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The role of the isovector monopole state in Coulomb mixing. N.Auerbach TAU and MSU

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Coulomb interaction As a good approximation we take the potential of a uniformly charged sphere.

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Of interest to us here is the isovector part of the potential. Any off-diagonal matrix element between two states of the isovector part is:

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Isovector monopole denotes the z-component of isovector monopole operator. It is obvious that if the state is the giant isovector monopole state, that is the state obtained by acting with the operator on the ground state and normalizing, then the above matrix element will be proportional to and thus will exhaust the isovector part ( ) of the Coulomb sum rule.

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Isovector Excitations

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Isospin mixing

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(a) Hydrodynamical model Assuming that the sum is exhausted by the isovector monopole, one obtains: This is for N=Z nuclei. Bohr-Mottelson model for the isovector monopole

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Energy Weighted Sum Rule

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The previous formula is for N=Z nuclei. For other nuclei one has to divide by (T+1).

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(d) Microscopic model Obtained from a p-h calculation and fitting the resulting admixtures with the formula below. (The calculation was done in a good isospin basis which requires the inclusion of 2p-2h components.)

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Pure isospin states in N>Z nuclei

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Isospin impurities

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Skyrme HF-RPA (Isovector monopole strength) Experimentally observed in several reactions, for example in pion single-charge exchange reactions at Los Alamos (25 years ago).

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Skyrme HF-RPA (Coulomb strength). The actual HF Coulomb field was used to probe the distribution of strength.

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The core polarization correction to Coulomb displacement energies We derive the core polarization correction by realizing that the polarization is due to the admixture of the giant isovector monopole IM) into the g.s. of core.

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Transition density for the monopole (This transition density is proportional to the difference of the proton and neutron densities in the ground states of N=Z nuclei.)

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Beta-decay One of the recent activities in nuclear structure are the attempts to determine the corrections one has to introduce in the evaluation of the beta-decay matrix elements for super-allowed transitions.

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Relation to the CKM matrix

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Shell model approaches

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Coulomb corrections In order to use the experimental ft values to determine one has to introduce corrections. There is a class of important radiative corrections which we will not treat here. Discussions of these can be found abundantly in the literature. The second type of correction, that is usually termed as the isospin symmetry breaking term, denoted as and defined by the following equation:

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Where is the physical Fermi matrix element: and are the parent and daughter physical states. The symbol stands for the Fermi matrix element obtained in the limit when in the Hamiltonian all the charge- dependent parts are put to zero, and the wave functions are eigenstates of the charge- independent Hamiltonian.

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Experiment

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CKM matrix Using the measured ft values one can relate these to the u-quark to d-quark transition matrix element (m.el.) in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. In the Standard Model (SM) this matrix satisfies the unitarity condition, that is the sum of squares of the matrix elements in each row (column) is equal to one:

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Hardy-Towner

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A call to arms

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Phys.Rev. C79, 035502 (2009) In the present approach we start from a charge- independent Hamiltonian so that the matrix element in eq. (1) is exactly and we then treat the Coulomb force in perturbation theory. In the way we approach the problem there is no need to break up the contribution of the Coulomb interaction into various separate components. All the effects of Coulomb mixing (such as isospin mixing, the change in the radial part of the wave functions, etc) are taken into account in a single term. (Some aspects of this approach have already been presented in the past )

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The components with different values are degenerate. The action of the isospin lowering and raising operators,, gives:

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We now add to the charge independent Hamiltonian a charge dependent part. The dominant part in the charge dependent interaction is the charge asymmetric Coulomb force. (While the charge-dependent components of the two-body nuclear force might be important in changing the relative spacing of levels in the analog nucleus, its influence on isospin mixing is expected to be small). In what follows we will deal only with off-diagonal matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction. Because of the long range nature of the Coulomb force, the prevailing part will be in such cases the one-body part.

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Wave functions We will now find in perturbation theory the effect of the charge-dependent part on the wave functions of the two members of the isomultiplet:

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Admixtures

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where, are the components of the isovector monopole, and where

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Symmetry potential u will denote the reduced matrix element

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Coulomb correction For T=1 nuclei:

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Coulomb correction 1. Hydrodynamical model 2. Non-Energy Weighted Sum Rule (NEWSR) 3. Energy Weighted Sum Rule (EWSR) 4.Microscopic

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Coulomb corrections These numbers are considerably smaller (factors 3-8) than the Hardy-Towner results.

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Discussion Why is there this difference between the results of our approach and the ones discussed above? It is difficult to pinpoint exactly the reasons; one possible reason is that in the other works collective effects are not included. In the present work on the contrary, the mixing with IVMS takes into account effects of collectivity. The IVMS is a collective excitation and because of the repulsive nature of the particle-hole interaction in the isovector mode it is shifted to higher energies and its strength is reduced. This leads to reduced Coulomb mixing both, in the proton wave function and in the isopin impurity of the isospin quantum number.

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Limitations It is important to asses the uncertainties in our treatment of the Coulomb correction. As already mentioned the symmetry potential strength is not well determined. This parameter determines the splitting between the various isospin components. There is another factor that influences this splitting, namely the different degree of collectivity of these isospin components. In large neutron excess nuclei this might alter considerably the spacing [8], but in T=1 nuclei the collectivity of the various components of the IVMS is similar and the effect on the spacing is small.

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Discussion The assumption of equal reduced matrix elements for the transitions to the various isospin components of the IVMS in expressions (12-13) has a very small effect for the nuclei considered. The IVMS has a spreading width and this could bring some fraction of strength to lower energies and influence the result. Also the centroid energy contains some degree of uncertainty. The use of a simplified charge distribution (homogenous sphere) and the neglect of short-range non-Coulomb charge-dependent interactions might affect the results somewhat. The possibility that the Thomas –Ehrman effect [8] might have some influence on the orbital and binding- energy dependence should not be forgotten. There are possibly a number of other small uncertainties. If we rely on an intuitive estimate that the maximal uncertainty is 50%, still our results will be considerably lower than the ones found in previous studies.

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Recent work, Liang et al. Relativistic RPA

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