Presentation on theme: "Ethical Issues in Practicum"— Presentation transcript:
1Ethical Issues in Practicum UW School of Social WorkField Instructor Training Program
2Competency Objectives Demonstrate knowledge of the important ethical issues related to field instructionDescribe areas of potential liability in field educationIdentify strategies for incorporating ethical responsibilities into practice
3Ethical Issues Related to Field Education CSWE Guidelines - Dettlaff Field supervision has potential for ethical violations that could result in civil or criminal action;Field instructors, as supervisors, are responsible for the actions of their students;Field instructors have the responsibility to model ethical practice for their students.
4Professional Liability in Field Education -Bogo & Vayda, Dettlaff Malpractice: an omission or a commission resulting in harm to a client;acting in a negligent manner or failing to perform according to the accepted level of care (Cohen, 1979, Reamer, 1989);malpractice complaints in social work are increasing against supervisors as a result of the actions of their supervisees (Reamer, 1995, 1998).based on the legal principle of vicarious liability: supervisors can be held liable for the actions of their supervises when these actions result in negligence or harm to a client (Cohen 1979, Reamer 1989).
5Professional Liability in Field Ed For a supervisor to be held liable for the actions of a supervisee, two conditions must be met:The supervisor must have the authority to supervise the supervisee; andThe supervisee must be acting as a representative of the agency.
6Student ExamplesElicit examples of student risk and ethical challenges at participant’s agenciesThink about agency tools, processes, and tips for teaching ethical practice, for next exercise
7Areas of Potential Liability in Field Education - Dettlaff Failure to notify clients of student statusIncorrect interventionDisclosure of confidential informationFailure to protect a third party from potential harmFailure to prevent a suicideFailure to refer clients to a specialist when beyond their level of skill
8Areas of Potential Liability in Field Education, 2 - Dettlaff Failure to refer clients to a specialist when beyond their level of skillProfessional misconductFailure to report child abuse or neglectThis list is not comprehensive. Any ethical violation or lack of care can result in malpractice. Review NASW Code of Ethics with student for agency applications
9Code of Ethics contains standards in six categories - Congress Responsibilities to clientsResponsibilities to colleaguesResponsibilities to practice settingsResponsibilities to professionalsResponsibilities to the social work professionResponsibilities to society
10Strategies for Addressing Ethics in Field Supervision Access Handout 9AWrite down any techniques you have used to incorporate some of the ethical issues into your supervision of studentsShare in small groupsInvite feedback and clarification
11Minimizing Liability for Field Instructors Insure adequate supervision is provided, appropriate to the student’s level of skill and experience;Meet regularly with students to review all significant client and project decisions;Thoroughly document supervisory meetings and decisionsReview written documentation completed by your student, insure correctness
12Minimizing Liability for Field Instructors, 2 Continually assess student performance to insure that tasks and assignments are appropriate for student level of skill;Arrange for supervisory coverage when you are away and for assistance when you are not available;Provide written documentation of agenyc policies and procedures for handling at-risk situations, esp. of potential client harm
13Minimizing Liability for Field Instructors, 3 Thoroughly review agency policies regarding disclosures of confidential information and reporting requirements;Insure all clients are informed of student status and provide your name and contact info to clients;Regularly discuss with your student potential ethical dilemmas and value conflicts that may arise at the agency
14Additional Ethical Applications responsibility to teach students about conflicting values in social work ethics,ethical dilemmas in supervision,ethical challenges for faculty advisors and practicum instructorsconflicting duties and responsibilities to school, agency, and student, andregarding dual relationships.
15Tools for Ethics Consultations Access Handout 9B: Four-Box MethodReview quadrants with case exampleMedical indicationsPatient PreferencesContextual IssuesQuality of Life IssuesReview Handout 9C: Ethics In Community OrganizingMezzo and macro ethics applications
16Community Practice Ethics Differ -Hardina No use of ‘clients’ but ‘constituents’ in partnership;Worker may be member of communityCommunity events are part of networking and building trustActions are for social justice and may involve confrontational tacticsRequires informed consent re consequencesWeigh values, risk to individuals vs. outcomes
17Supervisory Record Keeping To further minimize liability, field instructors should thoroughly document their supervision of students in practicum, in both client and supervisory records:Client RecordsDocumentation by the field instructor for all client records handled by student;PIs should approve and sign all significant contacts in client record;PIs should note supervisory conferences in which client’s case was reviewed.
18Supervisory RecordsMunson (2002) suggests that PI records about student supervision include:The supervisory (learning) contract;Brief statement of supervisee experience, training, learning needs;Summary of performance evaluations;Notation of all supervisory sessions;Records of cancelled of missed sessions;Notation of cases/projects discussed; decisions;Problems encountered in supervision, resolution or plan for resolution, steps taken with UWSSW.
19Social Work Obligations in Decision-Making Teach students that social workers must be prepared to justify in court:the action selected by the process;procedures followed in selecting the action;documentation of the systematic steps used in arriving at the decision,professional conduct,use of consultation and supervision, andpractice guidelines.
20Gatekeeping: Academic Obligations Dismissals: Courts defer to the expert judgment of faculty and institutions to make dismissals based on a student’s failure to meet academic standards, including clinical competency. Judicial intervention requires:Deprivation of due process;invidious discrimination;denial of federal constitutional or statutory rights;Or clearly unreasonable, arbitrary or capricious actions.
21Inherent Dilemmas for Supervisors Developing competencies towards outcomes, while attending to processes of teaching and learningEliciting personal values and thinking processes of students affecting decision-making while safeguarding clients and agencyHelping student integrate cultural background and social work valuesDetermining which ethical principles and values should be prioritized in practice situations
22Areas for Improvement Access Handout 9D: Areas for Improvement Write down areas you need to consider further in teaching ethics in practicumShare in dyad/small group and report learnings to large groupDISCUSSION
23Personal Influences in Ethical Decision-making - Mattison Prior socialization and developmental stagesSituational factors, e.g., organizational or professional contextCharacteristic of the worker’s roleCultural background and beliefsStereotypes and biases about ethical issuePersonal philosophies and attitudes about right and wrong
24Personal Influences, 2 Individual decision-making styles Self-awareness of reasoning processesAttention to self-reflectionAdequacy and use of supervision and consultationTools and processes for ethics deliberations
25Bridging Culture and Professionalism - Chung Education as a process of acculturation, internalizing social work norms and valuesChallenge for students not from Western mainstream heritage, may feel have to choose between identity and professionCultural differences can be seen as a problem or a strength, adding choices
26Supervisory Responses: Rather than reprimanding, suggestsolution-finding as a joint project;examples from other disciplines;sharing own situation turns attention from client;self-disclosure may show a desire for authority or client approval;exploration of identification with client;student explore life situation and feelingsstudent provide reasoning for all decisions
27Supervisory Reponses, cont’d Rather than reprimanding, reviewrole as agency representative, not individual;principles of empathic listening;rationale for all unusual contacts or concrete assistance;reasonable level of service and functions of emergency servicesdynamics of rescuing, potential harm, power alterations