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Module 1 Introduction to Mitigation Under the UNFCCC

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1 Module 1 Introduction to Mitigation Under the UNFCCC
The science of climate change. Definition and scope of mitigation Contributions of IPCC Working Group 3 (WG3) on mitigation in the Third Assessment Report (TAR). The UNFCCC Guidelines on mitigation assessment. The potential benefits of mitigation Interactions between mitigation and development Integrating mitigation and adaptation Module 1: Introduction to Mitigation Assessment Under the UNFCCC The objective of this session is to provide the participants with an overview of mitigation in the context of climate change, sustainable development and the UNFCCC. Session One Presenters: Dr. Rajan & Dr. Bouille A brief introduction to the science of climate change. Definition and scope of mitigation assessment. Contributions of Working Group 3 (WG3) on mitigation in the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR). A review of the UNFCCC Guidelines on mitigation assessment. Session Two Presenter: Dr. Rajan The potential benefits of mitigation Interactions between mitigation and development Integrating mitigation and adaptation

2 The Science of Climate Change
Module 1a The Science of Climate Change Note: Some notes in this section are based on material taken directly from the IPCC report: Climate Change 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden and D. Xiaosu (Eds.) Cambridge University Press, UK. pp 944 Available from Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU ENGLAND Available from IPCC Secretariat in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish and Russian.

3 Our Atmosphere is Changing
During the last century, the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and their radiative forcing have continued to rise as a result of human activities. Global average surface temperatures have increased by about 0.6 °C. Global average sea level has risen and ocean heat content has increased. “The balance of evidence suggests a discernable human influence on global climate” (IPCC, SAR, 1995) “There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities” (IPCC, TAR, 2001) CO2 Concentrations and Global Average Temperatures Will Continue to Rise Pre-industrial level: 280 ppm Current level: 360 ppm Level in 2100: ~700 ppm with large uncertainty Most of the increase in global temperature since the late 19th century has occurred in two distinct periods: 1910 to 1945 and since The rate of increase of temperature for both periods is about 0.15°C/decade. Recent warming has been greater over land compared to oceans; the increase in sea surface temperature over the period 1950 to 1993 is about half that of the mean land-surface air temperature. The high global temperature associated with the 1997 to 1998 El Niño event stands out as an extreme event, even taking into account the recent rate of warming. In the mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere over the latter half of the 20th century, it is likely that there has been a 2 to 4% increase in the frequency of heavy precipitation events. Increases in heavy precipitation events can arise from a number of causes, e.g., changes in atmospheric moisture, thunderstorm activity and large-scale storm activity. Source: IPCC, 2001

4 Some Expected Impacts Sea level projected to rise 0.09 to 0.88m by 2100 with significant regional variations. Extreme weather events are projected to increase. Impacts on biodiversity generally negative. Socioeconomic systems could show net economic benefits for small amounts of warming, but potentially large negative impacts under greater warming. Increased water availability in some water-scarce regions, but decreased water availability in many water scarce regions. Initially increased agricultural productivity in some mid-latitude regions, but decreased in the tropics and sub-tropics. Significant disruptions of ecosystems from fire, drought, pest infestation, species invasion, etc. Changes in productivity and composition of ecological systems, with coral reefs, boreal forests, arctic and montane regions being particularly vulnerable. Increased risk of floods, potentially displacing tens of millions of people. Increased incidence of heat stress mortality, and vector-borne diseases. Some impacts effectively irreversible over many generations (thermohaline circulation, Ice sheets, migration of plant species). Thermohaline disruption is uncertain, but ice sheet melt and plant species migration are highly probable. Tide gauge data show that global average sea level rose between 0.1 and 0.2 metres during the 20th century. Global ocean heat content has increased since the late 1950s, the period for which adequate observations of sub-surface ocean temperatures have been available. There has been a widespread retreat of mountain glaciers in non-polar regions during the 20th century. Flood magnitude and frequency could increase in many regions as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which can increase runoff in most areas as well as groundwater recharge in some floodplains. Most studies indicate that global mean annual temperature increases of a few °C or greater would prompt food prices to increase due to a slowing in the expansion of global food supply relative to growth in global food demand (established, but incomplete). It is established, though incompletely, that climate change, mainly through increased extremes and temporal/ spatial shifts, will worsen food security in Africa. Substantial warming and increases in precipitation are projected for polar regions over the 21st century by almost all climate models. In general, the frequency and magnitude of many extreme climate events increase even with a small temperature increase and will become greater at higher temperatures. Extreme events include, for example, floods, soil moisture deficits, tropical and other storms, anomalous temperatures, and fires. The impacts of extreme events often are large locally and could strongly affect specific sectors and regions. Increases in extreme events can cause critical design or natural thresholds to be exceeded, beyond which the magnitude of impacts increases rapidly.

