Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

A Word is just a bunch of letters and sounds A Sentence is just a bunch of words A Paragraph is just a bunch of sentences An Essay is just a bunch of paragraphs.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "A Word is just a bunch of letters and sounds A Sentence is just a bunch of words A Paragraph is just a bunch of sentences An Essay is just a bunch of paragraphs."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Word is just a bunch of letters and sounds A Sentence is just a bunch of words A Paragraph is just a bunch of sentences An Essay is just a bunch of paragraphs Teaching Writing Concepts

2 Paragraph Writing Techniques “It’s not wise to violate the rules until you know how to observe them.” T.S Elliot “When we encounter a natural style, we are astonished and delighted; for we expected to find an author - and we find a man [woman]!” Blaise Pascal

3 By the end of this online resource, tutors will have looked at ways to pass on key writing concepts so learners can plan, write, revise and edit anything from short answers in workbooks and filling in forms to longer paragraphs in reports and essays. This first section deals with teaching learners to: use a simple ‘Is-it-a-sentence’ checklist for each sentence use a simple ‘Is-it-a-paragraph’ checklist for each paragraph think about indenting Learning Outcomes A

4 . Is it a sentence? Look at the 5 sentences below For each ask: ‘Is it a sentence?’ 1. 2.Vocational tutors embed writing skills into their course context 3. Tutors teach writing skills such as note taking and paragraph writing and tutors link writing skills to course context. 4. Students enrol in vocational courses because they see them as practical options. 5. Students enjoy studying and my cat had kittens yesterday. Checklist Sentences begin with a capital letter end with a full stop contain one main point can be long or short tutors link writing skills to course context. No: two main points No - needs capital letter and full stop Yes, but... Yes High. No - needs full stop Learning Outcomes A Key writing concepts: is it a sentence?

5 For each paragraph below ask: ‘Is it a paragraph?’ 1. A tutor asks students to write answers in their workbooks. She asks them to write short sentences for each question. The tutor reminds them that sentences start with a capital letter and end with a full stop. 2. The Warehouse Distribution tutors know that shift workers are required to write a short report at the end of each shift. Shift work is challenging and tiring. Tutors ask their students to write such reports, and also teach them how to write those kinds of reports. The students learn to use simple report writing frames such as: ‘Who? What? How? When? Why?’ Checklist A paragraph is a group of sentences joined together (not a list) about the same topic indented in many different ways short or long This is a list so not a paragraph ‘Shift work is challenging and tiring’ a different topic so not a paragraph Suggest deciding whether that topic needs its own paragraph. If so, Shift work is challenging and tiring may be topic sentence for another paragraph. Learning Outcomes A Key writing concepts is it a paragraph? Is it a paragraph?

6 3. Learning how to take good notes is worthwhile as poor notes can lead to problems later on. If a learner cannot understand their own writing or has not organised their notes well, they will struggle to retain important information. Taking good notes requires good listening skills, confidence to check and confirm key information with the tutor and lots of practice. Good notes make it easier to study for end of year exams; learners are more likely to pass their course requirements with lower stress levels and higher grades. Taking good notes requires good listening skills, confidence to check and confirm key information with the tutor and lots of practice. Two topics in one paragraph! This is not a paragraph. Suggest taking the second topic (below) and making a new paragraph. Learning how to take good notes is worthwhile Topic Controlling focus Checklist A paragraph is a group of sentences joined together (not a list) about the same topic indented in many different ways short or long Controlling focus

7 4. Note taking is a valuable skill, and there are note taking strategies that we can all use. Shortened words, abbreviations and symbols can help you get the information on to the page faster. Use of mind maps, bullet points and numbered lists are ways to organise ideas on a page. Some people also like to draw pictures, create flow charts, or use coloured pens or highlighters to illustrate main points. 5. Note taking style is personal to the individual. Experimenting with the different note taking strategies taught in class, and then deciding on a style that suits will benefit learners in the long term. Are 4 and 5 paragraphs? Yes Short or long Yes Indented in many ways Note taking is a valuable skill, and there are note taking strategies that we can all use. Topic Controlling focus (b) In example 4, controlling focus a) and controlling focus b) ideas are closely enough linked to be in the same paragraph.) Checklist A paragraph is a group of sentences joined together (not a list) about the same topic indented in many different ways short or long Controlling focus (a)

