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505 Northern Blvd. Great Neck, NY 11021 516-466-7467 WAC Survey: S pearheading N ew A pproaches in E thnographics R esearch JUNE 2007
Page 2 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved Ethnographics: What is it? Ethnographics Ethnographics attempts to understand behavior and culture by finding target customers wherever they are, while theyre doing whatever it is they do. It means entering someones world for a while, be it for a couple of hours or a couple of days, or for some ambitious clients, a couple of months. A major difference between ethnography and other types of research lies in the depth and intimacy of data collection. 1.We get up close and personal to our research participants. 2.We spend time with people in the natural context of their daily lives. 3.We watch the world with a wide-angle lens. We watch, we listen, and we learn, and we do all of this in the context of where the action normally occurs: in their home, at their work, at the local gym, wherever the behavioral meets the product categorical.
Page 3 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved Ethnographics: Where Weve Been Some of the venues in which WAC Survey has spent time with respondents: Bowling with elderly respondents to get their reactions to a new pain killer remedy Health clubs locker rooms to view mens shaving and cologne usage habits In living rooms, observing how men and their spouses view Monday Night Football with each other and how kids view Inside Stuff In offices across the U.S. observing how workers utilize fax, shredding, copier, and scanning machinesas well as various office and business software products At bars with beer and whiskey drinkers to obtain attitudes towards alcoholic beverages and observe their bar ordering and drinking behaviors In retail outlets and showrooms observing prospects for new television purchases In bathrooms watching housewives scrub their floors, tubs and tiles
Page 4 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved Ethnographics: A Phenomenological Approach We dont go into the field with too many preconceived notions or with a script. We take on the role of non-participant/observer, as if weve just arrived on Earth. We let the people we talk to lead the way They tell us what is important with their words and their actions Because of this, results become more vivid and real. Our findings are oils compared to the watercolors provided by focus groups, richer and deeper than those produced by more traditional methods. Our insights become not only actionable, but hard-hitting and memorable
Page 5 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved Why Ethnographic Research? Crack the code, and you can develop new brands, products, and services that more effectively serve your unique tribe of customers More ethnographers are heading into boardrooms, bedrooms, and bathrooms, bringing new insights to a less exotic, but just as complex, tribe: consumers. And why not? The U.S. consumer market is made up of thousands of "individual little cliques, subcultures, really, that all have their unique way of looking at life. Consumer groups, have their own language, rituals, symbols, and values. Crack the code, and you can develop new brands, products, and services that more effectively serve your unique tribe of customers.
Page 6 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved Current Ethnographic Approaches Primarily observational based Supplemented by: direct questioning, in-person group or in-depth, one-on-one interviewing applications of dairy maintenance Bottom line: a lot of current ethnographic studies, though observational, still incorporate a lot of other standard, traditional research methods In fact, many E studies yield little in the way of breakthrough findings and, relative to traditional approaches, dont yield that much more in the way of cutting edge insights that would have been revealed otherwise
Page 7 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved WAC Survey Ethnographic Studies When conducting ethnographic studies, WAC Survey ethnographers spend extended periods of time with respondents, observing and interacting with them as they use brands, products, and services. Some of the primary data collection methods that are used include: Observation Narrative Inquiry Ethnographic focus groups In-depth Interviewing Elicitation Audiovisual recording Befriending
Page 8 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved WAC Survey Advancements In an effort to overcome some of the limitations of basic ethnographic research, WAC Survey has been employing some of the following innovations: Candid Camera videotaping in public locales using professional production crews Use of sophisticated audio and video devices (spy ware) Videotaping and observation of subjects behind one-way mirrors Living with and spending extensive time with target consumers Man on the Street interview Natural habitat observationals: viewing and participating with befriended target respondent in his/her most enjoyable activities Copyright© 2006 WAC Survey. All rights reserved
Page 9 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved WAC Survey Ethnographics: Procedures WAC Survey has learned that when it comes to conducting ethnographics studies, there are no set rules Each study entirely unique and neo- in terms of set ups and implementation Venues can differ from study to study Only one postulate we feel: never interfere with interaction of subjects being studies (i.e., a la Goffmans Phenomenology). WAC Survey ethnographers act as non-participant observers
Page 10 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved Natural Habitat Observationals: Some examples of studies 1.Viewing/participating with target respondents in their most enjoyable activities and engaging them in discussions/hands-on behavior re product in question (key: determine favorite pastimes of target market): –Poker nights –Bowling –Bingo –Backgammon tournaments –Scrabble tournaments 2.For cosmetics, videotaping respondents applications at the counter 3.Video, audio-taping sales interaction at the kiosk 4.Impromptu videotaped respondent applications demonstrations 5.Video contests: Enlisting women to videotape their friends and family applying makeup, moisturizers, lipstick, etc. 6.Videotaped interviews of males to obtain reactions to their spouses cosmetics and fragrance usage dynamics and other issues 7.Analysis of body language as a tool for determining a customers salability, brand choice. To uncover salespersons and brands weaknesses
Page 11 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved Ethnograpics Study Costs Can vary from study to study Based on: Number of respondents Amount of time spent with respondents Breadth of tasks to accomplish Types of consumers and extent of subgroup examination required (e.g., current users vs. recent defectors; heavy vs. lighter users) Travel, room and meals become highly significant cost factor
Page 12 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved WAC Survey Ethnographics Case Histories ABC Monday Night Football American Express Anheuser Busch Avis Bayer Burger King Campbells Chase Bank Clarins Gatorade Gillette Hardees Hasbro KeySpan Energy NBA/NBC: Inside Stuff Revlon Ricoh Samsung SC Johnson Tetley Tommy Hilfiger Topps Candy Weight-Watchers
Page 13 Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved Topics That WAC Survey Will Be Addressing For A Cosmetics Manufacturer Via Ethnographics Research (February 08) Some issues and topics that project will be addressing: As a sales enhancement tool: to uncover salespersons effects on prospects and customers To understand the retail shopper experience: to determine in-store weaknesses and areas for improvement New products: To determine how respondents will use a new or extended product. To actually see how the product is used. To determine functionality and dysfunctionality To disarm respondents and enable them to talk freely about the world of cosmetics: brands used, what their friends say, how they are influenced by peers, role models, latest buzz they have heard, why some brands are considered better than others, user imagery that could not be attempted via traditional surveys, focus groups, etc. To identify qualitative differences between loyal vs. less or non-loyal users; or heavier vs. lighter users. Key driver differentiating significant vs. non- volume customers could lie in applications or miscomprehension of instructions: Copyright© 2007 WAC Survey. All rights reserved
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