3Difference Between Essay and Short Story Authors are concerned principally with expressing ideas and experiencesAuthors are concerned principally with character and plotMost often written in expository modePrimarily narrativesSeldom contain plots – if they do these plots are of secondary importancePlot and conflicts are central to most short storiesUsually written to inform, argue or persuade – they may entertainAlthough they can have serious themes, short stories are written, above all, to create a simple, unified, emotional impact on us – they SHOULD entertainMost often FACTUALFICTIONAL
5METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT Facts and statisticsIncidents and anecdotes (short personal accounts)Comparison and contrastCause and effectExamplesReasonsProcess analysis (explaining the steps in a process)DefinitionsClassification and divisionNote: The four essay types are also considered by some to be methods of development
6Terms for English 3201: essay development – argumentation / persuasion essay development – cause and effectessay development – classification and divisionessay development – compare and contrastessay development – definitionessay development – descriptionessay development – examples and illustrationessay development – expositionessay development – narrationessay development – process analysis
8Narrative Essay - Characteristics Tells a story or recounts events as they happened (think of a beginning, middle and end to the story) - has a plotTold from a particular point of view - uses “I” often (telling about something true that happened to you)Can have dialogueHas a strong moral of the story or theme usually at the end (the theme can be implied throughout the story or stated explicitly)
9Narrative Essays Continued… Writing a composition about aspects of your life would be creating a narrative piece of writing. Sample topics can include:A childhood memoryA school experienceAn event that changed your thinkingA time when you were pleasantly surprisedAn embarrassing moment
10When Writing the Narrative Essay Keep in Mind the Following: It is important to develop a strong beginning, middle and endFocus on only one eventDiscuss your characters and plot so that it is believableYou do not have to follow the conventional 5 paragraph essay formatCreate a strong themeDon’t be afraid to draw upon descriptive elements – it is good to affect your reader’s senses
11Sample of Narrative Writing I am in the kitchen, doing dishes, when I hear that commercial again: “More beans, please.” I pause and let the memories wash over me, memories of a day long past. It was a beautiful day, a quiet family lunch, and all the more precious because time was running short. Mother had cancer. What a haunting word that is when it stands alone and undressed.Excerpt from “More Beans Please” by Jean MartinAfter reading complete essay:Recount what happened?What kind of character was “Mom”? How did she affect the writer?Write a theme statement reflecting the message that the writer wants to send.See handout from class for complete essay
12Your assignment asks you to write a narrative essay Narrative Essay WorkWrite narrative essay ( words)Complete narrative essay “SnapShot: Lost Lives of Women” (page 384 of Echoes 12 – complete questions 1-4)NEWS FLASH:Your assignment asks you to write a narrative essay
13Descriptive Essay - Characteristics Describes in great detail a person, place, object, animal, idea, feelingUses many adjectives and vivid verbs to give you a picture of what is being described – purpose is to create a clear picture in reader’s mindAppeals to the five senses (how? By perhaps using analogy, metaphor, simile, personification…) – uses imageryFocus is on description, not on events narrated…and how do I describe it?
14Descriptive Essay cont… …I just can’t describe it in words.Descriptive Essay cont…Has one clear DOMINANT IMPRESSION (the central feeling or mood of the piece) – included in the thesis statement. The dominant impression guides the writing. DOMINANT IMPRESSION: (Think of how dominant genes are passed on from parent to child – these become the most apparent character traits, looks, ways of acting dominant impression is something like this; it is the central mood or feeling of a piece passed on to you, the reader) Common impressions evident in writing could be love, sadness, fear, solitude, peacefulness, beauty, confusion, happiness, concern.Can be objective (described without feeling – Objective Description gives a very accurate picture: in a catalogue, scientific description, police report and any writing where the main purpose is accuracy)Can be subjective (described with feeling – although the objective attributes are described as well, even with subjective writing – Subjective Description gives the author’s impression and may also create mood. It would be used for describing a personality instead of a physical appearance)
15SAMPLE DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH “For years they had worked together. He put into it his very being – both the sweat of his brow and the patience of his hand. In return, it gave back to him the necessities of life: food for the table and grain for the market. Of late, it had not been so kind. Years of drought, spring flooding, and grasshopper plagues had eaten away at his strength and commitment. All that remained of the man sat before me, beaten by the very land he had nurtured.”SAMPLE DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPHSee full essay in classAlso see sample essay entitled “That Empty Feeling”Thesis and dominant impression (defeat)You know this essay is going to describe a man who has been defeatedExcerpt from “Return to the Land” by Jan Bell
16Descriptive Essay Topics Sample descriptive topics include:A beach settingA kitchen after a three year old has eaten spaghettiSomeone very admirableAn inviting vacation spotThe way to your cabinA favourite night club
17Descriptive Essay Work NEWS FLASH:Your assignment asks you to write a descriptive essayDescriptive Essay WorkWrite descriptive essay ( words)Read descriptive essay “Sojourners” (page 353 of Echoes 12 – complete questions 1-4)
18Expository Essay Characteristics Explains or informs (how to do something, how something happened, how something works, why something should be done, or what something is)Uses first or third personContains a thesis in the first paragraph (similar to “hypothesis” - the question that you will answer)Found in textbooks, vehicle manuals, cookbooks, newspaper editorials/articles, business memos, government reports, pamphlets/brochures, student writing, etc.
