Presentation on theme: "1. The process of acquiring a second language is more similar to the process of acquiring the first language than it is different. Agree 2. Oral fluency."— Presentation transcript:
1. The process of acquiring a second language is more similar to the process of acquiring the first language than it is different. Agree 2. Oral fluency in English is a strong indicator that an English language learner (ELL) will succeed in the classroom. Disagree 3. Once a student has learned the language of instruction, English, his problems in the classroom are largely over and he should be able to handle academic assignments with little difficulty. Disagree 4. Placing a child learning English in a mainstream classroom will ensure that he/she will spend enough time in English to learn the language quickly. Disagree 5. An initial “silent period” can benefit the ELL because it allows him/her an opportunity to process and decode the new language. Agree Language Acquisition Quiz
Language Acquisition Misconceptions: Young children do not necessarily learn another language quicker than adults, it depends on their prior knowledge of their first language, how much time is spent in learning the new language, and how the person learns. (For example, living in the country versus taking a class.) If English learners do not understand or participate, they are not necessarily considered in need of special education
Language Acquisition o Basic Interpersonal Communications Skills (BICS) “Playground English” - relies heavily on nonlinguistic cues and context - serves purposes that are primarily social rather than intellectual
Language Acquisition Cont. Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) “Classroom English” - proficiency required for abstract, analytical thinking - children need CALP when writing a journal entry describing what they have learned
Silence -It is normal for students to have a “silent period” when learning English as another language. -It is a common misconception to believe students do not understand when they do not participate. -According to Stephen Krashen, “When they begin to speak they are not beginning their acquisition. They are showing off their competence.” (Crawford, 191)
Issues English language learners bring to the classroom Social Concerns -Getting along with peers -Understanding peers and teacher -Cultural differences Pull-out Issues -Working on English takes away from classroom content -Acquiring English but nothing to make connection with Overall Question -How will English learners understand their new language if they do not have a strong comprehensive background in their first language? -There is no way to make that connection.
So here is a little experiment….. Now here is a little experiment…
O VERALL ELL P OPULATION IN W ASHINGTON 8
E NTRY G RADE FOR ELL P OPULATION 9
ELIGIBLE ELLs IN CLASS OF 2008 Of the 1,980 ELLs enrolled as 11th graders in April 2007, 73% (1,441) have been in program for three or more years. By September 2007, of the 1,980 ELLs: 1836 were enrolled 78 had dropped out 60 had transferred out of state 6 had completed high school 10
C LASS OF 2008 ELL S BY E DUCATIONAL S ERVICE D ISTRICTS % Distribution of 1,980 ELLs in Class of 2008 by ESD 2.3% 12.4% 7.4% 10.9% 2.5% 11.7%14.5% 37.2%
WASHINGTON STATE PUBLIC SCHOOLS The Spokane public school districts in 2007 serve more than 1,000 ELLs, out of a total district size of 29,000 students speaking predominantly Russian, Spanish, and Marshallese. Puget Sound, in contrast, during the 2005–2006 school year, 23 percent of Seattle students were classified as ELLs, compared with 9 percent nationally. Of these students, approximately 25 percent spoke Spanish, followed by Vietnamese, Cantonese, Tagalog and Somali. 12
F EDERAL AND S TATE F UNDS F OR ELLS S CHOOL Y EAR State TBIP Federal Title III Local Funds $61.6 million$9.2 millionUnknown 13
State policy as of February 2008: WAC requires that districts “Shall make available to each eligible student a transitional bilingual instruction program, or if the use of two languages is not practicable as provided in WAC , an alternative instructional program.”
In plain English: The official state policy is to provide a three year, transitional bilingual education program to its ELL children. The state understands this isn’t always possible so each district can apply to use an alternate instruction program (AIP) to teach their ELLs. There are four main grounds by which a school district can apply to use an AIP.
The district, despite their best effort, cannot find instructional materials in the student’s first language. There are just too many students in the program to be able to teach them all using the three tear, TBE model. Being in a bilingual classroom would actually harm the child academically. Bilingual teachers cannot be found, 16
How do we know who is an ELL anyway? Every school district is responsible for having written procedures for the identification of each student's primary language and for determining which students with a primary language other than English are eligible for TBIP. Such procedures shall include: A home language survey completed by the student’s parent(s) or guardian(s) which identifies the primary language other than English; Exception: An emancipated youth may complete the HLS. Provisions for testing students for program eligibility;
So you can’t be an educator and not give tests… All students in grades 1-12 must be assessed within ten days of attendance. Exception: Children entering kindergarten may be tested either after May 1st of the spring prior to enrollment, or within ten days of attendance.
