Presentation on theme: "Language Development Opportunities"— Presentation transcript:
1Language Development Opportunities Oh, Now I See! Scaffolding Comprehension Strategies in Elementary/Middle ReadingWABE 2010Yakima, WADavid IrwinLanguage Development Opportunities
2Today we will…Practice four learner comprehension strategies for use with struggling learners and/or ELLs by discussing and adapting comprehension skill activities
3What A Decade of Reform said… Strategies alone (first order) without changes in beliefs (second order) make no differenceFocus on targeted1 GLEs – eliminate non-essential activitiesHigh expectations for all students including those in poverty and ELL“Powerful teaching and learning” depends not on specific strategies, but on the intellectual demands placed on the studentFouts, Jeffrey T., A Decade of Reform: A Summary of Research Findings on Classroom, School and District Effectiveness in Washington State, Washington School Research Center, 2003.1See Ainsworth 2003
4The Big Reading Picture Include all Big 5 Components PLUSOral Language DevelopmentPhonemic AwarenessPhonicsVocabularyFluencyComprehensionmin.Choose, prioritize the comprehension strategiesLimit them, 1-3 at a time for several weeksUse throughout the day, not just at reading timeIndependent Reading minutesCultural connection - background
5Comprehension Strategies Making ConnectionsText-to-SelfText-to-TextText-to-WorldInferenceSummarizing
6What is scaffolding and why is it important for ELLs? On a Post-it, write your own personal definition of scaffolding.
7One model of scaffolding Mini-lectureExplicit instructionPracticeTeacher modelingDiscussionPeer modelingReciprocal teachingCooperative learningApply strategies during independent readingTeacher CenteredTeacher AssistedPeer AssistedStudent CenteredIncreasing independence
8Another model of scaffolding Rally TableRally RobinQuiz-quiz-tradeMix-pair shareTimed pair sharePersonal white BoardsThumbs upWorksheetsTickets outIndependent WorkWhole groupSmall GroupPartnersIncreasing independenceRound tableRound RobinNumbered heads togetherTalking ChipsShout outThink aloudChoral reading
9Scaffolding Verbal Scaffolding Procedural Scaffolding Modeling: I do Prompting, questioning, and elaborating facilitate students’ movement to higher levels of language proficiency, comprehension, and thinking:ParaphrasingUsing “Think – Alouds”Reinforcing Contextual DefinitionsThink-Pair-ShareProcedural ScaffoldingLead the students through steps to make them more independent:Modeling: I doPractice opportunities with others: We doIndependent practice: You doGraphic organizers
10What is scaffolding? Find the definition you wrote earlier. Read it over and make some changes.What is your new definition of scaffolding?Share with your group.
11Scaffolding: Gradual Release of Responsibility I DoModeling the strategy yourself, thinking aloud while writing or chartingWe DoDo the same activity again with students or go to the next step of the activity. Plan to have directions of comments match your actions.You DoPaired or independent work after a successful “we do” trial
12Making ConnectionsHelp kids make in-depth connections related to storyAnchor charts for student responsesSelf-to-text, text-to-text, text-to-worldSmall group work: releasing responsibilityMiller p 54-
13Making Connections: Thinking Aloud Models real inner dialoguePick books you like – be realUse academic languageStarters:“When I read these words, I thought of…”When I saw this picture, it reminded me of…”From this information, I can infer…”Miller 2002 p. 54
14Making Connections: Anchor Charts Chart all student responses – give creditDiscuss which ones are helpful to the story. Vote 1, 2; star, circle; etc.Students justify their votesMiller 2002 p. 60
15Making Connections: Small Group Expectations Read book to classStudents break up to pairs to record connections with pictures or wordsReview helpful connectionsVote 1-2 if necessaryMiller 2002 p. 61
16Making Connections: Self-to-text Connect to personal experience that deepens understanding of the storyMostly oral languageCharts are useful to review connectionsList and vote for relevance
17Making Connections: Text-To-Text Compare two booksVenn diagram – 3-tab foldableAlso: Text-to-World connectionsWhat are the connections to the world outside of self?Miller 2002 p. 63
18Thinking Aloud with Stickies Write down thoughts on sticky notes – stick them in the book, notebook or posterCategories:Confusion/clarityHuh? I don’t get it. How Why Who When What Where etc?Oh, now I get this part!Alternative: ? & LightbulbNew informationWow, I never knew ____ before!ConnectionThis reminds me of…I heard/read/remember something like this in _______.
19Asking Questions “What are you wondering?” Clarify meaning Why ask questions?Clarify meaningSpeculate about what’s comingExamines author’s purpose, style, intentLocate specific informationRhetorical questions or make connection
20Questions: Leaf & Root“Leaf” questions are “above ground”, literal comprehension knowledge levelAnswer is in the text“Root” questions are “buried”, higher order thinking questionsInformation leading to the answer is in the text, but not the exact answer
21Asking Questions Code questions after forming them. Why? Do all questions have answers?How else can questioning skills help our kids besides with reading?How well can/do ELLs ask deeper level questions?
22Digging Deeper: Questions Teach children to make meaningful connections with questions:Does what I have to say connect to the current topic? …to what someone else said?Can I support what I say with evidence or experience?Did someone else already say it?If I disagree, do I state what the other person said and say why my thinking is different in a nice way?
23What to say instead of “I don’t know” Write the following on sentence strips, post on wallWhen you hear “I don’t know” refer student to a question choice or help him/her with a new oneCould I please have some more information?Could you please repeat the question?Could I ask my partner?Where can I find the answer?Can you say that a different way?Can I have some more time to think?
