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COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL IN BROILERS: CHANGES AND ADAPTATIONS - ARE WE REALLY MAKING PROGRESS? KENNETH W. BAFUNDO, PH.D. PHIBRO ANIMAL HEALTH.

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Presentation on theme: "COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL IN BROILERS: CHANGES AND ADAPTATIONS - ARE WE REALLY MAKING PROGRESS? KENNETH W. BAFUNDO, PH.D. PHIBRO ANIMAL HEALTH."— Presentation transcript:

1 COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL IN BROILERS: CHANGES AND ADAPTATIONS - ARE WE REALLY MAKING PROGRESS? KENNETH W. BAFUNDO, PH.D. PHIBRO ANIMAL HEALTH

2 USA: DISEASES OF GREATEST CONCERN AIR SACIBDAIR SACJ-VIRUS IBDAIR SACBRONCH- ITISCOCCI ENTER- ITIS ASCITESCOCCIINF. PROCESS COCCILEG PROBS. IBDBRONCH- ITIS

3 Coccidiosis: Ranking Among Subclinical Diseases of Broilers H. Cervantes, 2002 Proc. Western Poultry Disease Conference, pp

4 COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL: TRADITIONAL POINTS OF EMPHASIS MANAGING THE DISEASE THROUGH EFFECTIVE ANTICOCCIDIAL USAGE MAXIMIZE PERFORMANCE MINIMIZE LESIONS MAXIMIZE PROFITABILITY

5 COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL: RECENT POINTS OF EMPHASIS COST OF PRODUCTION SIGNIFICANT POLICY SHIFTS –EU: ANTIBIOTIC BANS ARE IONOPHORES NEXT??? RE-IMMERGENCE OF NECROTIC ENTERITIS LIVE COCCI VACCINES IN BROILERS IONOPHORE ANTICOCCIDIALS FOR NE CONTROL

6 COST OF PRODUCTION AGRI-STATS AND INDUSTRY NEEDS –QUANTIFIES ALL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION –YARDSTICK AMONG COMPETITORS –INPUT COST IS A PRIMARY CRITERION –BIRD HEALTH AND OVERALL PROFITABILITY ARE SECONDARY

7 ANTICOCCIDIAL DATA GENERATED BY AGRISTATS, INC. ~155 INTERGRATOR MILLS IN U.S.A. 90% SUBMIT PRODUCTION DATA AGRISTATS PROCESSES DATA, PROVIDES SUMMARIES TO INDUSTRY, ETC. SOME ‘EXPERIMENTAL ERROR’ INVOLVED

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13 USA: Quarterly Nicarbazin Use (pounds x 10 6 )

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15 LEAST-COST RECOMMENDATIONS LOW DOSAGES MINIMAL FEEDING TIME EXTENDED WITHDRAWALS RELIANCE UPON IMMUNITY A COMMON LEAST COST EXAMPLE: TO DAY 16 DAY 17 TO 28 AFTER 28 SALINOMYCIN PPM55 PPMWD

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17 LEAST-COST TO TRADITIONAL AGRISTATS –NICARBAZIN BASED SHUTTLES HAVE MORE THAN DOUBLED (225%) FROM 2002 TO –MEDICATED FEED HAS INCREASED INCREMENTALLY FROM 2002 TO 2003.

18 FROM LEAST-COST TO TRADITIONAL FROM: STRAIGHT SALINOMYCIN –44 TO 55 PPM TO: NICARBAZIN 125  IONOPHORE –WINTER 2003 (DEC. TO MARCH) –MULTIPLE COMPANIES –OVER 1 BILLION BIRDS FED

19 FROM LEAST-COST TO TRADITIONAL RESULTS (ACROSS INDUSTRY): – GENERALLY, 3 POINT IMPROVEMENT IN F/G E.G  1.84; 5 lb. CHICKEN 0.15 lbs./ $130 US/TON –FEED SAVINGS: ~ $10,000,000 –NICARBAZIN COST: ~$650,000 NET FEED SAVINGS: ~ $9,000,000

20 STRATEGIC USE OF ANTICOCCIDIALS STRAIGHT PROGRAMS SHUTTLE PROGRAMS ROTATIONAL PROGRAMS

21 RATIONALE FOR SHUTTLE PROGRAMS IMPROVE FLOCK PERFORMANCE MAINTAIN EFFICACY REDUCE LESION SCORES REDUCE RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT IMPROVE PROFITABILITY

22 RELIABILITY OF SHUTTLE PROGRAMS STARTER FEEDS –NICARBAZIN –NICARB COMBOS –OCCASIONALLY, OTHER CHEMICALS GROWER FEEDS –IONOPHORES

23 LENGTH OF ROTATION PROGRAMS IN MONTHS

24 ROTATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS THREE WELL-DESIGNED PROGRAMS PER YEAR STRATEGIC MIX OF STRAIGHT AND SHUTTLES PROGRAMS SEASONALLY STRUCTURED PLANNED WELL-MONITORED

25 NECROTIC ENTERITIS

26 NECROTIC ENTERITIS IN BROILERS CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS – –GRAM POSITIVE – –SPORE FORMING – –TOXIN PRODUCING – –NECROTIZING LESIONS AFFECT GUT STRENGTH – –AFFECT CARCASS CONTAMINATION – –MORTALITY – –OPPORTUNISTIC COCCIDIOSIS, ETC., CERTAIN FEEDSTUFFS

27 NECROTIC ENTERITIS IN BROILERS CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS –MOST COMMON IN EU –> 40% OF EU BROILER FLOCKS TREATED AMOXYCILLIN, AMPICILLIN USE OF IONOPHORES TO HELP CONTROL NE

28 USE OF THERAPEUTIC ANTIBIOTICS IN POULTRY: UK >118% 13 tons

29 IONOPHORES AND NE: DENMARK IONOPHORE USAGE HAS INCREASED >184% SINCE THE ANTIBIOTIC BAN IN Animal Pharm, August 2, 2002

30 COCCIDIOSIS AND NE IN BROILERS: EU IONOPHORES WILL BE BANNED FOR GROWTH PROMOTION IN 2006! WILL THE EU BAN IONOPHORES FOR THE CONTROL OF COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILERS?

