Presentation on theme: "The Pursuit of an Ideal Diet"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Pursuit of an Ideal Diet Chapter TwoThe Pursuit of an Ideal Diet
2 I. The ABC’s of Eating for Health Characteristics of a good diet plan (ABCMV)Adequacy: Provides all of the essential nutrients, fiber & energy (calories) in amount sufficient to maintain health.2. Balance: Provides a number of types of foods in balance with one another, so that foods rich in one nutrient do not crowd out of the diet foods that are rich in another nutrient.
3 Cont’d3. Calorie Control: Control of consumption of energy (calories).4. Moderation: Provides no unwanted food or nutrient in excess.
4 VARIETYDifferent foods are used for the same purpose on different occasions
6 B. Nutrient DensityA food that supplies large amounts of nutrients relative to the number of calories it contains is nutrient dense.The higher the level of nutrients and the fewer the calories, the more nutrient dense the food is.
8 II. The NutrientsNutrients are substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance & repair.a. Classesb. Essential vs. Nonessentialc. Energy-yielding Nutrientsd. Vitamins, Minerals & Water
9 A. The Six Classes of Nutrients CarbohydratesFatProteinVitaminsMineralsWater
11 B. Essential vs. Nonessential Essential nutrients are those that must be obtained from food because the body can’t make them for itself.Approximately 40 nutrients are known to be essential
12 C. Energy-Yielding Nutrients Energy: capacity to do workCalorie: unit used to measure energyEnergy-yielding nutrients include:Carbohydrates (4 calories per gram)Fat (9 calories per gram)Protein (4 calories per gram)Although not considered a nutrient, alcohol also contributes calories to the body (7 calories per gram)
13 D. Vitamins, Minerals & Water Do not supply energy, or calories, to the bodyRegulate the release of energy and other aspects of metabolism
14 Vitamins: organic, or carbon-containing, essential nutrients vital to life & needed in minute amountsWater solubleThe B vitaminsVitamin CFat soluble vitaminsDAEK
15 Cont’dMinerals: inorganic compounds, some of which are essential nutrientsWaterProvides the medium for all life processes in the bodyApproximately 60% of the body’s weight is water
16 III. Nutrient Recommendations Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)Estimate the nutritional requirements of healthy peopleInclude separate recommendations for different groups of people of a specific age & genderEncompasses four sets of values:
18 Cont’d Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): daily dietary intake levels sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of approximately 98% of healthy peopleAdequate Intakes (AI):the amount of a nutrient thought to be adequate for most people; used when EAR & RDA can not be determined
19 Cont’d3. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): the amount of a nutrient that meets the requirement of 50% of the people of a particular age & gender4. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL): the maximum amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to pose risk of harm in healthy people when consumed daily; intake above the UL can be harmful
20 B. RDA for CaloriesRDA set at the mean, not above, to ward off greater chance for obesityCalorie RDA calculated for the reference man & woman
28 VI. Tools Used in Diet Planning Food Group PlansTool that group foods according to similar origin & nutrient contentSpecifies the number of foods from each group a person should eatProvides a pattern for diet planning to ensure adequacy & balanceThe Four Food Group PlanThe Food Guide PyramidCanada’s Food Guide
31 Cont’d Exchange Lists Lists of foods with portion sizes specified The foods on a single list are similar with respect to nutrient & calorie content & therefore can be mixed & matched In the dietProvide help in food selection for calorie control, moderation & variety
34 Cont’d Food Composition Tables Tables that list the nutrient profile of commonly eaten foodsIncludes number of calories, grams of fat, milligrams of sodium, etc.
35 VII. Food Labels Required Information Name of the product (statement of identity)Name & address of the manufacturerNet contents in terms of weight, measure or countIngredients list with items listed in descending order by weightThe Nutrition Facts Panel, unless the package is too small
36 Cont’d Nutrition Fact Panel Serving or portion size Servings or portions per containerCalories per servingCalories from fatThe amounts of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium & iron
40 Cont’dDaily ValuesCompares the amounts of specific nutrients in one serving to the amount recommended for daily consumptionProvided for both a 2,000-calorie diet & a 2,500-calorie dietThe daily values for vitamins & minerals are calculated using the RDI’s
42 Cont’d Nutrient & Health Claims Nutrient content claims: claims such as “low-fat” & “low-calorie” used on food labels to give consumers an idea of a food’s nutritional profile without having to look at the Nutrition Facts PanelThese claims must adhere to specific definitions established by the Food & Drug Administration
44 Cont’dHealth Claims: a statement on the food label linking the food to a reduced risk of a particular diseaseThe claim must be supported by scientific evidenceThese claims must adhere to specific definitions established by the Food & Drug Administration
45 Health Claims Calcium-rich foods and osteoporosis Low-sodium foods and reduced risk of high blood pressureLow-fat diet and reduced risk of cancerA diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol and reduced risk of heart diseaseHigh fiber foods and reduced risk of cancer
46 Health Claims (cont)Soluble fiber in fruits, vegetables and grains and reduced risk of heart diseaseSoluble fiber in oats and psyllium seed husks and reduced riak of heart diseaseFruit and vegetable-rich diet and reduced risk of cancerFolate-rich foods and the reduced riak of neural tube defectsSugar alcohols and reduced risk of tooth decay
47 Health Claims (cont) Soy protein and reduced risk of heart disease Whole-grain goods and reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancersPlant stanol and plant sterol esters and heart diseasePotassium and reduced risk of high blood pressure and stroke