5 Developing Countries are the Most Vulnerable to Climate Change
Impacts are worse - already more flood and drought prone and a large share of the economy is in climate sensitive sectors. Lower capacity to adapt because of a lack of financial, institutional and technological capacity and access to knowledge Impacts disproportionately upon the poorest countries and the poorest people, exacerbating inequities in health status and access to adequate food, clean water and other resources. The impact of climate change will not be evenly distributed among the peoples of the world. There is high confidence that developing countries tend to be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries, and there is medium confidence that climate change would exacerbate income inequalities between and within countries. There also is medium confidence that a small temperature increase would have net negative impacts on market sectors in many developing countries and net positive impacts on market sectors in many developed countries. However, there is high confidence that with medium to high increases in temperature, net positive impacts would start to decline and eventually turn negative, and negative impacts would be exacerbated. Estimates of distributional effects are uncertain because of aggregation and comparison methods, assumptions about climate variability, adaptation, levels of development, and other factors. In addition, impacts are likely to vary between and within countries. Thus, not all developing or developed countries will necessarily have benefits or damages in unison.

6 Adaptation Has the potential to reduce adverse effects of climate change and can produce ancillary benefits, but cannot prevent all damages. Numerous adaptation options have been identified that can reduce adverse and enhance beneficial impacts of climate change. Greater and more rapid climate change would pose greater challenges for adaptation. Lower levels of future GHG concentrations will make the adaptation challenge easier.

7 Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 will require significant emissions reductions
Source: IPCC

8 Energy Sector CO2 Emissions in 2000
Slide Text:IPCC Technical Paper I Source: IEA

9 Industrialized countries have emitted the most anthropogenic CO2 (Area proportional to historical CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, ) Source: WRI

10 2035 total emission estimate:
In the future, the share of global GHG emissions from NA1 parties will increase 1995 total emissions: 6.46 billion tons of carbon 2035 total emission estimate: 11.71 billion tons of carbon OSTP: Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, United States. Taken from accessed, July, 2000. Source: OSTP

11 Contributions of GHGs to Global Warming: The Last 100 Years
49% 18% 6% Contributions of GHGs to Global Warming: The 1980’s Slide information from: CC:train, avaliable at Source: CC Train, 1999

12 Attributes of Key GHGs CO2 CH4 ppb N2O CFC-11 HFC-23 CF4 ppt Pre -
industrial Concentration 280 ppm 700 270 zero 40 1998 Conc. 365 1745 314 268 14 Annual rate of change 1.5 8.4 0.8 1.4 0.55 1 Global Warming Potential (100 Yr) 23 296 4600 12000 5700 Atmospheric Lifetime (yrs) 12 114 45 260 50,000 Slide text and notes: CC:train Atmospheric Concentration of other GHGs: (CFCs and O3 ) Other greenhouse gases, or GHGs, have additional effects on the environment. Chlorofluorocarbons or aerosols, more popularly referred to as CFCs, also contribute to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Tropospheric ozone, or O3 , is another important contributor to local air pollution. Other GHGs include industrial gases (e.g.) SF6, other HFCs, and indirect gases (water vapor, Nox, etc.)

