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Psychology of Theorization in Mathematics and Physics Arash Rastegar Sharif University of Technology Arash Rastegar Sharif University of Technology

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The skills of making assumptions and developing theories 1) Making assumptions based on experiments. 2) Testing assumptions and theories. 3) Generalization of approved assumptions and theories to wider scopes. 4) Recognition of relation between two assumptions or two theories. 5) Repair and surgery of assumptions and theories based on experience. 6) Comparing the strength and weakness of different assumptions and theories. 7) Searching for truth. 1) Making assumptions based on experiments. 2) Testing assumptions and theories. 3) Generalization of approved assumptions and theories to wider scopes. 4) Recognition of relation between two assumptions or two theories. 5) Repair and surgery of assumptions and theories based on experience. 6) Comparing the strength and weakness of different assumptions and theories. 7) Searching for truth.

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1)Making assumptions based on experience We have to start from some assumptions, otherwise we face cycles or infinite sequences of backward implications: Aristotle Experience in physics means that our assumptions should be disprovable by experiments: Lakatosh Experience in mathematics means considering important and simple special cases: Newton The realm of assumptions should be the same as the realm of experience. There are several realms of experience: Plato One should develop a language for each and every realm of experience so that one could state assumptions: Vigotsky We have to start from some assumptions, otherwise we face cycles or infinite sequences of backward implications: Aristotle Experience in physics means that our assumptions should be disprovable by experiments: Lakatosh Experience in mathematics means considering important and simple special cases: Newton The realm of assumptions should be the same as the realm of experience. There are several realms of experience: Plato One should develop a language for each and every realm of experience so that one could state assumptions: Vigotsky

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2) Testing assumptions and theories Testing assumptions in physics means performing more careful experiments. Testing theories in physics means comparing implications of a theory with implications of well-established theories and their assumptions. One should design appropriate experiments to test theories or assumptions. Testing assumptions in mathematics means checking important special cases. Testing theories in mathematics means checking if implications could be interpreted by natural statements. The concept of natural statement is based on well- established theories. Testing assumptions in physics means performing more careful experiments. Testing theories in physics means comparing implications of a theory with implications of well-established theories and their assumptions. One should design appropriate experiments to test theories or assumptions. Testing assumptions in mathematics means checking important special cases. Testing theories in mathematics means checking if implications could be interpreted by natural statements. The concept of natural statement is based on well- established theories.

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3) Generalization of assumptions and theories to wider scopes Generalization of assumptions and theories in mathematics is defined by implication. Generalization of assumptions in physics is defined by analogy. Generalization of theories in physics is defined by making a new theory which is more computationally and conceptually able than the previous one in explaining nature. By generalization one can unite the realms of two theories in physics and mathematics. There are natural barriers to generalization of assumptions and theories. Sometimes one can not unite two given theories. Generalization of assumptions and theories in mathematics is defined by implication. Generalization of assumptions in physics is defined by analogy. Generalization of theories in physics is defined by making a new theory which is more computationally and conceptually able than the previous one in explaining nature. By generalization one can unite the realms of two theories in physics and mathematics. There are natural barriers to generalization of assumptions and theories. Sometimes one can not unite two given theories.

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4) Recognition of relation between two assumptions or two theories In mathematics and physics recognition of relations between assumptions usually leads to unification of theories. In mathematics recognition of relations between theories forms a paradigm. In physics recognition of relation between theories is a motivation for searching for a new formulation containing both theories. In physics one is interested in the structure of relations between concepts. Two theories whose structure of concepts are the same, are considered equal in the eyes of physicists. In mathematics one is interested to find relations between two theories for the further development of mathematics. In mathematics and physics recognition of relations between assumptions usually leads to unification of theories. In mathematics recognition of relations between theories forms a paradigm. In physics recognition of relation between theories is a motivation for searching for a new formulation containing both theories. In physics one is interested in the structure of relations between concepts. Two theories whose structure of concepts are the same, are considered equal in the eyes of physicists. In mathematics one is interested to find relations between two theories for the further development of mathematics.

