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Foundation of Essential Beliefs Overarching Objectives Curriculum Design Objectives Assessment Learning Experiences Personal Relationship Building Class.

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Presentation on theme: "Foundation of Essential Beliefs Overarching Objectives Curriculum Design Objectives Assessment Learning Experiences Personal Relationship Building Class."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foundation of Essential Beliefs Overarching Objectives Curriculum Design Objectives Assessment Learning Experiences Personal Relationship Building Class Climate Expectations Clarity Principles of Learning Models of Teaching SpaceTimeRoutines AttentionMomentumDiscipline Planning Management Instruction Strategies Motivation Curriculum Planning A Studying Skillful Teaching: Using Data Day to Day 1 Do Now: Review the criteria for Experiment #1, and please turn it in.

2 22 Essential Question What do skillful teachers believe, know, and doindividually and collaborativelyto promote the learning and achievement of each and every student?

3 3 Foundation of Essential Beliefs Overarching Objectives Curriculum Design Objectives Assessment Learning Experiences Personal Relationship Building Class Climate Expectations Clarity Principles of Learning Models of Teaching SpaceTimeRoutines AttentionMomentumDiscipline Planning Area of Performance Expectations

4 4 Objectives for Today By the end of today, you will be able to… Explain attribution theory and its significance in terms of student learning and apply the research on attribution theory in your practice Apply attribution retraining strategies to change beliefs that get in the way of student motivation and achievement

5 Framing the day Attribution Theory Attribution Retraining Effective Effort Watch your language! Saturate the Environment Encourage Self-Assessment Assignment: Experiment #3 (due 1/9) 5 Itinerary for the AfternoonWe Are Here Itinerary

6 6 ? ? ??

7 is concerned with the explanations we give ourselves when we succeed for why we succeeded and when we fail for why we have failed. Attribution theory… Definition: Attribution Theory Source: John Saphier, Mary Ann Haley-Speca, and Robert Gower The Skillful Teacher, 6th ed. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching, p TST-271

8 8 Activator: Brainstorm and Record #1 What are some of the things you hear students give as explanations when they do not do well at tasks (e.g., homework, math problems, essays, written work)?

9 Activator: Brainstorm and Record #2 What are some of the things you hear students give as explanations when they do well at tasks? 9

10 is concerned with the explanations we give ourselves when we succeed for why we succeeded and when we fail for why we have failed. Attribution theory… Definition: Attribution Theory Source: John Saphier, Mary Ann Haley-Speca, and Robert Gower The Skillful Teacher, 6th ed. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching, p TST-271

11 11 Attribution Theory Our perceptions of the causes, rather than reality, are critical because they influence… Our self-concept Our expectations for future situations Our feelings of power and efficacy Our subsequent motivation to put forth effort

12 12 Attribution Theory Source: Based on the work of Bernard Weiner. (Bernard Weiner Theories of Motivation: From Mechanism to Cognition. Chicago: Markham. Bernard Weiner Achievement Motivation and Attribution Theory. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.) InternalExternal Constant (Fixed) Variable (Changeable) Ability Task Difficulty Effective Effort Luck TST-271

13 13

14 Attribution Theory If I believe I have ability and can achieve success with effort, I have a positive self-concept as a student. If I believe that no matter how hard I try, I will not be successful, my impression of my ability and my self- concept suffers. If I believe my A was the result of teacher indulgence or luck, my self-esteem is not enhanced. Pride results from accomplishment only when we attribute that accomplishment to ability or effort. Madeline Hunter and George Barker Source: Madeline Hunter and George Barker. 1987, October. If at First…: Attribution Theory in the Classroom. Educational Leadership, vol. 45, no. 2, p

15 Research on high achievers, whether in mathematics, athletics, the arts, science, or business, reveals that successful people exert enormous effort (Gardner 1983, Bloom 1985). Consequently, if students are to succeed, they must believe that when they expend effortsomething they completely controlthey will experience success. But note that if students believe success or failure is the result of ability, task difficulty, or luck, then theres no point in putting forth a lot of effort. Also remember, it is their perceptions of causality, not reality, that matter in these events. Madeline Hunter and George Barker Source: Madeline Hunter and George Barker. 1987, October. If at First…: Attribution Theory in the Classroom. Educational Leadership, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 51. Attribution Theory