8 The learning progressions set out in this book provide a framework that shows what adult learners know and can do at successive points as they develop their expertise in literacy learning. This framework can be used as a guide to identifying the next steps for adult learners. Each progression covers a particular aspect of learning. The progressions can be used in many different adult learning settings. They describe what is learned in the order that it is usually learned. The first little pig that went off met a Man with a bundle of straw, and said to him, "Please, Man, give me that straw to build me a house"; which the Man did, and the little Pig built a house with it. Presently came along a Wolf, and knocked at the door, and said, "Little Pig, little Pig, let me come in.“ To which the Pig answered, "No, not by the hair of my chinny chin chin." "Are we all here?" asked the Doctor, after he had got used to the dim light. "Yes, I think so," said the duck and started to count them. "Where's Polynesia?" asked the crocodile. "She isn't here." "Are you sure?" said the Doctor. "Look again. Polynesia! Polynesia! Where are you?" "I suppose she escaped," grumbled the crocodile. "Well, that's just like her!--Sneaked off into the jungle as soon as her friends got into trouble." Why on earth is indenting in the list??? a group of sentences joined together about the same topic indented in many different ways short or long A great time to learn about text types and different formatting required

9 and... What on earth is indenting? Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. Within the margins, you can increase or decrease the indentation of a paragraph or group of paragraphs. You can also create a negative indent (also known as an outdent), which pulls the paragraph out toward the left margin. You can also create a hanging indent, in which the first line of the paragraph is not indented, but subsequent lines are. Page margins Indentation paragraphs-HP aspx

10 Now you have looked at ways to pass on key writing concepts so learners can plan, write, revise and edit anything from short answers in workbooks and filling in forms to longer paragraphs in reports and essays. This first section dealt with teaching learners to: use a simple ‘Is-it-a-sentence’ checklist for each sentence use a simple ‘Is-it-a-paragraph’ checklist for each paragraph think about indenting Learning Outcomes A

11 By the end of working through this online resource, you will see worked examples of how to construct paragraphs using two basic paragraph structures. Tutors can apply this information to: 4. Teach how paragraphs are constructed by showing learners that : there is one main idea for each paragraph (or two closely linked ideas); the focus of the whole paragraph is controlled via the topic sentence; a topic sentence is constructed with both a topic and a controlling focus; 5. Build learner confidence and skill by: 1.modelling the paragraph writing process showing thinking, revising and editing: 3 ways to write a paragraph introduced focussing on topic sentence construction initially and then providing activities for learners to explore visually how using the same topic yet a different controlling focus generally leads to totally different paragraph content. Learning Outcomes B

12 Two Basic Paragraph Structures Learning Outcomes B: Worked examples of two basic paragraph structures.

13 Example of Basic Paragraph Structure 1

14 Editing and revising Does ‘available to use’ truly match the feeling and sense of the words used in the paragraph: help – ways to organise - like, illustrate main points ? Suggestions: Notetaking strategies are: great???? useful??? available and helpful helpful and useful very helpful extremely helpful

15 Tweaking the topic sentence to match the paragraph - or paragraph to match the topic sentence - is a way to get yourself a clear, concise and focused paragraph. From this… To this

16 An Example of Basic Paragraph Structure 2

17 An Example of Basic Structure 2

18

19 The following video clip demonstrates more about paragraph writing skills by showing learners that: 1. there is one main idea for each paragraph (or two closely linked ideas); 2. the focus of the whole paragraph is controlled via the topic sentence; 3. a topic sentence is constructed with both a topic and a controlling focus; and you can revise and edit the topic sentence to match the paragraph or edit the paragraph to match the topic sentence Topic Sentence Structure: A closer look at how to write a good topic sentence Summary Basic paragraph structure The video clip you just watched showed two basic ways of constructing paragraphs. Revising and editing strategies were included around editing (tweaking) the topic sentence to match the paragraph.

20 Is it worth spending time teaching topic sentence structure and practising creating topics and clear controlling focuses? The answer is YES Topic Sentence - Topic + Controlling Focus Supporting sentence Supporting sentence Supporting sentence Concluding sentence (optional

21 So shall we try it? Topic Sentence - Topic/Dogs + Controlling Focus/ needs clarity Supporting sentence Supporting sentence Supporting sentence Concluding sentence (optional Choosing the easy topic ‘dogs’ reduces the learning burden while learners are figuring out skills around topic and controlling focus. Learners transfer this knowledge to their own context later.

22 So, you ask your learners to think about ‘dogs’ Each learner calls to mind their own version of ‘dog’. Some are still thinking about the weekend. How do you bring focus?

