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Culture & Global Marketing

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Presentation on theme: "Culture & Global Marketing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Culture & Global Marketing

2 Importance of Culture Culture affects market demand.
Managerial behavior is driven by his/her cultural knowledge Knowledge of Native culture is useful when dealing with home markets but it has little value when dealing in foreign markets Culture affects the nature of business negotiations Culture acts as a hidden entry barrier, but it can be overcome with cultural sensitivity, hard work & quality

3 Culture Defined Culture is the underlying value framework that guides an individual’s behavior. Culture is reflected perceptions, social interactions, business interactions Culture guides the selection of appropriate responses in social situations Culture is a learned behavior. People learn do’s & don’t as they grow up

4 Culture across Countries
Some countries are multicultural:- India, China, US, Russia. These countries have several sub-cultures. While many are monocultural. UK, France, Germany, Columbia, Peru etc. Culture is the “Silent Language” in International business Relationship with Time, Space & Energy High Context – Low context cultures Body language

5 Need for cultural Adaptation
Self-Referencing : Process by which one judges others actions with reference to one’s own native culture. Usually “Right” & “Wrong” decisions Often leads to wrong opinions, Mistakes Avoid self-referencing mistakes by cultural adaptation. Cultural adaptation is a learned skill & must be mastered by Global Managers

6 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Individualism Vs Collectivism Masculine Vs Feminism Uncertainty Avoidance Vs Risk Taking Power Distance Confucian Dynamism: Long term outlook, work ethic of Chinese

7 Gannon’s Metaphors Gannon’s Metaphors offer a mental anchor for manger who has to deal with a new culture and cannot foresee contingencies It is a simplified, holistic representation of a culture: USA- Football: Individualistic, specialized, competitive China – Harmony : Roundness, Harmony & Fluidity Germany – Symphony : Discipline under a leader, Skilled workers working together, a well oiled machine India – Cyclical Hindu Philosophy: Life follows a cyclical pattern

8 Rapaille’s Archetypes
Dr Rapaille simplified cultures for easier understanding by explaining it in 7 steps of decoding culture: People don’t buy products, People buy relationships Culture can make or break your marketing plan, sales or public relationship plans Time, Space & Energy are the building blocks of all cultures Design & create products/Services to solve the right problem

9 Rapaille’s Archetypes
The more Global, The more Local: Global companies have to localize. Quality is the key to succeed, but word quality means different things in different countries: USA : It works Japan: Perfection Germany: Made according to the standard France: Quality = Luxury India: Quality = Reliable Cultural Awareness is the key to global success

10 Culture: How to do Business
The aim of business is same everywhere, but the way to do it varies across countries Global Managers must be able to handle Culture shock Similar business situations in different countries does not imply similar opportunities. E.g: Nestle in Africa Culture influences Management skills. So in a new country, its “Back-to-Basics” w.r.t learning local culture

11 Culture & Managerial Skills
Culture defines a set of acceptable & unacceptable behaviors, which forms the basis of “Way of doing Business” Managers learn how to do business. This process is called Enculturalization and Socialization How consumers behave How to manage people, supplier & subordinates What guides the consumer behavior Acceptable Behavior in business is usually acceptable behavior in society

12 Culture & Managerial Skills
Successful mangers tend to be good at acceptable behaviors and avoid unacceptable behaviors Lessens from past managerial experience in other countries has little value in other cultures. Success & Failures in the past will be repeated elsewhere, before learning the local implications

13 Managerial Styles Cultures tend to generate different managerial styles. Management styles is heavily influenced by home country culture. Japan High Context culture influences mangers to read body language while in US, a low context culture tends to ignore body language Managers are usually inadequately trained to handle different cultures. Time, Money pressure compromise training.

14 Cultural Dilemmas Managers face cultural dilemmas due to differences in cultures Universalism Vs Particularism : Doing the right thing or doing things right? Individualism Vs Collectivism in decision making Neutral Vs Emotional Specific Vs General : Is it just business or the whole person, individual or the entire firm Attitudes towards Time Attitudes towards Environment

15 Culture & Negotiations
Global business involves cross cultural negotiations, establishing relationships with suppliers, customers, distributors & other partners Know whom you are dealing with “In some cultures, 10AM means ‘Sometime in the morning’. Actual time on the clock has little significance.”

16 Cross Cultural Negotiations
First Establish Trust. Skilled negotiators identify genuine behavior of their counterparts and work towards establishing trust Know their “Silent Language” Body behavior Cultural signaling Culturally sensitive subjects Know what to say and when to say

17 Stages of Negotiations
Non-Task Sounding: An initial period to know each other better Task related exchange of Information: An extended Period where main issues are brought up & positions clarified Persuasion: Attempt to make the other side see your point of view. Explaining positions, giving evidence & questioning other party’s position. Concessions & Agreements: Concessions are made and agreements are signed

18 Limits to Cultural Sensitivity
When not to be culturally sensitive Global Culture: Globalization is creating a global business culture. In business it may be inappropriate to dress in a local way. Cultural Sensitivity must be inline with the business model. If the product/Service offering does not meet the buyer requirement, no amount of cultural sensitivity will help Cultural Sensitivity does not mean giving up one’s own culture. Successful manager will know both the cultures

19 Culture in B2B markets Business Marketing Tasks Cultural Conditioning
Organizational Culture Relationship Marketing Culture & Networks

20 Business Marketing Tasks
Establish the global firm as a dependable supplier operating in the local market Understand buyer’s position People who influence the buying decision Role of the supplier’s product/Service in the buyer’s business success This will make the local buyer treat the global supplier as a local firm. E.g: Cognizant in US, BASF in US, ABB in India

21 Cultural Conditioning
Buyers tend to develop different styles of dealing with vendors Equal or unequal relationship between supplier and buyer Culture’s openness to change influences buyer’s attitude toward Risk Changing vendors is seen as a Risk Often Buyer’s prefer local suppliers Terminating Local supplier carries bad publicity & political risks for the buyer CEO or high executive from the vendor firm may have to visit prospective buyer as a signal of commitment

22 Organizational Culture
Organizational culture of the buyer influences the buying decisions Single Buyer & decision maker Engineers, staff who use the product Top management which signs the contract Power Brokers who influence the final decision Global firm must be aware of the decision making process

23 Relationship Marketing
B2B sales is usually more than one single sale Relationship marketing means marketing efforts involving various personalized services, creation of new & additional services and customizing a firm’s offering to the needs of the buyer Build trust for a long term business relationship Upfront costs are high but it acts as a competitive advantage & an entry barrier Adopt Buyer’s viewpoint Accept & Demand transparency Grow with the relationship Be Proactive

24 Culture & Networks Relationship marketing creates a Network between various buyers and sellers over a period of time. Independent companies would have built up dependencies with one another creating a semi-independent companies Network of companies often share common culture Outside companies find the network hard to penetrate, Network form a barrier E.g: Keiretsu network in Japan, Glaxing in China Military-Industry network in US

25 Foreign Entry Culture defines “The way to do Business”
Learn & analyze local cultures before entry Do’s & don’ts Identify trustworthy local agents or middlemen Identify danger signals Know the strengths & weakness as perceived by the local culture Establish trust & friendships New Culture is an operational risk

26 Local Marketing Culture affects
Consumer behavior Local demand Buying decisions Brand Image First hand experience in local markets is a must Lessons from home country may not be applicable abroad

27 Global Management Culture influences managerial styles and management decisions Global managers must be knowledgeable of both cultures (Local & Home) A new global business culture is emerging Sensitivity to local issues is necessary for success Global coordination is a must for global companies

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