13 Contributes 20% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions
Agricultural Sector Contributes 20% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions 50% of global methane emissions from enteric fermentation and rice paddies 70% of global N20 emissions from artificial fertilizers Slide Text:IPCC Technical Paper I 5% of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning

14 Solid Waste and Waste Water Disposal
1990 Emissions: Mt CH4 Methane emissions are due to anaerobic digestion of organic material in landfills and sewage effluent. Slide Text:IPCC Technical Paper I

15 Total CO2 Emissions from Deforestation and Land-Use Changes:
Forest Sector Total CO2 Emissions from Deforestation and Land-Use Changes: GtC Slide Text:IPCC Technical Paper I and graph from CC train (available at

16 Definition and Scope of Mitigation Assessment
Module 1b Definition and Scope of Mitigation Assessment

17 Definitions Mitigation is defined as any anthropogenic interventions that can either reduce the sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (abatement) or enhance their sinks (sequestration). In the context of the UNFCCC, a mitigation assessment is a national-level analysis of the various technologies and practices that have the capacity to mitigate climate change.

18 Time-Frame Buildings years Need to examine long-run opportunities for reducing carbon sources or enhancing sinks, bearing in mind the life-times of various appliances and systems. Rate of technological change is closely related to the lifetime of capital stock. Hydro 75+ yrs Coal power 45+ yrs Nuclear 30 – 60 years Gas turbines 25+ years Motor vehicles 12 – 20 years

19 Scope Includes energy demand and supply, forestry, agriculture, rangelands and waste management. Includes analysis of the impact of options on the macro-economy. Considers policies and programs that can encourage adoption of mitigation technologies and practices

20 Module 1c The contributions of Working Group 3 (WG3) on mitigation in the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR)

21 Background on WG 3: Mitigation
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has three working groups: WG I to assess the Science of climate change WG II to assess Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability WG III to assess Mitigation of climate change Climate Change 2001: Mitigation Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Bert Metz, Ogunlade Davidson, Rob Swart and Jiahua Pan (Eds.) Cambridge University Press, UK. pp 700 Available from Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU ENGLAND Available from IPCC Secretariat in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish and Russian. Available from: WGIII was charged by the IPCC Plenary for the Panel’s Third Assessment Report (TAR) to assess the scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects of the mitigation of climate change.

22 Major Topics Covered in WGIII Report on Mitigation
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Scenarios Technological and Economic Potential of Mitigation Options Technological and Economic Potential of Sinks Barriers, Opportunities, and Market Potential Policies, Measures, and Instruments Costing Methodologies Global, Regional and National Costs and Ancillary Benefits Sectoral Costs and Ancillary Benefits of Mitigation Decision Analytic Frameworks Gaps in Knowledge

23 Chapter 2: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Scenarios and Implications
This chapter reviews three scenario literatures: general mitigation scenarios produced since the SAR, narrative-based scenarios found in the general futures literature, and mitigation scenarios based on the new “SRES” scenarios. In addition, it provides recommendations for future research, including the need for more explicit analysis of policy instruments leading to mitigation, inclusion of other GHGs than CO2, and capacity building for scenario analyses in developing countries.

24 Chapter 2: GHG Emissions Scenarios
Scenarios represent plausible future worlds with particular economic, social and environmental characteristics Mitigation scenarios are usually defined as a description and a quantified projection of how GHG emissions can be reduced with respect to some baseline scenario. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES): Four scenario families. Each family has a unifying theme in the form of a “storyline” or narrative that describes future demographic, social, economic, technological, and policy trends Emissions Scenarios Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Nebojsa Nakicenovic and Rob Swart (Eds.) Cambridge University Press, UK. pp 570 Available from Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU ENGLAND Available from IPCC Secretariat in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish and Russian.

25 Qualitative Directions for SRES Scenarios

26 Chapter 3: Technological and Economic Potential GHG Emissions Reductions
Describes technologies and practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the end-use sectors of the economy as well as through changes in energy supply. Concludes that while there is significant potential for GHG emissions reductions in every sector considered, appropriate policies is required to realize the potential.

