).

8 Waste treatment and disposal Waste treatment Incineration Solidification Heat treatment: Chemical treatment Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press Waste disposal Landfills Underground injection wells Waste piles land treatment In less developed countries flowing rivers

9 Waste treatments Incineration: Solidification: solid waste are melted or evaporated to produce a sand like residue. Heat treatment: Heat applied at moderate temperature, is used in treating volatile solvents. Chemical treatment: is the application of chemical treatment in the treatment of corrosive solid.

10 Waste Disposal Landfills: waste is placed into or onto the land in disposal facilities. Underground injection wells: waste are injected under pressure into a steel and concrete-encased shafts placed deep in the earth. Waste piles: is accumulations of insoluble solid, non flowing hazard waste. Piles serves as temporary or final disposal.

11 Waste Disposal land treatment: is a process in which solid waste, such as sludge from wastes is applied onto or incorporated into the soil surface. Waste are disposed in flowing rivers in less developed countries. Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press

12 Landfill site and Incineration site

13 Causal of increase in solid waste Population growth Increase in industrials manufacturing Urbanization Modernization Modernization, technological advancement and increase in global population created rising in demand for food and other essentials. This has resulted to rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. 158 million tons of municipal solid waste is produced annually in U.S

14 Groups at risks due to solid waste The groups at risk from the unscientific waste disposal include: Populations in areas where there is no proper waste treatment method. children Waste workers Populations living close to waste dump Animals

15 SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURES Exposures occurs through Ingestion of contaminated water or food Contact with disease vectors Inhalation Dermal

16 Points of contact Soil adsorption, storage and biodegrading Plant uptake Ventilation Runoff Leaching Insects, birds, rats, flies and animals Direct dumping of untreated waste in seas, rivers and lakes results in the plants and animals that feed on it

17 Impacts of solid waste on health Chemical poisoning through chemical inhalation Uncollected waste can obstruct the storm water runoff resulting in flood Low birth weight Cancer Congenital malformations Neurological disease

18 Impacts of solid waste on health Nausea and vomiting Increase in hospitalization of diabetic residents living near hazard waste sites. Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high levels of mercury. Goorah, S., Esmyot, M., Boojhawon, R. (2009). The Health Impact of Nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal in a Community: The case of the Mare Chicose Landfill in Mauritius. Journal of Environment Health, 72(1) Kouznetsova, M., Hauang, X., Ma, J., Lessner, L. & Carpenter, D. (2007). Increased Rate of Hospitalization for Diabetes and Residential Proximity of Hazardous waste Sites. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(1)75-75 Barlaz, M., Kaplan, P., Ranjithan, S. & Rynk, R. (2003) Evaluating Environmental Impacts of solid Waste Management Alternatives. BioCycle,

19 Effects of Solid Waste on Animals and Aquatics life Increase in mercury level in fish due to disposal of mercury in the rivers. Plastic found in oceans ingested by birds Resulted in high algal population in rivers and sea. Degrades water and soil quality

20 Impacts of solid waste on Environment. Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane, a potent greenhouse gas Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable Littering, due to waste pollutions, illegal dumping, Leaching: is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them. U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2009)

21 PREVENTIVE MEASURES Proper management of solid waste Involving public in plans for waste treatment and disposal Provide the public accurate, useful information about the whole projects, including the risks and maintain formal communication with public Educate people on different ways of handling waste.

22 PREVENTIVE MEASURES Waste Minimization is a process of reducing waste produce by individuals, communities and companies, which reduces the impact of chemical wastes on the environment to the greatest extent. Household level of proper segregation of waste, recycling and reuse. Process and product substitution e.g. use paper bag instead of plastic bags. Moeller,2005

23 Recommended Reading U.S Environmental Protection Agency Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press

24 References Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press. Centers for Disease and Control. (2009). Solid Waste. Retrieved July 16, from LBOH-4.pdf

25 References U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2009). Proposed Revision to Definition of solid waste- frequent Questions. Retrieved July17, 2009 from htm htm Goorah, S., Esmyot, M., Boojhawon, R. (2009). The Health Impact of Nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal in a Community: The case of the Mare Chicose Landfill in Mauritius. Journal of Environment Health, 72(1) 48-54

26 References Kouznetsova, M., Hauang, X., Ma, J., Lessner, L. & Carpenter, D. (2007). Increased Rate of Hospitalization for Diabetes and Residential Proximity of Hazardous waste Sites. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(1)75-75 Barlaz, M., Kaplan, P., Ranjithan, S. & Rynk, R. (2003) Evaluating Environmental Impacts of solid Waste Management Alternatives. BioCycle,


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