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The Pursuit of an Ideal Diet

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1 The Pursuit of an Ideal Diet
Chapter Two The Pursuit of an Ideal Diet

2 I. The ABC’s of Eating for Health
Characteristics of a good diet plan (ABCMV) Adequacy: Provides all of the essential nutrients, fiber & energy (calories) in amount sufficient to maintain health. 2. Balance: Provides a number of types of foods in balance with one another, so that foods rich in one nutrient do not crowd out of the diet foods that are rich in another nutrient.

3 Cont’d 3. Calorie Control: Control of consumption of energy (calories). 4. Moderation: Provides no unwanted food or nutrient in excess.

4 VARIETY Different foods are used for the same purpose on different occasions


6 B. Nutrient Density A food that supplies large amounts of nutrients relative to the number of calories it contains is nutrient dense. The higher the level of nutrients and the fewer the calories, the more nutrient dense the food is.


8 II. The Nutrients Nutrients are substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance & repair. a. Classes b. Essential vs. Nonessential c. Energy-yielding Nutrients d. Vitamins, Minerals & Water

9 A. The Six Classes of Nutrients
Carbohydrates Fat Protein Vitamins Minerals Water


11 B. Essential vs. Nonessential
Essential nutrients are those that must be obtained from food because the body can’t make them for itself. Approximately 40 nutrients are known to be essential

12 C. Energy-Yielding Nutrients
Energy: capacity to do work Calorie: unit used to measure energy Energy-yielding nutrients include: Carbohydrates (4 calories per gram) Fat (9 calories per gram) Protein (4 calories per gram) Although not considered a nutrient, alcohol also contributes calories to the body (7 calories per gram)

13 D. Vitamins, Minerals & Water
Do not supply energy, or calories, to the body Regulate the release of energy and other aspects of metabolism

14 Vitamins: organic, or carbon-containing, essential nutrients vital to life & needed in minute amounts Water soluble The B vitamins Vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins D A E K

15 Cont’d Minerals: inorganic compounds, some of which are essential nutrients Water Provides the medium for all life processes in the body Approximately 60% of the body’s weight is water

16 III. Nutrient Recommendations
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Estimate the nutritional requirements of healthy people Include separate recommendations for different groups of people of a specific age & gender Encompasses four sets of values:


18 Cont’d Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA):
daily dietary intake levels sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of approximately 98% of healthy people Adequate Intakes (AI): the amount of a nutrient thought to be adequate for most people; used when EAR & RDA can not be determined

19 Cont’d 3. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): the amount of a nutrient that meets the requirement of 50% of the people of a particular age & gender 4. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL): the maximum amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to pose risk of harm in healthy people when consumed daily; intake above the UL can be harmful

20 B. RDA for Calories RDA set at the mean, not above, to ward off greater chance for obesity Calorie RDA calculated for the reference man & woman




24 IV. The Challenge of Dietary Guidelines
Provide only general guidelines for calorie intake Do not address the hazards of nutrient excesses


26 DIETARY GUIDELINES Dietary Guidelines for Americans: 10 Things to Know


28 VI. Tools Used in Diet Planning
Food Group Plans Tool that group foods according to similar origin & nutrient content Specifies the number of foods from each group a person should eat Provides a pattern for diet planning to ensure adequacy & balance The Four Food Group Plan The Food Guide Pyramid Canada’s Food Guide



31 Cont’d Exchange Lists Lists of foods with portion sizes specified
The foods on a single list are similar with respect to nutrient & calorie content & therefore can be mixed & matched In the diet Provide help in food selection for calorie control, moderation & variety



34 Cont’d Food Composition Tables
Tables that list the nutrient profile of commonly eaten foods Includes number of calories, grams of fat, milligrams of sodium, etc.

35 VII. Food Labels Required Information
Name of the product (statement of identity) Name & address of the manufacturer Net contents in terms of weight, measure or count Ingredients list with items listed in descending order by weight The Nutrition Facts Panel, unless the package is too small

36 Cont’d Nutrition Fact Panel Serving or portion size
Servings or portions per container Calories per serving Calories from fat The amounts of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium & iron




40 Cont’d Daily Values Compares the amounts of specific nutrients in one serving to the amount recommended for daily consumption Provided for both a 2,000-calorie diet & a 2,500-calorie diet The daily values for vitamins & minerals are calculated using the RDI’s


42 Cont’d Nutrient & Health Claims
Nutrient content claims: claims such as “low-fat” & “low-calorie” used on food labels to give consumers an idea of a food’s nutritional profile without having to look at the Nutrition Facts Panel These claims must adhere to specific definitions established by the Food & Drug Administration


44 Cont’d Health Claims: a statement on the food label linking the food to a reduced risk of a particular disease The claim must be supported by scientific evidence These claims must adhere to specific definitions established by the Food & Drug Administration

45 Health Claims Calcium-rich foods and osteoporosis
Low-sodium foods and reduced risk of high blood pressure Low-fat diet and reduced risk of cancer A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol and reduced risk of heart disease High fiber foods and reduced risk of cancer

46 Health Claims (cont) Soluble fiber in fruits, vegetables and grains and reduced risk of heart disease Soluble fiber in oats and psyllium seed husks and reduced riak of heart disease Fruit and vegetable-rich diet and reduced risk of cancer Folate-rich foods and the reduced riak of neural tube defects Sugar alcohols and reduced risk of tooth decay

47 Health Claims (cont) Soy protein and reduced risk of heart disease
Whole-grain goods and reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancers Plant stanol and plant sterol esters and heart disease Potassium and reduced risk of high blood pressure and stroke


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