27 Chapter 4: Options to Enhance, Maintain, and Manage Carbon Sinks
Assesses biological and geo-engineering mitigation measures to capture carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, focusing on the physical mitigation potential, ecological and environmental constraints, economics, and social considerations. Concludes that by 2010 mitigation in LULUCF activities can lead to significant mitigation of CO2 emissions while complementing other land management objectives. Geo-engineering is not ready for near-term application.

28 Chapter 5: Barriers, Opportunities, and Market Potential of Technologies and Practices
Discusses the barriers that slow the transfer and penetration of technologies and practices that have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also discusses theories and models to understand technological and social innovation and its drivers and implications. Topic addressed in Module 4.

29 Chapter 6: Policies, Measures, and Instruments
Examines the major types of policies and measures that can be used to mitigate net GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. In addition to economic dimensions, political, economic, legal, and institutional elements are considered insofar as they are relevant to the discussion of policies and measures.

30 Chapter 7: Costing Methodologies
Addresses methodological issues that arise in the estimation of the monetary costs of climate change. The focus is on the correct assessment of the costs of mitigation measures to reduce the emissions of GHGs. Includes discussion of technologically rich bottom-up models and more aggregate top-down models, which link the energy sector to the rest of the economy. Concludes with recommendations for further research while contending that much progress has been made since the SAR.

31 Chapter 8: Global, Regional, and National Costs and Ancillary Benefits of Mitigation
Examines the literature on the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation policies at the national, regional, and global levels. Net welfare gains or losses are reported, including (when available) the ancillary benefits of mitigation policies. These studies employ the full range of analytical tools described in Chapter 7. Concludes that the cost estimates of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations depend upon the concentration stabilization target, the emissions pathway to stabilization and the baseline scenario assumed.

32 Chapter 9: Sector Costs and Ancillary Benefits of Mitigation
Reviews the research on the cost implications and ancillary benefits of mitigation strategies across sectors, including: Top-down studies that capture general effects on the economy and tend to consider price-driven policies such as carbon taxes rather than technology policies. Bottom-up studies that examine technology-driven options; and financial cost-benefit analyses of individual mitigation measures.

33 Chapter 10: Decision-making Frameworks
Provides a critical appraisal of policy-oriented analyses and summarizes the emerging insights in a form that allows policymakers to make informed judgments. Considers the special features of climate change in the context of how they affect decision-making in different frameworks. Suggests that mitigation, adaptation, and learning activities should be carefully crafted over time but that mitigation action at any level should start in the near term.

34 Main WGIII Conclusions: Nature of the Mitigation Challenge
Climate change is a problem with unique characteristics Global, long-term, involves complex interactions between climatic, environmental, economic, political, institutional, social, and technological processes Alternative development paths can result in very different GHG emissions (e.g., SRES) Climate change mitigation will both be affected by, and have impacts on, broader socio-economic policies and trends Differences in distribution of resources are key considerations (i.e., equity concerns) Lower emissions scenarios require different patterns of energy resource development

35 The UNFCCC Guidelines on Mitigation Assessment
Module 1d The UNFCCC Guidelines on Mitigation Assessment

36 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Came into force in 1994; signed by over 150 countries. Overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle climate change.  Recognizes that climate is affected by anthropogenic emissions of GHGs. Seeks “stabilization of GHG concentrations…at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” (Article 2) Parties expected to “take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects” (Article 3). have “common but differentiated responsibilities” based on their national circumstances. gather and share information on GHG emissions, national policies and best practices. launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse emissions and adapting to expected impacts, including the provision of financial and technological support to developing countries.  cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change. The Conference of Parties (COP) is the highest decision-making authority of the Convention.

37 UNFCCC Parties Annex I: members of OECD in economies in transition (EIT). Annex II: OECD members of Annex I. Required to provide financial resources to enable developing countries to undertake emissions reduction activities and to help them adapt to adverse effects of climate change. Must also "take all practicable steps" to promote development & transfer of environmentally friendly technologies to EITs and developing countries. Non-Annex I (NA1) are mostly developing countries. Certain countries recognized as being especially vulnerable to climate change, including countries with low-lying coastal areas and those prone to desertification and drought. Others are more vulnerable to the potential economic impacts of climate change responses (e.g. fossil fuel exporting nations). The 48 least developed countries (LDCs), are given special consideration under the Convention on account of their limited capacity to respond to climate change and adapt to its adverse effects.