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5) Repair and surgery of assumptions or theories based on experiments In mathematics one does surgery on assumptions or theories in order to repair implications. In physics one does surgery on assumptions in order to repair analogies. Surgery of theories in physics is performed by developing a new theory in similar circumstances so that it contributes to the atlas of concept relations. In mathematics surgery and repair could lead to unification of assumptions or theories. In physics surgery and repair could lead to replacement of a formulation by a more powerful formulation of a theory. In mathematics one does surgery on assumptions or theories in order to repair implications. In physics one does surgery on assumptions in order to repair analogies. Surgery of theories in physics is performed by developing a new theory in similar circumstances so that it contributes to the atlas of concept relations. In mathematics surgery and repair could lead to unification of assumptions or theories. In physics surgery and repair could lead to replacement of a formulation by a more powerful formulation of a theory.

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6) Comparing the strength and weakness of assumptions and theories In mathematics strength and weakness of assumptions are assessed by fluency and naturality of implications. In physics strength and weakness of assumptions are assessed by computational flexibility. In physics strength and weakness of theories are assessed by explaining the nature and clarifying the concept relations. Weakness of theories in mathematics is motivation for looking for a more natural framework. Weakness of theories in physics is motivation for looking for a more powerful and more flexible framework. In mathematics strength and weakness of assumptions are assessed by fluency and naturality of implications. In physics strength and weakness of assumptions are assessed by computational flexibility. In physics strength and weakness of theories are assessed by explaining the nature and clarifying the concept relations. Weakness of theories in mathematics is motivation for looking for a more natural framework. Weakness of theories in physics is motivation for looking for a more powerful and more flexible framework.

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7) Searching for truth Truth is physics is understood by concept relations. Truth in mathematics is understood by analogies. In mathematics one compares two or three theories and find dictionaries between them in order to look for background truth. In physics one compares tens or hundreds of examples in order to look for the true concept relations. In physics concepts are defined by relations. In mathematics concepts are just a model of the truth. Truth is physics is understood by concept relations. Truth in mathematics is understood by analogies. In mathematics one compares two or three theories and find dictionaries between them in order to look for background truth. In physics one compares tens or hundreds of examples in order to look for the true concept relations. In physics concepts are defined by relations. In mathematics concepts are just a model of the truth.

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There are two kinds of mathematicians or physicists Problem Solvers Contribute Local to global point of view Interesting special cases Problem Solvers Contribute Local to global point of view Interesting special cases Theoreticians Contribute Global to local point of view Various generalizations Theoreticians Contribute Global to local point of view Various generalizations

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Advices to a problem solver 1) Writing neat and clean 2) Writing down the summary of arguments 3) Clarifying the logical structure 4) Drawing big and clean figures 5) Recording the process of thinking 6) Deleting irrelevant remarks and explanations 7) Writing down side results 8) Putting down the full proof after finishing the arguments 9) Notifying important steps in form of lemmas 10) Considering the mind of reader 1) Writing neat and clean 2) Writing down the summary of arguments 3) Clarifying the logical structure 4) Drawing big and clean figures 5) Recording the process of thinking 6) Deleting irrelevant remarks and explanations 7) Writing down side results 8) Putting down the full proof after finishing the arguments 9) Notifying important steps in form of lemmas 10) Considering the mind of reader

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Decisions to be made 11) Where to start 12) Listing different strategies to attack the problem 13) Mathematical modeling in different frameworks 14) Using symbols or avoiding symbols 15) Deciding what not to think about 16) Organizing the process of coming to a solution 17) How to put down the proof 11) Where to start 12) Listing different strategies to attack the problem 13) Mathematical modeling in different frameworks 14) Using symbols or avoiding symbols 15) Deciding what not to think about 16) Organizing the process of coming to a solution 17) How to put down the proof

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Habits to find 18) Tasting the problem 19) Gaining personal view towards the problem 20) Talking to oneself 21) Considering all the cases 22) Checking special cases 23) Performing a few steps mentally 24) Thinking simple 18) Tasting the problem 19) Gaining personal view towards the problem 20) Talking to oneself 21) Considering all the cases 22) Checking special cases 23) Performing a few steps mentally 24) Thinking simple