What test is she talking about? Potential ELLs are assessed with the State-approved WLPT-II placement test. Students scoring below the transitional level are eligible for TBIP program services. Students who score at the Transitional Level are not eligible for program services.
Once a student has been determined eligible for TBIP is a parent’s/guardian’s consent required before services are provided? NO. Neither parent/guardian consent nor signatures are required for TBIP services. BUT, if TBIP services are declined, then documentation with a signature is required. Must we test students on the WLPT whose parents have waived TBIP services? Yes, testing the student on the WLPT is still required, based on federal guidelines.
How long can she talk about a test… Is an annual assessment required for continued eligibility in the TBIP? WAC (5) Yes. Each district must annually assess eligible TBIP students with the WLPT-II until they reach the Transitional Level and exit the program. 10. Can a district choose to administer the WLPT-II to any student it feels would benefit from this test? NO. The WLPT-II is ONLY for students who are currently eligible for the TBIP or Native American students who qualify for services under Title III.
Finally…a new topic… Districts shall communicate, whenever feasible, with parents of students in the bilingual program, or alternative instruction program in a language they can understand (WAC ). School districts are not required to use the home language survey (HLS) or the Parent Notification Forms provided by the State, however, ALL information contained on the State-provided form must be included in the form used by the school district
EXIT CRITERIA How does a student exit the TBIP? Students must be assessed annually with the Washington Language Proficiency Test (WLPT-II) and meet the exit criteria established by the state. Is the WLPT-II the only assessment that can be used to exit students from the program? YES, the WLPT-II is the only assessment that can be used to exit students from program services.
WHAT IF THREE YEARS ISN”T ENOUGH TIME? Must a district exit a student at the end of 540-days. NO. If a student has not met the exit criteria as determined by the State, she or he can continue in the program. Documentation must support the continued service inclusive of a review of the current program for that student. Are all students in the TBIP required to take the WASL? YES. All TBIP students must participate in all WASL tests scheduled for their grades regardless of the number of years they have been in the U.S. The only exception is students who are in their first year of enrollment in U.S. schools. These students are not required to participate in reading or writing tests, Information about the WASL can be found at the following website: 24
ESL Models Submersion: aka "Sink or Swim" -Student placed into a mainstream classroom. -Not given any translation, learning resources or teacher assistance. -The student is to learn for themself -Ultimately suffering academically and socially. - This method is illegal in the United States.
ESL Models Cont. ESL Pullout: "Submersion plus ESL" -One of the most popular practiced models % of instruction will be in English, WITHOUT translation -For min. a day, the ELL student will be pulled out of the classroom for tailored instruction, missing out on learning in the mainstream classroom. -Tailored instruction is provided by certified ESL teachers. -ELL student still suffers academically, not realistic to become fluent with this little amount of assistance.
ESL Models Cont. Two-Way Bilingual Education : "Dual Immersion" -ELL students in early grades are taught in their first language 90% of the time, and 10% English. -As they progress through their grades, a 50/50 model is adopted, 50% English/50% Native language -ELL and native English speakers are taught literacy and subjects in both languages.
ESL Models Cont. Two-Way Bilingual Education : "Dual Immersion Cont: -Provided with peer tutoring -Teachers are certified in Bilingual Education -Involvement of parents -Goal is to have students become biliterate.
Choose one of the following: T&L 333 Introduction to English as a Second Language (3) T&L 510 Theoretical Foundations of Bilingual/ESL Education (3) T&L 339/549 Communicating in Diverse Classrooms (3) T&L 401/501 Practicum in Bilingual/ESL Education (2) T&L 409/509 Curriculum and Assessment for Bilingual/ ESL Education (3) T&L 414/514 Methods and Materials for Bilingual/ESL Education (3) Road to the ESL Endorsement:
Elective Course, chose one from the following: T&L 504 Linguistics for Teachers (3) T&L 516 Computer Assisted Language Learning (3) T&L 522 Topics for Education (3) Anth 350 Speech, Thought, and Culture (3) Anth 355 Language in History (3) Anth 450 Descriptive Linguistics (3) Engl 454 History of the English Language (3) Engl 443 Problems in English Linguistics: Syntax and Phonology (3) Engl 458 Topics in Sociolinguistics and Psycholinguistics (3)