38 Status of National Communications
National communications have become an important tool for bringing climate change concerns to the attention of policy makers at the national level. In 2002, COP8 in India adopted a set of new and improved guidelines for national communications (17/CP.8). By July 2005, initial national communications had been presented to the COP by 125 NA1 parties, and second national communications had been presented by 3 NA1 parties. In the next phase of the Convention in which the focus is increasingly on implementation, national communications will become an important strategic tool to help countries align their interests and priorities to the overall goals of the Convention. As stated in Article 12, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the national communication shall include the following information: A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removal by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, to the extent its capacities permit, using comparable methodologies to be promoted and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties; (b) A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the non-Annex I Party to implement the Convention; (c) Any other information that the non-Annex I Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its communication, including, if feasible, material relevant for calculations of global emission trends.

39 Reporting Commitments
Article 4, p.1, and Article 12, p.1, of the convention provide for each Party to report to the COP: information on its emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol (greenhouse gas inventories); national or, where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to mitigate, and to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change (general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party to implement the Convention); any other information that the Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention. Paragraph 1 of the UNFCCC guidelines for the preparation of national communications from non-Annex I Parties has the following principal objectives: (i) to assist non-Annex I Parties in meeting their reporting requirements under the Convention; (ii) to encourage the presentation of information in a consistent, transparent, comparable and flexible manner, (iii) to facilitate the presentation of information on support required for the preparation of national communications, (iv) to serve as policy guidance to the operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention, for the timely provision of financial support needed by non-Annex I Parties in order to fulfill their reporting requirements, and, (v) to ensure that the COP has sufficient information to carry out its responsibility for assessing the implementation of the Convention by Parties. Paragraph 2 provides the scope of the information to be included in the national communications by each non-Annex I Party: (a) national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removal by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, to the extent its capacities permit, using comparable methodologies promoted and agreed upon by the COP; (b) a general description of steps taken or envisaged by the non-Annex I Party to implement the Convention; and (c) any other information that the non-Annex I Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its communication, including, if feasible, materials relevant for calculations of global emission trends.

40 Guidelines for National Communications Preparation for non-Annex I Parties
Adopted in 2002, at COP8. Principal objectives: to assist NA1 Parties in meeting their reporting requirements; to encourage the presentation of information in a consistent, transparent, comparable and flexible manner; to facilitate the presentation of information on support required for the preparation of national communications; to serve as policy guidance to the operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention, for the timely provision of financial support needed by NA1 Parties in order to fulfill their reporting requirement; to ensure that the COP has sufficient information to carry out its responsibility for assessing the implementation of the Convention by Parties.

41 Information to be Included in NA1 Party National Communications
National inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removal by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party to implement the Convention Any other information that the Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its communication, including, if feasible, materials relevant for calculations of global emission trends.

42 National Circumstances for NA1 Parties
NA1 parties should provide a description of national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, on the basis of which they will address climate change and its adverse impacts. This may include information on geography, climate and economy which may affect their ability to deal with mitigating and adapting to climate change, as well as information regarding specific needs and concerns arising from the adverse effects of climate change and/or the impact of the implementation of response measures. NA1 parties are encouraged to provide a summary of relevant information regarding their national circumstances, as appropriate, in tabular form. NA1 parties may provide a description of existing institutional arrangements relevant to the preparation of their national communications on a continuous basis. Information on national circumstances provides the opportunity for detailing the national or regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances that serve as the basis for addressing issues relating to climate change. It is critical for understanding a country’s vulnerability, its capacity and its options for adapting to the adverse effects of climate change, as well as its options for addressing its GHG emissions within the broader context of sustainable development. All sections and subject areas should refer back to the national situation and development priorities. Parties could also include information on the linkages between the activities and policies relating to climate change and those of other Conventions, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on Combating Desertification. This section could contain the following information: • Geographical characteristics, including climate, forests, land use and other environmental characteristics • Population: growth rates, distribution, density and other vital statistics • Economy, including energy, transport, industry, mining, tourism, agriculture, fisheries, waste, health and services sector • Education, including scientific and technical research institutions • Any information considered relevant by the Party. A description of institutional arrangements relevant to the preparation of the national communications on a continuous basis could include the following elements: • Distribution of responsibilities within government departments, universities, research institutions, etc. • National Climate Change Committees or other relevant coordinating bodies • Involvement and participation of other stakeholders • Technical/expert groups or teams