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Personality of good problem solvers 25) Patience 26) Divergent thinking 27) Criticizing conjectures 28) Looking for equivalent formulations 29) Fluency in working with ideas and concepts 30) Looking for simpler models 25) Patience 26) Divergent thinking 27) Criticizing conjectures 28) Looking for equivalent formulations 29) Fluency in working with ideas and concepts 30) Looking for simpler models

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Intuition 31) Geometric imagination 32) Recognizing simple from difficult 33) Decomposition and reduction to simpler problems 34) Jumps of the mind 35) Estimating how much progress has been made 36) Finding the trivial propositions quickly 37) Formulating good conjectures 38) Being creative and directed in constructions 39) Understanding an idea independent of the context 40) Imagination and intuition come before arguments & computations 31) Geometric imagination 32) Recognizing simple from difficult 33) Decomposition and reduction to simpler problems 34) Jumps of the mind 35) Estimating how much progress has been made 36) Finding the trivial propositions quickly 37) Formulating good conjectures 38) Being creative and directed in constructions 39) Understanding an idea independent of the context 40) Imagination and intuition come before arguments & computations

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Theoreticians against problem solvers 1) Psychology of problem solving 2) Psychology of theorization 3) Motivations for problem solving 4) Motivations for theorization 5) Why problem solvers become theorizers 6) How problem solvers become theorizers 7) The complementary role of problem solvers and theorizers in mathematics and physics 1) Psychology of problem solving 2) Psychology of theorization 3) Motivations for problem solving 4) Motivations for theorization 5) Why problem solvers become theorizers 6) How problem solvers become theorizers 7) The complementary role of problem solvers and theorizers in mathematics and physics

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1) Psychology of problem solving Race against time. Taking advantage of a clean mind. Management of thought. Management of language. Management of feelings and mathematical behavior. Development of Intuition. Race against time. Taking advantage of a clean mind. Management of thought. Management of language. Management of feelings and mathematical behavior. Development of Intuition.

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2) Psychology of theorization Race against truth. Taking advantage of a clear wisdom. Management of wisdom. Management of formulation. Management of personality and mathematical qualities. Development of Intuition. Race against truth. Taking advantage of a clear wisdom. Management of wisdom. Management of formulation. Management of personality and mathematical qualities. Development of Intuition.

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3) Motivations for problem solving Even kids enjoy problem solving. People like to revive their childhood memories. One can manage problem solving by local considerations. Problem solving could be performed by understanding special cases which is not very abstract. Even kids enjoy problem solving. People like to revive their childhood memories. One can manage problem solving by local considerations. Problem solving could be performed by understanding special cases which is not very abstract.

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4) Motivations for theorization Theorization needs global considerations and thus develops wisdom. Theorization develops intuition better than problem solving. Theorization manages personality. Theorizers are better problem solvers. Because theorization could be used as a tool for problem solving. Theorization needs global considerations and thus develops wisdom. Theorization develops intuition better than problem solving. Theorization manages personality. Theorizers are better problem solvers. Because theorization could be used as a tool for problem solving.

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5) Why problem solvers become theorizers Personality of problem solvers motivate theorization. Intuition developed by problem solving is one of the main skills for theorization. Forming and management of personality is easier for theorizers. One has to create a language to express intuition which is the job of wisdom and theorizers could educate and manage wisdom more easily. Personality of problem solvers motivate theorization. Intuition developed by problem solving is one of the main skills for theorization. Forming and management of personality is easier for theorizers. One has to create a language to express intuition which is the job of wisdom and theorizers could educate and manage wisdom more easily.

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6) How problem solvers become theorizers Some problems need development of new languages for the solution. Sometimes generalizing problems need theorization. Sometimes recognizing similarity between problems or finding dictionary between them needs generalizing mathematical structures. Some problems need development of new languages for the solution. Sometimes generalizing problems need theorization. Sometimes recognizing similarity between problems or finding dictionary between them needs generalizing mathematical structures.

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7) The complementary role of problem solvers and theorizers Theorizers make the framework, problem solvers check the details. Theorizers decide which problems are important and problem solvers solve them. Problem solvers show directions to theorizers. Theorizers teach problem solvers how to think about a problem. Problem solvers produce arguments and theorizers decide which arguments are illuminating and why. Theorizers make the framework, problem solvers check the details. Theorizers decide which problems are important and problem solvers solve them. Problem solvers show directions to theorizers. Theorizers teach problem solvers how to think about a problem. Problem solvers produce arguments and theorizers decide which arguments are illuminating and why.