16 16 At your tables, label each of the items on both lists according to their attribution: E Effort A Ability T Task difficulty L Luck Labeling Attributions: Abbreviations

17 Labeling Attributions: Cue Card SUCCESS Effort I studied hard. I studied with a friend. I got help from my parents. I reviewed my notes. Ability Im smart. Im good at _____. Task Difficulty The test was easy. Luck I was just lucky. The teacher likes me. FAILURE Effort I didnt study enough. I didnt review my notes. I forgot to take my notes / book home. Ability Ive never done well in _____. Im bad at _____. Task Difficulty The test was too hard. Luck You didnt teach us that. The teacher doesnt like me. I didnt have enough time. I didnt study what the test was on. 17

18 Summarizing Attribution Theory With your Attribution Theory learning partner, take turns restating key points about attribution theory. 18

19 19

20 What connections do you make between mindsets and your own students beliefs and behaviors? Connections: Dwecks Research and Your Students What concrete actions can you take to change negative mindsets? Consider… How and whom you call on How you respond to students answers How you deal with students mistakes Grades How you give feedbackverbal and written

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22 means getting students to change their attributions of success and failure away from factors over which they have little immediate control (luck, task difficulty, and innate ability) to the factor over which they have the greatest control: effort. Attribution retraining… Definition: Attribution Retraining B-254 Source: John Saphier, Mary Ann Haley-Speca, and Robert Gower The Skillful Teacher, 6th ed. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching, pp

23 This is important. You can do it. I wont give up on you. Three Key Expectations Messages

24 24 Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Waltham, MA. Effort-Based Belief / Incrementalist Belief / Growth Mindset ACHIEVEMENT CONFIDENCE EFFECTIVE EFFORT ABILITY Hard Work Strategies + + TST-270

25 25 Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA. Effective Effort ACHIEVEMENT CONFIDENCE EFFECTIVE EFFORT ABILITY Hard Work Strategies + + B-254

26 Working hard and using learning strategies deliberately to get smarter at important knowledge and skills. Effective effort is… Definition: Effective Effort B-254

27 27 Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA. Hard Work ACHIEVEMENT CONFIDENCE EFFECTIVE EFFORT ABILITY Hard Work Strategies + + B-254

28 Elements of Hard Work Time A willingness to spend the hours needed to finish the job well. Focus Concentrating only on the work; no TV or other distractions. Resourcefulness Knowing where to go and whom to ask for help when Im really stuck. Use of Feedback Looking carefully at responses to my work so I know exactly what to fix. Commitment Being determined to finish and do my very best work. Persistence If one strategy isnt working, trying different ones until I find one that works. B-254

29 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

30 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

31 31 Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA. Strategies ACHIEVEMENT CONFIDENCE EFFECTIVE EFFORT ABILITY Hard Work Strategies + + B-254

32 32 Teaching Effective Effort by Direct Instruction In order to teach the identified learning strategy, the teacher… Names it Explains why it is useful Demonstrates and models it Teaches the related vocabulary Gives students multiple opportunities to practice it Provides feedback to improve performance Celebrates when s/he sees it being used B-254

33 Key Terms Class Notes Lecture On chalk board, overhead Video Demonstration Summary of notes 2/3 1/3 2/3 1/3 Personal connections and reflections Outline Graphic organizer Response to a prompt or question A Variant of the Cornell Method of Note-Taking B-257 Topic: Date

34 34 PERFORMANCESPRODUCTS Products and Performances: Silent Brainstorm B-256

35 35 Products and Performances: Examples PRODUCTSPERFORMANCES Learning logs Essays Written tests Lab reports Graphic organizers Summaries Response journal entries Geometry proofs Observational drawings Notes Oral presentations Physical skills (dribbling a basketball, backhand in tennis) Dance Dialogue in a second language Reading aloud Singing

36 Attribution Retraining Attribution retraining involves… Language: Consciously use incremental / effort- based belief language and avoid entity belief language. Teach students the language of attribution theory. Data: Listen to students and observe their behaviors to uncover what they currently believe about the causes of their successes and failures. Strategy Instruction: Explicitly teach students the strategies they need to accomplish tasks and to make their effort effective.

37 37 Talk about effective effort with your classes and with individual students. Attribution Retraining 1. Avoid innate-ability belief statements. A B Counter innate-ability beliefs with incremental or effort-based belief responses. 3. Share your own personal stories of effort and getting smarter. 4. Ask students to recall personal stories when they or a family member succeeded because they didnt give up. 6. Use a graphic or analogy to explain the relationship between effort and achievement. 5. Explicitly teach attribution theory. 7. Use the strategy of pause-prompt-praise.

