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Detecting Cuts in Sensor Networks Subhash Suri UC Santa Barbara (Joint work with N. Shrivastava and C. Toth)

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Sensor Networks Wirelessly networked devices that sense, compute, actuate. Instrumentation of real world. Applications in surveillance, tracking, habitat monitoring. Virtual "eyes and ears" for remote monitoring.

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Motivation Operational conditions often severe and hostile. Devices physically exposed and more vulnerable than wired Internet. Communication medium fragile. How can we ensure that any significant damage to our remote eyes-and- ears is quickly and reliably detected?

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Network Cuts We focus on a particular kind of failure: network partition by a linear cut. -cut: network partition where -fraction of sensors cut off from the base station. Linear -cut: partition defined by a line. Two equivalent views: physical disabling of sensors, or communication disruption along the cut. Linear -cut

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Resource Constraints Continuously polling each and every sensor is infeasible. Communication is the largest source of power drain. Sensors have limited on-board power. Bandwidth is also limited, as multi-hop routing requires several other nodes to forward a packet. Need for a low overhead, low latency, high confidence, cut detection scheme.

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A Model of Monitoring The base station knows the locations of all sensors. A small subset of nodes is designated as sentinels. Each live sentinel node sends a heartbeat message to the base station per epoch. No message from the dead sentinels. The live/dead signature vector at the base station is sufficient to decide if an -cut has occurred. Sentinels monitoring using Sentinel Set

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Related Work The sentinel model is inspired by work of Kleinberg. His setting is a wired network: detect an -cut that results from cutting off at most k edges in the graph. Designate O(poly(k), 1/ ) nodes as sentinels, who engage in pairwise communication.

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Geometric Cuts Spatially correlated cuts are more natural in sensor networks. Geometric cut complexity (linear, circular etc.) more meaningful than edge failures. A major drawback of Kleinberg scheme is the presence of False Positive. With high probability, it catches all -cuts, but many of the reported cuts can be quite small (False Alarms). In remotely deployed sensor networks, checking a false alarm is expensive. A sensor field Linear -cut

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Sampling Methods By the -net theory, an O( 1/ log 1 ) size random sample of nodes can act as a detection set. But this scheme has a large rate of false positives. -approximation sample eliminates the false positives, but it requires too large a sentinel set. For instance, with = 0.1 and = 0.05, the -approximation has size is at least 10,000

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-cuts and approximation guarantees Cuts must be defined as a fraction of the network size. Otherwise, catching all cuts of size k requires at least n/k detection nodes. Sharp threshold impossible as well: catch all -cuts, but no cuts of size < n. Such a sharp cutoff requires at least n/2 detection nodes. Our Result: A detection set of size O(1/ ) that detects every -cut, and every reported cut has size at least n/2. 0 1 2 n-1 n-2 k

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Geometry of Network Cuts Think of sensors as points in the plane. A linear cut is a line that partitions the point set. The point-line duality: point (a,b) line (y = ax - b) L L* It preserves above/below relationship: point p above line L point L* above line p*.

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Geometry of Network Cuts A line L is an -cut if the dual point L* lies above n dual lines. Thus, the set of all linear -cuts is the region above the n level (symmetrically, below the (n - n) level). Imagine a polygonal curve (separator) made up of dual lines that lies between n/2 and n levels. Then, the primal points corresponding to these lines form a detection set. Two issues: Is there such a separator using just a few lines? We don't know the cut line L. How will we decide that L* lies above the separator? L L*

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Complexity of a Separator A level can have (nlogn) segments. Average complexity of a level is (n). We want a separator of size roughly 1/ (independent of n!). We construct a zig-zag path between levels n/2 and n. Start at left, follow the edge until top level hit. Reflect and follow until bottom level hit, reflect and continue. Claim: At least one zigzag separator path has O(1/ ) segments. It lies between n/2 and n levels.

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Complexity of Separator Zig zag paths are edge-disjoint. Total number of bends at most the number of vertices in the top and bottom levels. We choose two levels that each have O(n) vertices, and are ( n) levels apart. By the averaging argument, at least one zigzag path will have O(1/ ) segments. The dual points of these lines are our sentinels.

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Detecting Cuts from Sentinels For each dead (live) sensor, we know that the dual of the cut L* must be above (below) the line. In this example, w1, w3, w4 are dead; others alive. The intersection of these halfspaces gives a convex cell. If this cell is above the separator, we declare an n. Otherwise, it's a false alarm. Base station computes the dual of the sentinel nodes only. (The arrangement formed by the separator lines.) Base station learns the dead/alive bit of each sentinel.

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Sample Sentinel Sets Uniform N = 5000, = 0.01 No. of sentinels = 14 US-census data N = 5000, = 0.01 No. of Sentinels = 12 Non-uniform N = 5000, =0.01 No. of sentinels = 14

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Scalability with Network Size

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Scalability with N = 5000

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Sentinels vs. Random Sampling Two natural random sampling schemes. Choose as many random nodes as our sentinel schemes. Random Sampling k nodes chosen uniformly at random. Report if more than k sentinels dead. Radial Sampling k directions chosen at random, and for each choose the n extreme vertex. Report if any of these k dies. k-random directions

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False Positives Generated 250 cuts by picking points randomly between levels 1 and n/2 These cuts are all below the appr threshold, and should not be reported. Random and radial sampling schemes misreport some of them as cuts. No False Positives in Sentinel Set

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False Negatives 250 cuts by picking points randomly between level n and 2 n These are all above the approximation threshold, and so should be reported. Random and radial sampling schemes failed to report some of them as cuts. No False Negatives in Sentinel Set

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Extensions, Future Directions Robustness to random sensor failures Make c independent sentinel sets, take the majority vote to detect cuts Fast randomized algorithm to find sentinel set Future work More flexible cut definitions: More complex shape. Majority but not all sensors destroyed. Distributed detection.

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