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Pairs in physics Wave-particle duality Relativity versus quantum theory Real versus imaginary numbers Electricity versus magnetism Dynamics versus kinematics Bozonic-Fermionic symmetry Mirror symmetry Wave-particle duality Relativity versus quantum theory Real versus imaginary numbers Electricity versus magnetism Dynamics versus kinematics Bozonic-Fermionic symmetry Mirror symmetry

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Pairs in mathematics Geometric versus algebraic thinking Continuous versus discrete thinking Local versus global thinking Categorical versus internal thinking Homology versus cohomology Boundary versus derivation Commutativity versus non-commutativity Rigidity versus deformation Geometric versus algebraic thinking Continuous versus discrete thinking Local versus global thinking Categorical versus internal thinking Homology versus cohomology Boundary versus derivation Commutativity versus non-commutativity Rigidity versus deformation

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Pairs of formulations Lagrangian versus Hamiltonian mechanics Small-scale versus large-scale formulations of mechanics Differential forms versus vector formulation of electromagnetism Differentials versus finite differences Infinitesimals versus limits Hopf-algebra versus geometric formulation of affine algebraic groups Geometric versus algebraic formulation of algebraic curves Lagrangian versus Hamiltonian mechanics Small-scale versus large-scale formulations of mechanics Differential forms versus vector formulation of electromagnetism Differentials versus finite differences Infinitesimals versus limits Hopf-algebra versus geometric formulation of affine algebraic groups Geometric versus algebraic formulation of algebraic curves

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Paradigms Paradigm of wave equation Paradigm of energy Paradigm of mechanics Paradigm of center of gravity Paradigm of intersection theory Paradigm of algebraic geometry Paradigm of derivative Paradigm of integral Paradigm of wave equation Paradigm of energy Paradigm of mechanics Paradigm of center of gravity Paradigm of intersection theory Paradigm of algebraic geometry Paradigm of derivative Paradigm of integral

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The role of language Language is the ultimate tool for forming paradigms. question: Could one conceptually relate two theories, without joining their lingual formulation? Answer: Even physicists do not believe that! This means that people trust language but not intuition. Because they can pretend to speak but they cant even pretend to communicate mental images directly. Language is the ultimate tool for forming paradigms. question: Could one conceptually relate two theories, without joining their lingual formulation? Answer: Even physicists do not believe that! This means that people trust language but not intuition. Because they can pretend to speak but they cant even pretend to communicate mental images directly.

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Marriage of theories Wave-particle marriage give rise to quantum mechanics Relativity-quantum marriage give rise to field theory Real-imaginary marriage give rise to complex numbers Electricity-magnetism marriage give rise to Maxwell equations Geometric versus arithmetic thinking give rise to algebraic thinking Continuous versus discrete thinking give rise to fundamental theorem of calculus Local versus global thinking give rise to superposition Boundary versus differential give rise to Poincare duality Wave-particle marriage give rise to quantum mechanics Relativity-quantum marriage give rise to field theory Real-imaginary marriage give rise to complex numbers Electricity-magnetism marriage give rise to Maxwell equations Geometric versus arithmetic thinking give rise to algebraic thinking Continuous versus discrete thinking give rise to fundamental theorem of calculus Local versus global thinking give rise to superposition Boundary versus differential give rise to Poincare duality

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Fruit of marriage Role of father theory: Provides ideas and intuitions, suggests formulations. Management of relations with other theories. Provides the global structure. Determines how to generalize. Furnishes the soul. Role of father theory: Provides ideas and intuitions, suggests formulations. Management of relations with other theories. Provides the global structure. Determines how to generalize. Furnishes the soul. Role of mother theory: Provides and chooses appropriate formulation and language. Management of internal relations between sub- theories. Provides the local structures. Determines how to solve problems. Furnishes the body. Role of mother theory: Provides and chooses appropriate formulation and language. Management of internal relations between sub- theories. Provides the local structures. Determines how to solve problems. Furnishes the body.

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