19Sample Expository Paragraph In order to safely and efficiently operate a solid fuel heating system, there are certain precautions to consider. The chimney connectors and joints, and the chimney flue must be cleaned regularly. The wood supply should be kept at least five feet from the stove. Gasoline, kerosene, charcoal starter, or similar liquid should never be used to start a fire. It is a good idea to maintain a briskly burning fire with well-seasoned wood in order to reduce creosote build-up. Ashes should be put in covered metal containers and wet down; keep them outside until they can be disposed of safely. A fire extinguisher, of the right type, should be installed near the stove; every family member should know how to operate it. The safety of the entire household may be at stake.
20Expository EssayRead model expository essay in class “Our Changing World” (this will be passed out by me in class)
21Sample Expository Topics Ice fishingTravelling with small childrenOverhauling a snowmobile or other engineHow animals protect themselves from their enemiesLosing weight
22Your assignment asks you to write an expository essay Expository Essay WorkComplete expository essay “The Black Widow” (page 346 of Echoes 12 – complete questions 1-4)Write expository essay ( words)NEWS FLASH:Your assignment asks you to write an expository essay
23Argumentative / Persuasive Essay Characteristics Uses facts, anecdotes, and descriptions to convince the reader (of the truth of a thesis)Any topic for which there is more than one answer or position is suitable for argument and persuasionFound in many forms of communication such as opinion pieces, essays, editorials, letters to the editor, advertisements, speeches and debates - You can find issues by reading the editorial pages of a newspaper, watching television or listening to radio
24Argumentative / Persuasive Characteristics cont.. PersuasionBegins by clearly stating the point of view of the writer. This statement is the thesis of the argument, or leads directly into the thesis, and should be as specific as possible.For example:“Building more bike paths and lanes would reduce air pollution in our city.”is a more specific statement than“There aren’t enough bike paths and lanes.”This kind of writing can persuade by appealing to the reader’s intellect through reason and logic. Facts and evidence are usually presented to support the argument.Sometimes an issue that affects the writer personally is argued through reason and logic. Facts and evidence are usually presented to support the argument.Persuasion goes one step further than argument by encouraging the reader to alter his or her attitude or behavior. Persuasive writing often makes an appeal to the reader’s feelings.
25Sample Argumentative / Persuasive Topic and Introductory Paragraph TOPIC: Coyotes: a threat to our community and should be wiped out. “There is no sense ‘beating around the bush’; the best thing to do is get straight into the bush and get rid of every last coyote in this province! The coyote is a non-indigenous creature that now inhabits the island of Newfoundland and in such large numbers that they are showing up on school grounds, in people’s neighbourhoods, and on summer camping sites. Coyotes are not the beautiful, harmless, timid part of nature that some people claim them to be. Rather, coyotes are aggressive, clever, predators that will attack and devour pets, large and small wildlife and even large and small human beings; they are also the perfect breeding ground for widespread rabies so it is a must that they be annihilated in this province to protect everyone here.”
26Argumentative/Persuasice Essay Work Complete argumentative/persuasive essay “The Enchanted Forest” (page 318 of Echoes 12 – complete questions 1-4)Write arumentative/persuasive essay ( words)NEWS FLASH:Your assignment asks you to write an argumentative/persuasive essay
27TransitionsUsing transitions will enhance the reader’s understanding. You have a handout of a list of transitional words and phrases (found in “Unity and Coherence” handout)What do the following forms of Transitions mean?oppositional - according to the opposite ofspatial - where things are arranged in spacetemporal/chronological - according to timelogical - according to sound reason
28Emphatic DevicesHow do writers create emphasis by using words on paper?listing (numerical order, bullets, sequencing)font (bold, unusual, capitalization, italics,underline)punctuation (colon:, dash-, exclamation mark!, ellipsis..., brackets( ))repetition, parallel structure (create coherence but also used for emphasis)