Presentation on theme: "Ch 27 Life in Two City-States: Athens and Sparta Introduction Comparing Two city-States Athenian Government Athenian Economy –Economy is the way a community."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 27 Life in Two City-States: Athens and Sparta Introduction Comparing Two city-States Athenian Government Athenian Economy –Economy is the way a community or region organizers the manufacture and exchange of money, food, products, and services. Education in Athens Women and Slaves in Athens Spartan Government Spartan Economy Education in Sparta Women and Slaves in Sparta Summary
Introduction Athens –Walled city –Near the Sea The Reforms of Cleisthenes - the tribes The Reforms of Cleisthenes - the tribes The Reforms of Cleisthenes - the Council of Five Hundred The Reforms of Cleisthenes - the Council of Five Hundred The Populace of Athens The Populace of Athens - Slaves The The Populace of Athens - Slaves The Populace of Athens - Metics The Populace of Athens - Women The Populace of Athens – Freemen The Populace of Athens – Freemen Pericles' Funeral Oration in depth Sparta –Farming area –On a plain Sparta: Origins (Event Page: c.650: Sparta refounded) Sparta: Government and classes Sparta: Famous quotes about Spartan life Sparta: Origins (Event Page: c.650: Sparta refounded) Sparta: Government and classes Sparta: Famous quotes about Spartan life
Comparing Two city-States Separated by 150 miles Athens –Four miles from the Aegean Sea –Athenians liked to travel –Eager to spread ideas and learn from others –Encouraged artists from other parts of Greece –Developed strong relationships with other city-states –Grew large and powerful through trade –Possessed a great fleet Sparta –More isolated –Located on a plain between the mountains and the sea –Located in the part of Greece known as the Peloponnesus –Spartans were suspicious of outsiders –Grew what they needed or took it –Sons and daughters taught to fight –Produced soldiers rather than artists and thinkers
Athenian Government Became a democracy around 500 BCE –Citizenship requirements Free Born in Athens Over the age of 18 Council of 500 –Met every day –500 selected from the names of all citizens 30 years of age or older –Ran the day-to-day business of government and suggested new laws Assembly –Met every 10 days –6,000 citizens had to be present for a meeting –Debated and voted on laws proposed by the council –Every citizen had the right to speak –Speakers were timed using a water clock –A water clock was make by setting a cup with a small hole drilled into the bottom of it above a second cup. A speaker could only talk until the water from the first cup ran into the bottom cup.
Athenian Economy Based on trade –Athens could not provide food for all its people –Acquired wood from Italy and grain from Egypt –Athenians traded honey, olive oil, silver, and beautifully painted pottery Goods were bought and sold at a huge marketplace called the agora –People bought lettuce, onion, olive oil, wine and other foods –Could buy pottery, furniture, and oil lamps –Bought leather sandals and jewelry –Bought and sold slaves Developed its own coins –Made of gold, silver, and bronze –Decorated with images (Athena, owl) Economy is the way a community or region organizers the manufacture and exchange of money, food, products, and services.
Education in Athens Main purpose was to produce good citizens Boys and Girls educated differently Girls –Did not learn to read or write –Taught to cook, clean, spin thread, and weave cloth –Learned ancient secret songs and dances for religious festivals –Married around the age of 15 –Wealthy families chose husband –Girls from poor families had more choice in a husband
Education in Athens Boys –Taught at home until the age of 6 or 7 –Went to school from the age of 6-14 Teachers taught reading, writing arithmetic, and literature Subjects were read out loud and boys had to memorize everything Used writing tablets Coaches taught sports such as wrestling and gymnastics Studied music learning to sing and play the lyre –Needed to have a sharp mind and a healthy body –Age 18 began military training –After their military service they might study with private teachers Teachers charged high fees for lessons in debate and public speaking Helped young men become political leaders
Women and Slaves in Athens Women –Could not inherit or own much property –Count not vote –Could not attend Assembly –Most could not choose their own husbands –Few had jobs Sold goods in the market Very important women were priestesses –Most important function was to manage their house and raise their children Slaves –Many slaves in Athens Most owned at least one slave May have been born into slavery Some were captives from a war –Jobs Ran households tutored Athenian children Trained as craftsmen Worked in farms or factories Worked for the city as a clerk Worked in silver mines –worked 10 hours a day –300 feet below the surface –Little air to breathe –Often whipped if they stopped to rest
Spartan Government Oligarchy Council of Elders –Two kings and 28 other men –Two kings inherited their position and had equal power –The 28 were elected by the Assembly –Members must be at least 60 years old –Must come from a noble family –Voting was done by shouting - loudest support won –Held the real power in Sparta Prepared laws for the Assembly to vote on Had the power to stop any laws passed by the Assembly that the council members didn't like Assembly –Made up of male citizens –Met in a large outdoor area –Had very little power –Did not debate issues –Could only vote yes or no
Spartan Economy Relied on farming and conquering other people Used slaves and non-citizens to produce needed goods –conquered neighbors became slaves called helots –Non-citizens were called periokoi Free men Might serve in the army when needed could not take part in Sparta's government Make shoes, red cloaks for soliders, and iron tools Conducted trade with other city-states Discouraged trade –Feared new ideas that would weaken their government –Heavy iron bars used as money
Education in Sparta Purpose was to produce men and women who could protect the city-state Weak babies were left to die on the hillside Valued discipline and strength Training –From age 7 all children trained to fight –Learned wrestling, boxing, foot racing, and gymnastics –Boys lived and trained in buildings called barracks Taught to read and write taught to suffer physical pain without complaining –Not fed well »Taught to steal food –marched without shoes Tested at age 20 for fitness, military ability, and leadership skills –Passing the test gave you full citizenship and they became a Spartan soldier –Could not live at home with wife and family until 30 years old
Women and Slaves in Sparta Women –Appearance Wore plain clothing with little decoration did not wear jewelry did not use cosmetics or perfume –Rights Free to speak with their husbands' friends could own and control their own property Could marry another man if husband was away too long –Duties Ready to fight in time of war Look after husband's property during a time of war Guard against invaders and slave revolts Slaves –Treatment Sometimes the government declared war on the helots Treated harshly –Rights Could marry whomever and whenever they wanted Could pass their names on to their children Could sell extra crops Could buy their freedom
Summary Athens –Had a democracy –Only free men could take part in the government –Economy depended on trade –Boys were educated to be good citizens –Girls learned skills for household management –Women and salves had fewer rights than men Sparta –More isolated than Athens –It was an oligarchy –Economy depended on farming and conquest. –Boys and girls were educated to protect the city-state –Spartan women had more rights than other Greek women –Depended on slaves and non-citizens to provide for needs
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