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1 Guidelines in Rheumatology The Diagnosis and Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Guidelines in Rheumatology The Diagnosis and Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Guidelines in Rheumatology The Diagnosis and Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis

2 2 Genetic Predisposition for Development of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) AS and HLA-B27 – strong association Ethnic and racial variability in presence and expression of HLA-B27 HLA-B27 positive AS and HLA- B27 positive Western European Whites 8%90% African Americans2% to 4%48%

3 3 Natural History of AS Highly variable Early stages: spontaneous remissions and exacerbations Spectrum of severity –Mild with limited sacroiliac or lumbar joint involvement to severe, debilitating disease Pre-spondylitic phase – unrecognized period of progressive structural damage over a 5-to-10-year period –Average delay in diagnosis is 8.9 years

4 4 Burden of Illness Functional disability Potential complications Quality-of-life issues –Pain, stiffness, fatigue, sleep problems Healthcare costs = $6720 annually –75% indirect medical costs Missed workdays Limited-activity days

5 5 Obstacles to Desirable Outcomes in AS Until Recently Diagnostic and classification limitations Lack of universally accepted instruments to assess AS Until recently, limited treatment options –NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, DMARDs Mostly symptomatic relief only Minimal impact on natural course of disease

6 6 Advances in Medicine: Hope for Patients With AS Increased understanding of pathophysiologic processes Advent of Anti-TNF agents International meetings by ASAS (ASsessment in AS working group) to address need for universal standards Development of ASAS guidelines –US modifications to the ASAS International Guidelines to meet realities of clinical practice in the United States

7 7 Pathogenesis of AS Incompletely understood, but knowledge increasing Interaction between HLA-B27 and T-cell response Increased concentration of T-cells, macrophages, and proinflammatory cytokines –Role of TNF Inflammatory reactions produce hallmarks of disease

8 8 Clinical Features of AS Skeletal Axial arthritis (eg, sacroiliitis and spondylitis) Arthritis of girdle joints (hips and shoulders) Peripheral arthritis uncommon Others: enthesitis, osteoporosis, vertebral, fractures, spondylodiscitis, pseudoarthrosis Extraskeletal Acute anterior uveitis Cardiovascular involvement Pulmonary involvement Cauda equina syndrome Enteric mucosal lesions Amyloidosis, miscellaneous

9 9 Modified New York Criteria for the Diagnosis of AS Clinical Criteria –Low back pain, > 3 months, improved by exercise, not relieved by rest –Limitation of lumbar spine motion, sagittal and frontal planes –Limitation of chest expansion relative to normal values for age and sex Radiologic Criteria –Sacroiliitis grade 2 bilaterally or grade 3 – 4 unilaterally Grading –Definite AS if radiologic criterion present plus at least one clinical criteria –Probable AS if: Three clinical criterion Radiologic criterion present, but no signs or symptoms satisfy clinical criteria

10 10 Disease Activity Assessment IndexMetric BASFIDisability level BASDAIDisease activity level ASAS - ICComposite sum of disease activity BASFI = Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index BASDAI = Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index ASAS - IC = ASsessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis Improvement Criteria

11 11 Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) Visual analog scale (VAS) – 10 cm Mean score of 10 questions Questions level of functional disability, including: –Ability to bend at the waist and perform tasks –Looking over your shoulder without turning your body –Standing unsupported for 10 minutes without discomfort –Rising from a seated position without the use of an aid –Exercising and performing strenuous activity –Performing daily activities of living –Climbing 12 to 15 steps without aid

12 12 Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) A self-administered instrument (using 10-cm horizontal visual analog scales) that comprises 6 questions: Over the last one week, how would you describe the overall level of: –Fatigue/tiredness –AS spinal (back, neck) or hip pain –Pain/swelling in joints other than above –Level of discomfort from tender areas –Morning stiffness from the time you awake –How long does morning stiffness last?

13 13 ASsessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) ASAS 20: An improvement of > 20% and absolute improvement of > 10 units on a 0–100 scale in > 3 of the following 4 domains: –Patient global assessment (by VAS global assessment) –Pain assessment (the average of VAS total and nocturnal pain scores) –Function (represented by BASFI) –Inflammation (the average of the BASDAIs last two VAS concerning morning stiffness intensity and duration) Absence of deterioration in the potential remaining domain –(deterioration is defined as > 20% worsening)

14 14 Introduction of Anti-TNF Agents for the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis US Modifications of the ASAS International Guidelines for Use of Anti-TNF Agents

