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Presentation on theme: "FROM THE FRENCH WORD ESSAYER MEANING TO ATTEMPT/TO TRY The Essay."— Presentation transcript:


2 An Essay is…

3 Difference Between Essay and Short Story ESSAYSHORT STORY Authors are concerned principally with expressing ideas and experiences Authors are concerned principally with character and plot Most often written in expository mode Primarily narratives Seldom contain plots – if they do these plots are of secondary importance Plot and conflicts are central to most short stories Usually written to inform, argue or persuade – they may entertain Although they can have serious themes, short stories are written, above all, to create a simple, unified, emotional impact on us – they SHOULD entertain Most often FACTUAL FICTIONAL

4 ESSAY TYPES Essay Types: Narrative Descriptive Expository Argumentative/Persuasive

5 METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT Facts and statistics Incidents and anecdotes (short personal accounts) Comparison and contrast Cause and effect Examples Reasons Process analysis (explaining the steps in a process) Definitions Classification and division Note: The four essay types are also considered by some to be methods of development

6 Terms for English 3201: essay development – argumentation / persuasion essay development – cause and effect essay development – classification and division essay development – compare and contrast essay development – definition essay development – description essay development – examples and illustration essay development – exposition essay development – narration essay development – process analysis


8 Narrative Essay - Characteristics Tells a story or recounts events as they happened (think of a beginning, middle and end to the story) - has a plot Told from a particular point of view - uses I often (telling about something true that happened to you) Can have dialogue Has a strong moral of the story or theme usually at the end (the theme can be implied throughout the story or stated explicitly)

9 Narrative Essays Continued… Writing a composition about aspects of your life would be creating a narrative piece of writing. Sample topics can include: A childhood memory A school experience An event that changed your thinking A time when you were pleasantly surprised An embarrassing moment

10 When Writing the Narrative Essay Keep in Mind the Following: It is important to develop a strong beginning, middle and end Focus on only one event Discuss your characters and plot so that it is believable You do not have to follow the conventional 5 paragraph essay format Create a strong theme Dont be afraid to draw upon descriptive elements – it is good to affect your readers senses

11 Sample of Narrative Writing I am in the kitchen, doing dishes, when I hear that commercial again: More beans, please. I pause and let the memories wash over me, memories of a day long past. It was a beautiful day, a quiet family lunch, and all the more precious because time was running short. Mother had cancer. What a haunting word that is when it stands alone and undressed. Excerpt from More Beans Please by Jean Martin See handout from class for complete essay After reading complete essay: Recount what happened? What kind of character was Mom? How did she affect the writer? Write a theme statement reflecting the message that the writer wants to send.

12 Narrative Essay Work Write narrative essay ( words) Complete narrative essay SnapShot: Lost Lives of Women (page 384 of Echoes 12 – complete questions 1-4) NEWS FLASH: Your assignment asks you to write a narrative essay

13 Descriptive Essay - Characteristics Describes in great detail a person, place, object, animal, idea, feeling Uses many adjectives and vivid verbs to give you a picture of what is being described – purpose is to create a clear picture in readers mind Appeals to the five senses (how? By perhaps using analogy, metaphor, simile, personification…) – uses imagery Focus is on description, not on events narrated …and how do I describe it?

14 Descriptive Essay cont… Has one clear DOMINANT IMPRESSION (the central feeling or mood of the piece) – included in the thesis statement. The dominant impression guides the writing. DOMINANT IMPRESSION: (Think of how dominant genes are passed on from parent to child – these become the most apparent character traits, looks, ways of acting dominant impression is something like this; it is the central mood or feeling of a piece passed on to you, the reader) Common impressions evident in writing could be love, sadness, fear, solitude, peacefulness, beauty, confusion, happiness, concern. Can be objective (described without feeling – Objective Description gives a very accurate picture: in a catalogue, scientific description, police report and any writing where the main purpose is accuracy) Can be subjective (described with feeling – although the objective attributes are described as well, even with subjective writing – Subjective Description gives the authors impression and may also create mood. It would be used for describing a personality instead of a physical appearance) …I just cant describe it in words.