23 Suggestion Play with the whole idea first Get your learners happy and comfortable with topics and controlling focuses

24 Just have your learners brainstorm as many different controlling focuses for ‘dogs’ as possible. A great competition! Dogs can be loyal Dogs come in many shapes and sizes Dogs can be dangerous Dogs make great guide dogs. Dogs have a highly developed sense of smell. Dogs are expensive to own. Dogs are sometimes friendly to cats. Controlling focus Topic

25 Dogs are sometimes friendly to cats. This usually happens when they are pets living in the same home together. However, an instinct to care for a cat or kitten that has been injured or is cold and needs help can sometimes surface. There are reports of dogs keeping cats warm and safe as if they were one of their own. Bring one of the examples to show one way of writing a paragraph: Question / Answer Dogs are sometimes friendly to cats. Ask a question in your mind about the controlling focus Q: When can this happen? Just writing the answer brings focus to a paragraph. Learning Outcomes B Building learner confidence and skill: 3 ways to write a paragraph

26 Dogs are sometimes friendly to cats. There was a report of a dog who already had six puppies of her own and yet added four kittens to her family. The kittens fed from her and played with her puppies just as if they were puppies themselves. Question / Answer Thinking of the many questions that can be asked is a great exercise for learners. It can be a competition where learners are thinking of as many questions as possible in groups. What kinds of dogs are more likely to look after cats? What kinds of dogs never look after cats? What kind of dogs will always chase a cat? Does the owner need to encourage or teach a dog to care for a cat? What story do I know about a dog who has cared for a cat? etc What question has been answered below? Another great exercise to get groups to write a paragraph on large sheets of paper and other learners then try to guess what question has been answered. Note: You could even use the same topic sentence as it really shows up how different questions produce totally different paragraphs. Learning to control focus like this is empowering. What story do I know about a dog who has cared for a cat? How these kittens fared later in life is another story.

27 Dogs come in many shapes and sizes. You can find huge *Great Danes and medium-sized dogs like Spaniels and some Poodles. The very small dogs are those such as Pekinese or Chihuahua. Then bring another of the examples to show another way of writing a paragraph: Examples Dogs come in many shapes and sizes Give three examples of this (No need to write: ‘for example’) This brings focus to a paragraph. * Re capitalisation of dog breeds: AKC version: King Charles Spaniels, Cocker Spaniels, and English Springer Spaniels AP version: King Charles spaniels, cocker spaniels and English springer spaniels What a huge variety of dogs there are!

28 Dogs have a highly developed sense of smell. Experiments have been conducted to show that even if their toys, food or items of clothing are placed inside containers, dogs can still sniff them out. This is why sniffer dogs are used at airport borders discovering drugs, biohazards and illegal food items. Dogs are also able to track people on the run, find lost hikers or skiers buried in snow just by following a scent. Then bring another of the examples to show another way of writing a paragraph: Proof Dogs have a highly developed sense of smell. Evidence. Ask your learners to: ‘Prove it!’ Research-based citations or quotes can later be added to proof paragraphs. This brings focus to a paragraph. For some reason, 3 seems to be a ‘magic number’ in paragraphs, therefore I have three proofs for: ‘Dogs have a highly developed sense of smell. Using 3 - proofs/examples or items in a paragraph - is not a hard and fast rule. I could equally have used Q/A for this paragraph in order to :‘Prove it!’. Dogs’ noses have proven very useful to humans.

29 Now you have worked through how to construct paragraphs using two basic paragraph structures and learned how to apply this information in order to: 4. Teach how paragraphs are constructed by showing learners that : there is one main idea for each paragraph (or two closely linked ideas); the focus of the whole paragraph is controlled via the topic sentence; a topic sentence is constructed with both a topic and a controlling focus; 5. Build learner confidence and skill by: 3 ways to write a paragraph introduced focussing on topic sentence construction initially then providing activities for learners to discover how using the same topic yet a different controlling focus leads to totally different paragraph content. Also three kinds of (optional) concluding sentence can be used: predicting ( slide #26 How these kittens fared later in life is another story.) restatement ( slide #27 What a huge variety of dogs there are!) summary ( slide #28 Dogs’ noses have proven very useful to humans.) … and then there is the reader… what does the reader want or expect? Learning Outcomes B

30 A Word is just a bunch of letters and sounds A Sentence is just a bunch of words A Paragraph is just a bunch of sentences An Essay is just a bunch of paragraphs Thank you for taking the time to look at how to teach writing concepts


Download ppt "A Word is just a bunch of letters and sounds A Sentence is just a bunch of words A Paragraph is just a bunch of sentences An Essay is just a bunch of paragraphs."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google