15 15 Tumor Necrosis Factor: Functions of the Proinflammatory Cytokine Stimulation of endothelial cells to express adhesion molecules Recruitment of white blood cells in inflamed synovium and skin Induction of inflammatory cytokine production (e.g., IL-1, IL-6) Stimulation of synovial cells to release collagenases Induction of bone and cartilage resorption Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation

16 16 Pathogenesis of Joint Destruction Bone Erosions Macrophages Endothelium Synoviocytes Proinflammatory cytokines Chemokines Adhesion molecules Metalloproteinase synthesis Articular Cartilage Degradation Increased Cell Infiltration Increased Inflammation Osteoclast progenitors RANKL expression TNF

17 17 US Modifications of the ASAS International Guidelines: Appropriate Patients for Anti-TNF Therapy Definitive AS according to Modified New York Criteria Active disease for 4 weeks –BASDAI > 4 cm at two times, 1 month apart –Physician Global Assessment 2 on Likert Scale Treatment Failures –All types AS – lack of response/intolerability > 2 NSAIDs for 3 months –Patients with peripheral arthritis – lack of response/intolerability to > 1 DMARD, sulfasalazine preferred

18 18 Contraindications for Anti-TNF Therapy Current or recurrent infections Tuberculosis Multiple sclerosis Lupus Malignancy Pregnant or lactating

19 19 Monitoring and Discontinuing Treatment With Anti-TNF Agents ASAS core set of outcome parameters to monitor patients –Physical function, pain, spinal mobility, patients global assessment, stiffness, peripheral joints and entheses, acute phase reactant, fatigue Assess at 6 to 8 weeks and discontinue patients who do not meet response criteria –BASDAI: Reduction of 2 units and –Physician Global Assessment > 1

20 20 Anti-TNF Agents Etanercept –Approved in the United States and Europe for treatment of AS –Dose: 50 mg SC per week as two 25 mg injections administered on same day or 3 to 4 days apart Infliximab –Approved in Europe for treatment of AS –Dose: 5 mg/kg IV at week 0, 2, and 6 and every 6 to 8 weeks thereafter

21 21 Etanercept Vs. Infliximab: Pharmacologic Characteristics EtanerceptInfliximab Mechanism of TNF inhibition Decoy receptor for TNF Binds to TNF and inhibits it from binding with TNF receptor Terminal half-life4.25 +/ days (mean+/- SD) 8 to 9.5 days (median values) In vitro lysis of cells expressing transmembrane TNF NoYes Mode of administrationSubcutaneousIV infusion (over 2 to 3 hours)

22 22 Etanercept vs Infliximab: Clinical Differences Etanercept –Approved by FDA for treatment of psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and AS Infliximab –Approved by FDA for treatment of Crohns disease and rheumatoid arthritis Safety –Tuberculosis and histoplasmosis Post-marketing reports and FDA surveillance database indicate disproportionate association between infliximab and risk of such (opportunistic) infections

23 23 Etanercept for the Treatment of AS: Clinical Trials Marzo-Ortega, et al. –Significant improvement in all clinical and functional parameters with etanercept treatment –86% MRI-detected entheseal lesions regressed completely or improved Marzo-Ortega, et al. –Mean hip and spine BMD increased with 24 weeks etanercept treatment Gorman, et al. –80% etanercept-treated patients, 30% placebo-treated patients achieved ASAS 20 at 4 months –6-month extension: 83%, 80%, 60% achieved ASAS 20, ASAS 50, ASAS 70, respectively 95% of patients treated only with etanercept (not placebo) over 10 months achieved ASAS 20

24 24 Etanercept for the Treatment of AS: Clinical Trials (cont) Brandt, et al. –57% etanercept-treated patients and 6% placebo-treated patients improved at least 50% on BASDAI –56% in placebo group improved following switch to etanercept –Improvements ceased once etanercept therapy was discontinued Davis, et al. –57% etanercept-treated patients and 22% placebo-treated patients achieved ASAS 20 at 24 weeks

25 25 Etanercept: Adverse Events Events in > 5% of Patients Placebo % (n=139) Etanercept % (n=138) Injection site reaction930* Injection site bruising1721 Upper respiratory infection1220 Headache1214 Accidental injury412 Diarrhea98 Rash711 Rhinitis76 Abdominal pain56 Dizziness26 Flu syndrome74 *P<.0001; P<.050; P<.020

