Initiation 1. simple (elementary) 2. complex (episodic, instalment, provisional, dummy, proxy) Refashioning 1. request for expansion 2. rejection (direct or indirect) Acceptance 1. explicit 2. implicit basic exchange Clark and Wilkes-Gibbs (1986) B Provide instructions for procedures to be performed on the object. C Check task-status to ensure the actions have the desired effect. A Collaborators come to mutual agreement on the objects to be manipulated: *collaborative physical tasks
Helper: now these fork looking things down here. Worker: uh? H:the metal fork things at the bottom W:okay H: those should go on the wheel axle inside of the nuts on the axle. W: Ok H: are they on ok? W: yep, all set. A: Object identification Request for expansion Expansion Explicit acceptance B: Procedural statement C: Monitor comprehension, task status
Fussell et al (2004:279) A ABC BC B Grounding phase
Instruct partner to add new objects to the domain (introduce new linguistic and semantic contexts) Refer to objects already introduced in dialogue (anphora) Refer to an object that is present in shared domain but not part of linguistic context deictic references (of place)
identifying “this one” informing “the cube in front of me” acknowledging “go to it” (Levelt, 1989) a relatum systema coordinate system A primary deictic reference: the speaker = relatum + origin of the coordinate “the block behind me” A secondary deictic reference: speaker = origin of coordinate system but relatum is some other object “the cube behind the red cube”
Referring act is successful if an addressee identifies the intended referent from the distractors Assumption that pointing acts are used only if ‘proper’ means of referring do not suffice (Piweck, 2007:2): Lester et al, 2009 – only include a pointing act if a pronoun cannot be used to refer to object Claassen (1992) only resorts to pointing acts if no purely verbal means of identification can be found Van der Sluis and Krahmer (2001) pointing as last course of action; pointing act only if the object is sufficiently close and a purely verbal referring act would be too complex.
Half of all referring acts include pointing not a fall-back strategy Speakers more frequently point when object is not part of domain focus (Grosz, 1977) Object referred to in proceeding utterance Object adjacent to an object referred to in proceeding utterance Object in area speaker explicitly directed addressee's attention e.g. “if you look at the bit in the front” Cremers, 1994 focussing expression Dutch speakers, build structure in shared workspace that is same as that of instructor, only builder allowed to move lego blocks, analysis 20 dialogues
10 pairs Dutch speakers, Instructor-builder, Blocks four colours, three sizes, four shapes Four categories of referential expressions: 1. Reference to physical object - colour (97,3%, size, shape (17,8%) 2. Reference to the location of the object in the domain ‘transition of attention’ (new region) - location with respect to participants –hardly every accompanied by pointing gestures - location with respect to other objects - never accompanied by pointing gestures 3. Reference to the orientation of the object in building domain – no gestures 4. References to the history which was developed in course of actions (7.1% utterances) – few accompanying gestures. When used in references to objects that were talked about before and located in domain.
locution- spoken component alone a movement excursion –body parts employed in a gesture (pl. sucession of) home position gesture home position nucleus gesture phrase gesture unit or retraction Kita (1993) – sustained end of stroke may contain more than one gesture phrase Often coincide with idea units semantic coherence or “co-expressiveness” (McNeill, 1992:23) Sacks and Schegloff (2002) often conjunction with nucleus semantic sense conjunction of two different modes of expression multimodal act
McNeill coding system (1992) [(preparation) (pre-stroke hold) stroke (post-stroke hold) (retraction)] () = optional element  = gesture unit and it seemed that [is kissing the man’s nose] DEICTIC-regulatory-index finger pointing at his nose onset and offset of movement Analysis - relevant type of gesture and primary functionality