24InferenceConnecting prior knowledge with textual clues to draw conclusions, form interpretations and make predictionsUsing the term “infer” frequently helps kids internalize its use and function
25Inference for Vocabulary 3-column Chart (I do, We do), sticky note or 3-way organizer (You do)List unknown wordWhat we infer it meansWhat helps usConfirm (C) or deny (X) meanings by context, picture, glossary and use strategy to find meanings for the X wordsUse the Stranger – jammed, hermit, mercury
27Inference for Prediction 2-column Chart (I do, We do) or Notes (You do)Fiction: What will happen?Non-fiction: What will we learn?What is our thinking (based on pictures and text features)Read passageConfirm (C)/deny (X) predictionsMake new predictions; What is our thinking (based in information from text)Stranger
29Inference for Drawing Conclusions, Making Interpretations Metaphor and allusion: is there more meaning in these words than meets the eye?Using schema again to connect text to experience2-column notesText printed on left sideStudent highlights on left and writes interpretations on rightOn doc cam (I do, We do); on paper (You do)
31Try it! Dave will model with The Year of Miss Agnes Pick a book, read and develop your inner conversation to modelMark places to stop, think, write, ask students for their connectionsWrite questions (red), answers (green) and connections (purple)Write them all at first. Days later, have the class help you decide which ones really give more understanding of the story. Rate them 1, 2.Make inferences about the passageAnchor chart on Rascal. List 3 of my connections, questions. Questions-red, connections-purple “What connections or questions do you have?” Write them down. Accept all for the fist few weeks. LATER - Rate them by how well they help us understand the story.
32VisualizationHelp students create mental images by having them work together to draw pictures based on text:Tell a personal story or use a book, picture at first, then text only, then poetryHave students “think in their head” about what they see before telling itThen have them describe what they see one by oneHighlight any new, interesting vocab they might use or help them with new wordsMiller Ch 6 p 78-85
33VisualizationChoosing text: do students have enough schema to make images from this text?Do they have the vocab and what new words do they need?Make copies of several passages; s. can choosePartners go to a corner and draw their imagesMiller Ch 6 p 78-85
34VisualizationDiscuss why they chose to draw what they did. Why is it important?The partners’ images can influence each others’ – sharing schemaHighlight any new, interesting vocab they might use or help them with new wordsWrite responses to the readings and picturesPractice for several weeks. Save vocab lists for use in writing stories or poetry of their own.Miller Ch 6 p 78-85
35Drawing outside inside (front) Describe my image: (picture is on the back of this page)What it reminds me of (connection):Continue with Rascal
36Summarizing Story Pyramid Sketch to Stretch (main idea/detail) Sketch in color – 3 minutesOne sentence - main idea3-4 sentences – supporting detailsFinal draftOrganizer has versions for elementary, secondary.
37Digging Deeper: Visuals Reading spaces, bulletin boards, book displays. See p 98 for ideas.Map your room.Do you haveGroup reading space (carpet)Individual/partner reading spacesInviting/instructional visualsStudent workBooks/authors
38Digging Deeper: Tools Do you have on hand: Paper, bond & construction in colorsMarkers/colored pencils/crayonsSticky notesTwo-column note pages (spirals for older kids)Story mapsVenns (paper for making 3-tab foldables)
39So What Now…I can use the ___________________________strategy with my ___________________ group or class. How I need to modify it: What materials I need:
40Download and Contact www.langdevopps.com firstname.lastname@example.org Forms, templates, questions, bookings:
41Acknowledgements Material in this presentation draws on the work of Ainsworth, Larry (2003) Power Standards: Identifying the Standards that Matter the Most, Advanced Learning PressArcher, Anita (2006) “Dynamic Vocabulary Instruction in Secondary Classrooms,” presentation at OSPI January Conference, Seattle, WA.Beck, McKeown & Kucan (2002) Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction, Guilford PressBeck, McKeown & Kucan (2008) Creating Robust Vocabulary: Frequently Asked Questions & Extended Examples. Guilford Press.Calderon & Rowe (2005) “Project ExC-ELL: Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners in Secondary Schools” training, Johns Hopkins University.Cummins, J. (1981) The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework (pp. 3-49). Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles.Echevarria, Vogt & Short (2008) Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model, 3rd Edition, Pearson.Echevarria & Graves, (2003) Sheltered Content Instruction: Teaching English Language Learners with Diverse Abilities 2nd Edition, Allyn & Bacon.Figueroa, Richard (2002) “Scientifically Based Reading Research”: The Definitional Dilemma for California Migrant Education Students (draft), UC Davis.
42Krashen, Stephen (1993) The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research, Libraries Unlimited. Montaño-Harmon, Dr. Maria (2003) “English for Academic Purposes” training, California State University Fullerton.Miller, Debbie (2002) Reading with Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the PrimaryGrades. Stenhouse.National Reading Panel (2000) Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read.Russell, Sarah (2007) Powerpoint slides & ideas. Washoe School District, Reno NV.Thomas, W. & Collier, V. (1997) School effectiveness for language minority students. George Mason University.Vacca & Vacca (1999) Content Area Reading: Literacy and Learning Across the Curriculum, 6th Edition, Longman.Zike, Dinah (1989) Big Book of Projects: How to design, develop, & make projects from kindergarten through college, dinah-might adventures, San Antonio.Zwiers, Jeff (2004) Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6-12: A Toolkit of Classroom Activities, IRA.