26 26 Etanercept: Adverse Events (cont) Serious infections and sepsis –Mainly in patients with underlying illness or receiving immunosuppressive therapy CNS demyelinating disorders –Causal relationship unclear –Use with caution or avoid use in patients with transverse myelitis, optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis Pancytopenia –Causal relationship unclear –Use with caution in patients with history of hematologic abnormalities Autoantibody formation – Discontinue if lupus-like symptoms are observed Heart failure –Carefully monitor if prescribed to patients with heart failure

27 27 Infliximab for the Treatment of AS: Clinical Trials Brandt, et al. – 50% improvement on outcome variables (ie, BASDAI, BASFI, pain on VAS, BASMI, QOL (SF-36) with 5 mg/kg dose of infliximab; 15% improvement with 3 mg/kg dose Braun –53% of infliximab-treated patients and 9% placebo-treated patients experienced regression of disease activity of 50% –Function and quality of life significantly improved with infliximab treatment (P<.0001) Van den Bosch –Significant improvement with infliximab compared with placebo on patient and physician global assessments of disease activity (P<.001)

28 28 Infliximab for the Treatment of AS: Clinical Trials (cont) Stone, et al. –Improvement of > 60% at week 6 and > 75% at week 14 observed in BASDAI, BASFI, patient global assessment, physician global assessment, spinal pain and total body pain, and HAQ –Improvement on MRI scans Maksymowych, et al. –Significant improvement* on BASDAI; significant mean reduction in BASFI, BASGI, ESR, and CRP at week 14 –Efficacy sustained at 1 year *P<.001, all parameters except CRP, P=.01

29 29 Infliximab: Adverse Events Events in > 5% of Patients Placebo% (n=81) Infliximab% (n=430) Acute infusion reaction10*20* Upper respiratory infection3540 Headache2129 Diarrhea19 Rash718 Rhinitis14 Abdominal pain1217 Fatigue913 Arthralgia713 * Approximation based on all clinical studies

30 30 Infliximab: Adverse Events (cont) Serious infections and sepsis –Cases in patients on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy Neurologic events –Use with caution in patients with pre-existing CNS demyelinating or seizure disorders Autoantibody formation –Discontinue if lupus-like symptoms are observed Heart failure –Consider other treatment options in patients with heart failure –Closely monitor patients if infliximab is administered

31 31 Anti-TNF Agents: Summary Anti-TNF agents target underlying inflammatory process –Alter disease progression –Provide symptomatic relief Recommended treatment after trial of chronic daily NSAIDs, physical therapy, and regular exercise Good safety and tolerability profiles Long-term data needed Implement treatment guidelines to ensure proper treatment given to appropriate patients –Treatment algorithm presented on next two slides

32 32 AS Treatment Algorithm: Patients with Axial AS Alternative Options Pamidronate Thalidomide *Only biologic approved for treatment of AS in US and Europe Approved in Europe only for treatment of AS This treatment algorithm contains unlabeled use of infliximab, pamidronate and thalidomide. Anti-TNF agents Etanercept 50 mg SC per week as two 25 mg injections in the same day or 3-4 days apart* Infliximab 5 mg/kg at 0, 2, and 6 weeks and every 6 to 8 weeks thereafter Contraindicated in patients with infections, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, malignancy, and pregnancy/lactation Initiate physical therapy plan with long- term exercise program to accompany pharmacologic intervention Emphasize posture, range of motion, and strengthening NSAIDs or Selective COX-2 inhibitors Efficacy and safety comparable between non-selective agents Selective COX-2 efficacy comparable, better safety profile, higher cost that non-selective NSAIDs Failure of at least two different NSAIDs/selective COX-2 inhibitors for minimum of 3 months

33 33 AS Treatment Algorithm: Patients with Predominantly Symptomatic Peripheral Arthritis Alternative Options Pamidronate Thalidomide * Only biologic approved for treatment of AS in US and Europe Approved in Europe only for treatment of AS This treatment algorithm contains unlabeled use of infliximab, pamidronate and thalidomide. Anti-TNF agents Etanercept 50 mg SC per week as two 25 mg injections in the same day or 3-4 days apart* Infliximab 5 mg/kg at 0, 2, and 6 weeks and every 6 to 8 weeks thereafter Contraindicated in patients with infections, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, malignancy, and pregnancy/lactation DMARDs Preferably sulfasalazine Initiate physical therapy plan with long- term exercise program to accompany pharmacologic intervention Emphasize posture, range of motion, and strengthening NSAIDs or Selective COX-2 inhibitors Efficacy and safety comparable between non-selective agents Selective COX-2 efficacy comparable, better safety profile, higher cost that non-selective NSAIDs Failure of at least two different NSAIDs/selective COX-2 inhibitors for minimum of 3 months


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