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Parallel Session: Food and Agriculture Citizen and consumer attitudes to food and food production in Norway Valborg Kvakkestad, Karen Refsgaard, Helge.

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Presentation on theme: "Parallel Session: Food and Agriculture Citizen and consumer attitudes to food and food production in Norway Valborg Kvakkestad, Karen Refsgaard, Helge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parallel Session: Food and Agriculture Citizen and consumer attitudes to food and food production in Norway Valborg Kvakkestad, Karen Refsgaard, Helge Berglann Norwegian Agricultural Economic Research Institute 15 June 2011 – the 9th conference of the ESEE – Istanbul

2 Outline of the presentation 1.Background of the study 2.Purpose of the study 3.Data and methodology 4.Results 5.Conclusions

3 1. Background of the study Multifunctional agriculture Agriculture produces multiple outputs that consist of a mix of private and public goods and bads Private goods: food and fibre Public goods: biodiversity, cultural heritage, food security, food safety, landscapes, rural viability Public bads: pollution, land- and biodiversity degradation

4 1. Background of the study Norwegian agriculture Small scale family-run agriculture Only 3 % of the land area is cultivated Important for rural settlement Highly governed by policy measures and market arrangements Highest producer support estimate in the OECD The multifunctionality of agriculture is emphasized

5 1. Background of the study Organic consumption and production in Norway Governmental goal: 15 per cent of the food production and the food consumption as organic in percent of the food consumption is organic 4.3 per cent of the cultivated agricultural area is organic Policy measures to stimulate organic farming

6 1. Background of the study Consumer versus citizen Arenas for humans to influence the character of agriculture: –the public decisions making arena -> citizen (agency for the public interest) –the market-place for food -> consumer (maximization of individual utility) The multifunctional character of agriculture  by choosing what kind of food to buy, people affect the production of public goods and bads from agriculture  Food-buyers might not merely act in the role of consumers when purchasing food

7 2. Purpose of the study What are Norwegian’s attitudes to private and public goods and bads from agriculture in the public sphere and in the market sphere Attitudes to organic farming and food will be particularly examined

8 3. Data and methodology A representative web-survey among 939 Norwegians in September Questions about: –attitude to Norwegian agricultural policy –attitude to organic farming –Food consumer behaviour

9 3. Results Attitudes to agricultural policy (7 point likert scale) Inexpensive food is more important than:MeanSt.d - animal welfare2,241,49 - tasty food2,271,44 - safe food2,291,58 - healthy food2,511,48 - food security2,601,58 - vivid countryside2,771,56 - environmentally friendly agriculture2,831,49 - fair trade2,861,60 - beautiful cultural landscapes2,861,48 - reasonable farm incomes2,891,61 - preserving traditions and cultural heritage2,911,52 - promoting organic farming3,361,62

10 3. Results Factor-analysis revealed that: Attitudes to: Norwegian food short-travelled food locally distinctive food promoting organic farming preserving traditional small-scale farming preserving traditions and cultural heritage beautiful cultural landscapes are closely related

11 3. Results Factor-analysis also revealed that: Attitudes to: safe food animal welfare tasty food healthy food food security are closely related

12 3. Results Attitudes to organic farming (7 point likert scale) Mean St.d The government should aim to increase the sale of organic food4,761,58 The government should aim to increase the production of organic food4,751,61 It is more important for me that that the food is produced in Norway than that the food is organic 4,721,54 Organic production is environmentally friendlier than other Norwegian food production 4,601,54 It is more important for me to by short-travelled food than organic food4,481,43 Organic farming produces more biodiversity than other types of farming4,471,51 Organic production is animal friendlier than other Norwegian food production 4,451,48 Organic food is safer than other types of food4,271,54 Organic farming should receive more government assistance than ordinary farming 4,261,74 The government should aim to increase the sale of organic food4,761,58

13 3. Results The five conditions that are most important for the respondents when they buy eggs, carrots, milk and ketchup (% of the sample that find the condition important) EggsCarrotsMilkKetchup Fresh39,757,6461,6 Looks appealing62,50 No/few additives54,26 No sugar is added48,96 No use of pesticides and fertilizers55,4646,03 Prize55,833,89 Produced in Norway57,557,3166,6 Tasty49,779,4368,677,69 The cows have been grazing the whole summer 53,9 The size of the eggs39,8

14 3. Results: Why the respondents by organic food by how often they buy organic food Often N=61 Sometimes N=437 Rarely N=344 Total N=939 Avoid pesticide remnants in the food73,8 55,421,938,6 Healthy54,2 50,921,935,2 Environmentally friendly59,750,017,733,6 Safe food60,339,817,228,7 Good quality45,237,917,927,1 Good taste44,336,318,226,4 Avoid use of fertilisers49,636,76,522,7 Avoid additives in the food47,329,813,521,9 Animal welfare35,319,97,914,4

15 3. Results: Why the respondents do not by (more) organic food by how often they buy organic food OftenSome- times RarelyNeverTotal Expensive33,5 59,92 68,61 59,0261,30 Too little range of organic food52,047,25 24,839,3035,41 Not visible in the shop44,537,3918,754,0127,56 Organic food is not healthier than other food types 0,99,56 31,3652,9024,48 Organic food is not tastier than other food types 0,011,60 33,5656,7223,58 Unavailable60,931,268,234,5421,98 Organic food is not safer than other food types 0,09,27 27,38 58,7620,44 Too little knowledge about organic food5,7 21,5623,067,6919,64 Organic food is not environmentally friendlier than other food types 0,97,75 25,72 47,4618,01

16 3. Results The socioeconomic and attitudinal background of the respondents Females, people that enjoy them selves in the countryside, and people that are concerned about health and the environment are most likely to value small scale traditional Norwegian agriculture. Females, people that are concerned about health, and people that emphasise that food production influences the environment are most likely to emphasise that safe, tasty and healthy food, animal welfare and food security are important. People that are concerned about health and the environment are most likely to consume organic food Environmental engagement increases the possibility for emphasising that organic, Norwegian and local food and food production is important.

17 3. Perspectives on GMOs among scientists Conclusions  Norwegians emphasise that several public goods from agriculture and private food attributes are more important than inexpensive food  When purchasing food Norwegians value private (e.g. taste and health), but also public aspects of food (e.g. the cows has been grazing)  Norwegians are supportive of organic food and farming, but promoting organic farming is less important than other concerns


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