Presentation on theme: "Ch 27 Life in Two City-States: Athens and Sparta"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch 27 Life in Two City-States: Athens and Sparta IntroductionComparing Two city-StatesAthenian GovernmentAthenian EconomyEconomy is the way a community or region organizers the manufacture and exchange of money, food, products, and services.Education in AthensWomen and Slaves in AthensSpartan GovernmentSpartan EconomyEducation in SpartaWomen and Slaves in SpartaSummary
2 Introduction Athens The Reforms of Cleisthenes - the tribes Walled cityNear the SeaThe Reforms of Cleisthenes - the tribesThe Reforms of Cleisthenes - the Council of Five HundredThe Populace of AthensThe Populace of Athens - Slaves ThePopulace of Athens - MeticsThe Populace of Athens - WomenThe Populace of Athens – FreemenPericles' Funeral Oration in depthSpartaFarming areaOn a plainSparta: Origins (Event Page: c.650: Sparta refounded) Sparta: Government and classes Sparta: Famous quotes about Spartan life
3 Comparing Two city-States Separated by 150 milesAthensFour miles from the Aegean SeaAthenians liked to travelEager to spread ideas and learn from othersEncouraged artists from other parts of GreeceDeveloped strong relationships with other city-statesGrew large and powerful through tradePossessed a great fleetSpartaMore isolatedLocated on a plain between the mountains and the seaLocated in the part of Greece known as the PeloponnesusSpartans were suspicious of outsidersGrew what they needed or took itSons and daughters taught to fightProduced soldiers rather than artists and thinkers
4 Athenian Government Became a democracy around 500 BCE Council of 500 Citizenship requirementsFreeBorn in AthensOver the age of 18Council of 500Met every day500 selected from the names of all citizens 30 years of age or olderRan the day-to-day business of government and suggested new lawsAssemblyMet every 10 days6,000 citizens had to be present for a meetingDebated and voted on laws proposed by the councilEvery citizen had the right to speakSpeakers were timed using a water clockA water clock was make by setting a cup with a small hole drilled into the bottom of it above a second cup. A speaker could only talk until the water from the first cup ran into the bottom cup.
5 Athenian Economy Based on trade Athens could not provide food for all its peopleAcquired wood from Italy and grain from EgyptAthenians traded honey, olive oil, silver, and beautifully painted potteryGoods were bought and sold at a huge marketplace called the agoraPeople bought lettuce, onion, olive oil, wine and other foodsCould buy pottery, furniture, and oil lampsBought leather sandals and jewelryBought and sold slavesDeveloped its own coinsMade of gold, silver, and bronzeDecorated with images (Athena, owl)Economy is the way a community or region organizers the manufacture and exchange of money, food, products, and services.
6 Education in Athens Main purpose was to produce good citizens Boys and Girls educated differentlyGirlsDid not learn to read or writeTaught to cook, clean, spin thread, and weave clothLearned ancient secret songs and dances for religious festivalsMarried around the age of 15Wealthy families chose husbandGirls from poor families had more choice in a husband
7 Education in Athens Boys Taught at home until the age of 6 or 7 Went to school from the age of 6-14Teachers taught reading, writing arithmetic, and literature Subjects were read out loud and boys had to memorize everythingUsed writing tabletsCoaches taught sports such as wrestling and gymnasticsStudied music learning to sing and play the lyreNeeded to have a sharp mind and a healthy bodyAge 18 began military trainingAfter their military service they might study with private teachersTeachers charged high fees for lessons in debate and public speakingHelped young men become political leaders
8 Women and Slaves in Athens Could not inherit or own much propertyCount not voteCould not attend AssemblyMost could not choose their own husbandsFew had jobsSold goods in the marketVery important women were priestessesMost important function was to manage their house and raise their childrenSlavesMany slaves in AthensMost owned at least one slaveMay have been born into slaverySome were captives from a warJobsRan householdstutored Athenian childrenTrained as craftsmenWorked in farms or factoriesWorked for the city as a clerkWorked in silver minesworked 10 hours a day300 feet below the surfaceLittle air to breatheOften whipped if they stopped to rest
9 Spartan Government Oligarchy Council of Elders Assembly Two kings and 28 other menTwo kings inherited their position and had equal powerThe 28 were elected by the AssemblyMembers must be at least 60 years oldMust come from a noble familyVoting was done by shouting - loudest support wonHeld the real power in SpartaPrepared laws for the Assembly to vote onHad the power to stop any laws passed by the Assembly that the council members didn't likeAssemblyMade up of male citizensMet in a large outdoor areaHad very little powerDid not debate issuesCould only vote yes or no
10 Spartan Economy Relied on farming and conquering other people Used slaves and non-citizens to produce needed goodsconquered neighbors became slaves called helotsNon-citizens were called periokoiFree menMight serve in the army when neededcould not take part in Sparta's governmentMake shoes, red cloaks for soliders, and iron toolsConducted trade with other city-statesDiscouraged tradeFeared new ideas that would weaken their governmentHeavy iron bars used as money
11 Education in SpartaPurpose was to produce men and women who could protect the city-stateWeak babies were left to die on the hillsideValued discipline and strengthTrainingFrom age 7 all children trained to fightLearned wrestling, boxing, foot racing, and gymnasticsBoys lived and trained in buildings called barracksTaught to read and writetaught to suffer physical pain without complainingNot fed wellTaught to steal foodmarched without shoesTested at age 20 for fitness, military ability, and leadership skillsPassing the test gave you full citizenship and they became a Spartan soldierCould not live at home with wife and family until 30 years old
12 Women and Slaves in Sparta AppearanceWore plain clothing with little decorationdid not wear jewelrydid not use cosmetics or perfumeRightsFree to speak with their husbands' friendscould own and control their own propertyCould marry another man if husband was away too longDutiesReady to fight in time of warLook after husband's property during a time of warGuard against invaders and slave revoltsSlavesTreatmentSometimes the government declared war on the helotsTreated harshlyRightsCould marry whomever and whenever they wantedCould pass their names on to their childrenCould sell extra cropsCould buy their freedom
13 Summary Athens Sparta Had a democracy Only free men could take part in the governmentEconomy depended on tradeBoys were educated to be good citizensGirls learned skills for household managementWomen and salves had fewer rights than menSpartaMore isolated than AthensIt was an oligarchyEconomy depended on farming and conquest.Boys and girls were educated to protect the city-stateSpartan women had more rights than other Greek womenDepended on slaves and non-citizens to provide for needs
14 Horrible Histories The 300 Spartans; Battle of Thermopylae The Story of Helen of TroyGroovy Greeks; Athenian ChildrenGroovy Greeks: Paris vs AchillesGroovy Greeks: Historical Wife SwapHistorical Head Teachers (Spartans)I'm A Greek - Part I & IIGreek Woman Festival