31 IONOPHORES IN THE EU IONOPHORES ARE ANTIBIOTICS CURRENT STATUS IS UNDER REVIEW NEW GUIDELINES BY 2008 IF CHANGES OCCUR, WILL AFFECT OTHER BROILER PRODUCTION AREAS (E.G. LATIN AMERICA, THAILAND, ETC).

32 LIVE OOCYST VACCINES APPLICATION FOR BROILERS AND BREEDER PULLETS

33 LIVE COCCIDIOSIS VACCINES LIVE VACCINES HAVE THE CAPACITY TO INTRODUCE DRUG SENSITIVE STRAINS OF COCCIDIA INTO A BROILER PRODUCTION FACILITY NOW USE BY SOME AS A ROTATION OPTION

34 LIVE OOCYST VACCINES FACTORS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVENESS: ADMINISTRATION OF THE VACCINE LITTER TYPE AND DEPTH PARTIAL HOUSE BROODING MANAGEMENT PROCESSING AGE (BIRD WEIGHT) NECROTIC ENTERITIS ANTIBIOTIC USAGE

35 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF A VACCINATION PROGRAM THE GREATEST SINGLE FACTOR INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF THE VACCINATION PROGRAM IS ENSURING ALL BIRDS ARE EXPOSED TO THE OOCYSTS IN THE VACCINE. – –WATER, FEED, EYE SPRAY, GELATIN ‘PUCK’, COARSE SPRAY – –IN OVO APPLICATIONS?

36 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF A VACCINATION PROGRAM PULLET AND BROILER VACCINES ARE DIFFERENT USE THE APPROPRIATE VACCINE! TAKE EXTRA CARE TO BE SURE THAT ALL BIRDS ARE PROPERLY EXPOSED AMPROLIUM MAY BE REQUIRED TO LIMIT COCCIDIAL INFECTIONS

37 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VACCINATION PROGRAMS PARTIAL HOUSE BROODING NUTRITION – –WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS MAY HELP MANAGEMENT – –LITTER MANAGEMENT – –BUILD-UP LITTER – –LITTER MOISTURE – –VENTILATION – –WATER MANAGEMENT

38 POTENTIAL VACCINE IMPROVEMENTS ADDITIONAL EMPHASIS ON LIVE OOCYST VACCINES IMPROVING OOCYST VIABILITY CUSTOMIZING VACCINE SPECIES IN OVO APPLICATIONS

39 CHANGES AFFECTING THE FUTURE OF COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL REGULATORY ISSUES AND THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT EFFECT ON PHARMACEUTICAL INTEREST –RESEARCH SLOWED DRAMATICALLY –REJECTION OF ANY ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY CONTINUED EMPHASIS ON EXISTING PRODUCTS

40 MANAGEMENT AND COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL

41 MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS TEMPERATURE: ZONE OF THERMAL NEUTRALITY AIR QUALITY: SUFFICIENT TO PREVENT RESPIRATORY STRESS/INSULT NUTRIENT QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY LITTER QUALITY: LIMIT VIABILITY OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS STABLE HEALTH PROGRAMS

42 MANAGEMENT AND COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL FEED AND FEED QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AIR QUALITY MOISTURE REMOVAL FEED AND WATER MANAGEMENT STRESS BIRD DENSITY LITTER QUALITY

43 MANAGEMENT AND COCCIDIOSIS CONTROL EFFECTIVE VIRAL VACCINATION IBD, MAREK’S, IB CHICK QUALITY DOWN TIME

44 COCCIDIOSIS AND MANAGEMENT “FARM, GROWER, HOUSE MANAGEMENT IS THE PRIMARY FACTOR IN DETERMINING THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ANTI-COCCIDIAL PROGRAM.” M.K. ECKMAN, 1995

45 COCCIDIOSIS AND MANAGEMENT “ THE GREATEST OPPORTUNITITES FOR IMPROVED FLOCK PERFORMANCE CONTINUE TO LIE IN PROVIDING THE OPTIMAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE EXPRESSION OF GENETIC POTENTIAL IN BROILER PROGENY THAT ARE SELECTED FOR ECONOMIC TRAITS IN MEAT PRODUCTION.” M.K. ECKMAN, 1996

46 ARE WE REALLY MAKING PROGRESS?

47 PROGRESS? YES, ALTHOUGH INCREMENTAL THE PENDULUM IS SWINGING BACK TOWARD THE CENTER. AFTER EXPERIMENTING, WE ARE RE-LEARNING WE NEED TO CONTINUE THE PROCESS

48 PROGRESS IN THE FACE OF CHALLENGE SIGNIFICANT REGULATORY CHALLENGES INFLUENCE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS LIMIT AVAILABILITY OF NEW AND OLD TECHNOLOGIES MAGNIFY THE IMPORTANCE OF OUR EXISTING PRODUCTS REQUIRE PRUDENT CURRENT USAGE


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