43 Mitigation Guidelines (1)
Each NA1 Party shall … communicate to the COP a general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party to implement the Convention, taking into account its common but differentiated responsibilities and its specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances. (25) NA1 Parties may provide information on programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change by addressing anthropogenic emission by sources and removals by sinks of all GHGs not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, and measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change, following the provisions in these guidelines. (26) Although developing countries are not required to take on emission reduction commitments, undertaking climate change mitigation and assessment could provide ancillary benefits for sustainable development, such as particulate pollution reduction, increase in technological efficiency and effectiveness, improvements in the security and availability of power supply, reduction in road congestion when a shift from private to public transport takes place, and increase in employment resulting from mitigation projects. Mitigation assessment should entail the generation of information on the national or regional analysis of the potential costs and impacts of the various technologies and practices to mitigate climate change. Each Party shall, provide to the COP information on the general descriptions of steps taken or envisaged towards formulating, implementing, publishing and regularly updating national and, where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change, and any other information they consider to be relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in their communications. Non-Annex I Parties should provide information on their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change, and on adaptation measures being taken to meet their specific needs and concerns arising from these adverse effects.

44 Mitigation Guidelines (2)
The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitment to communicate this information will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention relating to financial resources and transfer of technology. (27) Each Party shall provide to the COP information on … steps taken or envisaged for formulating, implementing, publishing and regularly updating national and, where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change … and any other information they consider to be relevant…. (37) Based on national circumstances, non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to provide, to the extent their capacities allow, information on programmes and measures implemented or planned7 which contribute to mitigating climate change by addressing anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all GHGs not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, including, as appropriate, relevant information by key sectors on methodologies, scenarios, results, measures and institutional arrangements. In order to improve the understanding of the potential for mitigation effort in the country, it is important to describe the technical resources used in the mitigation assessment by explaining: • What it is/what they are • How and in what sectors of the economy does/do it/they apply • Data and/or information gaps • Limitations of the technical resources Information could include: • Description of approaches used to conduct mitigation analysis, e.g. top-down or bottom-up • Description of a variety of tools/models and methods used to assess the mitigation.

45 Methodological Approaches for Mitigation
Based on national circumstances, NA1 Parties are encouraged to use whatever methods are available and appropriate in order to formulate and prioritize programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change; this should be done within the framework of sustainable development objectives, which should include social, economic and environmental factors. (38) In their assessment of these programmes on various sectors of the economy, NA1 Parties may use the appropriate technical resources. (39) Such as Technologies, Policies and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change (IPCC Technical Paper I); GHG Mitigation Assessment: A Guidebook by the US Country Studies Program; Climate Change 2001: Mitigation (Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC). Mitigation actions in NA1 countries should never be a threat for sustainable development. Contribution to sustainability should be a condition to implement mitigation alternatives. There are several methods and models that may be used in mitigation assessment, ranging from a broad description of main development trends and statistics to formalized modeling at sector and macro-economic levels. Many of these methods and models are provided in a number of technical resources. Because mitigation assessment may include a detailed evaluation of specific programs and policies, the steps taken should be well elaborated and should include the description of: • The social and economic development framework for climate change mitigation • The main national economic and social development trends including expected GHG emissions in energy, industrial processes, agriculture, land-use change and forestry and waste management. In order to improve the understanding of the potential for mitigation effort in the country, it is important to describe the technical resources used in the mitigation assessment.