15 For years they had worked together. He put into it his very being – both the sweat of his brow and the patience of his hand. In return, it gave back to him the necessities of life: food for the table and grain for the market. Of late, it had not been so kind. Years of drought, spring flooding, and grasshopper plagues had eaten away at his strength and commitment. All that remained of the man sat before me, beaten by the very land he had nurtured. SAMPLE DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH See full essay in class Also see sample essay entitled That Empty Feeling Thesis and dominant impression (defeat) You know this essay is going to describe a man who has been defeated Excerpt from Return to the Land by Jan Bell

16 Descriptive Essay Topics Sample descriptive topics include: A beach setting A kitchen after a three year old has eaten spaghetti Someone very admirable An inviting vacation spot The way to your cabin A favourite night club

17 Descriptive Essay Work Write descriptive essay ( words) Read descriptive essay Sojourners (page 353 of Echoes 12 – complete questions 1-4) NEWS FLASH: Your assignment asks you to write a descriptive essay

18 Expository Essay Characteristics Explains or informs (how to do something, how something happened, how something works, why something should be done, or what something is) Uses first or third person Contains a thesis in the first paragraph (similar to hypothesis - the question that you will answer) Found in textbooks, vehicle manuals, cookbooks, newspaper editorials/articles, business memos, government reports, pamphlets/brochures, student writing, etc.

19 Sample Expository Paragraph In order to safely and efficiently operate a solid fuel heating system, there are certain precautions to consider. The chimney connectors and joints, and the chimney flue must be cleaned regularly. The wood supply should be kept at least five feet from the stove. Gasoline, kerosene, charcoal starter, or similar liquid should never be used to start a fire. It is a good idea to maintain a briskly burning fire with well- seasoned wood in order to reduce creosote build-up. Ashes should be put in covered metal containers and wet down; keep them outside until they can be disposed of safely. A fire extinguisher, of the right type, should be installed near the stove; every family member should know how to operate it. The safety of the entire household may be at stake.

20 Expository Essay Read model expository essay in class Our Changing World (this will be passed out by me in class)

21 Sample Expository Topics Ice fishing Travelling with small children Overhauling a snowmobile or other engine How animals protect themselves from their enemies Losing weight

22 Expository Essay Work Complete expository essay The Black Widow (page 346 of Echoes 12 – complete questions 1-4) Write expository essay ( words) NEWS FLASH: Your assignment asks you to write an expository essay

23 Argumentative / Persuasive Essay Characteristics Uses facts, anecdotes, and descriptions to convince the reader (of the truth of a thesis) Any topic for which there is more than one answer or position is suitable for argument and persuasion Found in many forms of communication such as opinion pieces, essays, editorials, letters to the editor, advertisements, speeches and debates - You can find issues by reading the editorial pages of a newspaper, watching television or listening to radio

24 Argumentative / Persuasive Characteristics cont.. ArgumentPersuasion Begins by clearly stating the point of view of the writer. This statement is the thesis of the argument, or leads directly into the thesis, and should be as specific as possible. For example: Building more bike paths and lanes would reduce air pollution in our city. is a more specific statement than There arent enough bike paths and lanes. This kind of writing can persuade by appealing to the readers intellect through reason and logic. Facts and evidence are usually presented to support the argument. Sometimes an issue that affects the writer personally is argued through reason and logic. Facts and evidence are usually presented to support the argument. Persuasion goes one step further than argument by encouraging the reader to alter his or her attitude or behavior. Persuasive writing often makes an appeal to the readers feelings.

25 Sample Argumentative / Persuasive Topic and Introductory Paragraph TOPIC: Coyotes: a threat to our community and should be wiped out. There is no sense beating around the bush; the best thing to do is get straight into the bush and get rid of every last coyote in this province! The coyote is a non-indigenous creature that now inhabits the island of Newfoundland and in such large numbers that they are showing up on school grounds, in peoples neighbourhoods, and on summer camping sites. Coyotes are not the beautiful, harmless, timid part of nature that some people claim them to be. Rather, coyotes are aggressive, clever, predators that will attack and devour pets, large and small wildlife and even large and small human beings; they are also the perfect breeding ground for widespread rabies so it is a must that they be annihilated in this province to protect everyone here.

26 Argumentative/Persuasice Essay Work Complete argumentative/persuasive essay The Enchanted Forest (page 318 of Echoes 12 – complete questions 1-4) Write arumentative/persuasive essay ( words) NEWS FLASH: Your assignment asks you to write an argumentative/ persuasive essay

27 Transitions Using transitions will enhance the readers understanding. You have a handout of a list of transitional words and phrases (found in Unity and Coherence handout) What do the following forms of Transitions mean? 1. oppositional - according to the opposite of 2. spatial - where things are arranged in space 3. temporal/chronological - according to time 4. logical - according to sound reason

28 Emphatic Devices How do writers create emphasis by using words on paper? listing (numerical order, bullets, sequencing) font (bold, unusual, capitalization, italics, underline) punctuation (colon:, dash-, exclamation mark!, ellipsis..., brackets( )) repetition, parallel structure (create coherence but also used for emphasis)


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