46 Reporting Based on national circumstances, NA1 Parties are encouraged to provide, to the extent their capacities allow, information on programmes and measures implemented or planned which contribute to mitigating climate change by addressing anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all GHGs not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, including, as appropriate, relevant information by key sectors on methodologies, scenarios, results, measures and institutional arrangements.

47 Potential Benefits of Mitigation Activities
Module 1e Potential Benefits of Mitigation Activities

48 The Benefits of GHG Mitigation
Primary: GHG emissions abatement: reducing global climate change. Co-benefits: non-climate benefits explicitly incorporated into the creation of GHG mitigation policies. Ancillary benefits: side-effects that arise subsequent to any proposed mitigation policy: E.g. reductions in local and regional air pollution, associated with the reduction of fossil fuels, and indirect effects on issues such as transportation, agriculture, land use practices, biodiversity preservation, employment, income and fuel security.

49 Mitigation Could Provide Local Benefits…
Local environmental protection. Poverty alleviation Reduce fossil fuel consumption Improve technological base. Increase in technological efficiency and effectiveness, Improvements in the security and availability of power supply. Reduction in road congestion with a shift from private to public transport. Increase in employment resulting from mitigation projects. Strengthening of institutional, systemic and human capacity.

50 Potential Levels and Scope
Global, regional and country level. Short, medium and long term. Scope of the approach: general (aggregated) benefit and sector benefit Identification of key benefit by sectors: energy and non energy.

51 Some Key Challenges Identification, estimation and valuation of mitigation benefits. Relation between mitigation and sustainable development

52 Different Tools, Policies, Measures and Instruments
Global: Kyoto Protocol. Country level : emissions, carbon, or energy taxes, subsidies, deposit-refund systems, voluntary agreements, permits (tradable and non-tradable), technology and performance standards, product bans, direct government spending, including R&D investment. Regional level: tradable quotas, joint implementation, clean development mechanism, harmonized emissions, carbon or energy taxes, quotas, international technology and product standards, voluntary agreements, and direct international transfers of financial resources and technology.

53 Interactions between mitigation and development
Module 1f Interactions between mitigation and development

54 Development will be Undermined by Climate Change
The Challenge: Poverty: 1.3 billion people live on less than $1 per day and 3 billion people on less than $2 per day. Top 20% income group uses 86% of resources, while bottom 20% uses under 1.3% Food: 800 million people malnourished today -- food production needs to double in the next 35 years Water: 1.3 billion people without clean water; 2 billion without sanitation Energy: 2 billion people without electricity Environment: 1.4 billion people exposed to dangerous levels of outdoor pollution and even larger number exposed to dangerous levels of indoor air pollution and vector-borne diseases Shelter: many live in areas susceptible to civil strife, environmental degradation, and natural disasters

55 Developing Countries are the Most Vulnerable to Climate Change
Impacts disproportionately on the poorest countries and people, who have contributed least to GHG emissions: exacerbates inequities in health status and access to adequate food, clean water and other resources. Net effects negative in most developing countries, but mixed for developed countries for warming up to a few ºC. A warming of greater than a few ºC is likely to result in net effects becoming negative for most countries

56 An integrated climate change-sustainable development strategy is essential
` Integrated CC-SD Strategy Former Viewpoint Source: Munasinghe, Presentation: “Climate change adaptation and sustainable development,” ww.unep.org/dpdl/indiaworkshop/documents/TS2_1_1.ppt. Accessed August 3, 2005. Emerging Viewpoint Source: Adapted from Munasinghe, 2005

57 Sustainable Development Domain Climate Domain
Climate Change Stresses Human and Natural Systems Climate System Adaptation Adaptive Capacity Feedbacks Feedbacks Radiative Forcing Econ. Soc. Envir. Non-climate Stresses Feedbacks Feedbacks Different Socio-economic Development Paths Atmospheric GHG Emission and Concentration Scenarios Feedbacks Mitigative Capacity Source: Munasinghe, Presentation: “Climate change adaptation and sustainable development,” ww.unep.org/dpdl/indiaworkshop/documents/TS2_1_1.ppt. Accessed August 3, 2005. Mitigation Human Actions Causing GHG Emissions Source: Munasinghe, 2005

58 Emissions by sector, kg CO2 per capita per year (2001)
CO2 and Development Canada USA Russia 20’000 10’000 UK Germany Japan Poland France China Venezuela Pakistan 5000 India Australia Brazil Nigeria Indonesia Mozambique South Africa Source: WBCSD, 2005: Facts and Trends to 2050: Energy and Climate Change. World Business Council on Sustainable Development. . CO2 emissions vary widely at all levels of development. Differences in otherwise similar economies depend on factors such as geography, types of domestic energy available, public acceptance of energy sources and mobility options, including the development of mass transportation. Other sectors Non-road transport Road transport Manufacturing Energy industries Heat and power Source: WBCSD 2005 OECD Emissions by sector, kg CO2 per capita per year (2001) Non-OECD

59 Goals of Energy Development
Energy sector development focuses on enhancing: access to clean energy services 1.6 billion people do not consume any electricity, and very little kerosene or LPG Household energy consumption is 212 kgoe/cap (compared to 651 kgoe/cap in industrialized countries); about 25% comes from biomass used traditionally quality of the local environment Indoor air pollution kills 2 million women and children prematurely Only 15% of cities in developing countries have acceptable urban air quality

60 Energy and Poverty The poor typically spend a greater fraction of their income on indispensable energy services, such as cooking, than do the rich. At the same time, they frequently forgo (or compromise severely on) services like lighting and space heating that require energy carriers (e.g., electricity) and devices (e.g., fluorescent lights) to which they either don’t have access, or whose first costs tend to be unaffordable.

61 Goals of Energy Development
Energy sector development focuses on enhancing: economic productivity Non-household energy intensity in developing countries is 0.36 kgoe/$-GDP (compared to 0.19 kgoe/$-GDP in industrialized countries) Competitiveness and opportunity costs of supply expansion drive energy efficiency initiatives security of energy supply Energy imports are a large fraction of exports Volatility in international prices leads to macroeconomic instability

62 Integrating Mitigation and Adaptation
Module 1g Integrating Mitigation and Adaptation

63 Integrating Mitigation and Adaptation
UNFCCC identifies two separate options for addressing climate change: mitigation and adaptation. There are increasing calls to better integrate these two fields. Because of long lag times in the climate system, no mitigation efforts will be able to prevent climate change. Conversely, reliance on adaptation alone would lead to a large magnitude of climate change, to which it would be very expensive to adapt.

64 Synergies Synergies exist when measures that control GHG concentrations also reduce adverse climate impacts. E.g. urban tree planting provides both sequestration and reduces heat stress. Significant downside of placing too much focus on seeking synergies: Implementation of synergistic measures can involve great institutional complexity Opportunities for synergistic measures are probably very limited compared to the overall challenges of each field. Many synergistic measures may not be a wise investment in terms of mitigation and adaptation benefits. Risks that activities will be labeled as both mitigation and adaptation activities to make them more attractive for funding – thereby diminishing overall effectiveness of how climate funds are spent.

65 Mixing Mitigation and Adaptation
Seeking an “optimal” mix of activities may be a poor approach given uncertainties about climate change and the widely differing interests, values and preferences of stakeholders. Seeking robustness is probably a better approach to decision making. “Mainstreaming” is an emerging approach that seeks to integrate policies and measures that address climate change into ongoing sectoral and development planning and decision making: so as ensure long-term sustainability and reduce vulnerability to both current and future climate. Currently, institutions are not well adapted to support this type of integrated approach.

66 Possible Topics for Discussion
What is the proper role of mitigation in the development plans of the least developed countries? What are the differences between pursuing mitigation and adaptation policies? What is the role of the U.N. National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)? This slide lists some possible topics for discussion. The discussion session will take place immediately following the presentation and will likely be facilitated by CGE staff. In addition, participants may also wish to ask questions of the presenters.


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