38 Watch Your Language! talented bright average cant weakness smart slow

39 skilled currently performing cant YET capable strengths and needs Incremental Language

40 Watch Your Language! Good luck!

41 Ganbatte!

42

43 Watch your language! Dont worry, its easy.

44 Watch Your Language! You did a great job. Youre so smart!

45

46 Partners Check: Practicing Our Language Partner APartner B 1. Ive never been good at ___.2. I was absent the day you taught that. 3. That test was easy.4. This is boring and stupid. 5. My father isnt good at ___ either. 6. I had to go to my aunts birthday party. 7. I hate ___.8. I dont want to take that AP course because I dont want to jeopardize my grade point average. 9. My mother says I shouldnt take that course level because it will be too hard for me. 10. I cant do that. I have a learning disability.

47 People must behave their way into new ideas and skills, not just think their way into them. Michael Fullan Source: Michael Fullan Change Forces. London: Falmer Press, pp

48 48 Effort Ability Effort-Ability Graphic

49 49 Pause - (Acknowledge) - Prompt - (Leave) - Praise 1. Pause. When you see that a student looks frustrated, go to the student and get him/her to pause while you pause at his/her desk. 2. Acknowledge the challenge of the task. 3. Prompt. Offer the student a strategy to enable him/her to get unstuck and continue. 4. Leave. Dont stay and do the work for the student. Much as the student might like you to do so, staying can promote learned helplessness. 5. Return and Praise. Praise success if the student has been able to continue and complete the task. Praise the effort if the student has persisted, whether successful or not yet successful. If the strategy hasnt helped, offer another or give a cue for the next step.

50 Quiet Reflection Please make notes on how you plan to talk about effective effort with your students as part of your attribution retraining efforts.

51 51 B Saturate the environment with the three key expectations messages. Attribution Retraining 8.Search for examples of people who have succeeded as the result of great effort. Be sure to include people who reflect diversity of cultures, backgrounds, and experiences. 9.Share books about effort. 10.Make effort a theme in your classroom and your school. B-255

52 Brainstorming with a Graphic Organizer EFFORT What does it sound like? What does it look like? What happens when you use it? You get smarter. You get better at things. You are proud of yourself. You learn more. You do your work and get good grades. You never give up. Its careful and neat. You try and think. You take the time. It doesnt matter if its wrong or right if it is your best work. Theres no fooling around. Source: Kim Cook, Kindergarten teacher, Burlington, MA. Its quiet. Asking for help Thinking out loud Sounding it out. Tapping (like Fundations)

53 Student-Created Wall Chart (Kindergarten) E xtra time is what it takes. F orget fooling around. F ocus on your work! O nly do your own workno copying. R emember your strategies. T ake the time to try your best. Source: Kim Cook, Kindergarten teacher, Burlington, MA.

54 54 B Saturate the environment with the three key expectations messages. Attribution Retraining 8.Search for examples of people who have succeeded as the result of great effort. Be sure to include people who reflect diversity of cultures, backgrounds, and experiences. 9.Share books about effort. 10.Make effort a theme in your classroom and your school. 11.Inundate the classroom culture with and discuss quotes about effective effort. B-255

55 55 Attribution Retraining There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work and learning from failure. Colin Powell

56 56 I'm a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work, the more I have of it. Thomas Jefferson Attribution Retraining

57 57 Talent is unique and very special, but there is no substitute for hard work. Mia Hamm Attribution Retraining

58 58 s Be like a postage stamp- stick to one thing until you get there. Margaret Carty, Director Maryland Library Association

59 59 It does not matter how slowly you go, as long as you do not stop. -Confucius Thanks to Shelley DElia, Westport P.S., Grade 1, for these ideas. It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop. - Confucius

60 B-255

61 61 Encourage students to self-assess their level of effective effort. Attribution Retraining 12.Create and add to charts that identify learning strategies for studying and completing specific products and performances, e.g., Strategies for getting smarter at… C B-255

62 Bookmarks When I come to a word that I dont know… I look at the letters and think of the sounds. I look at the picture for clues. I think about what makes sense. I get my mouth ready to say the word. I try to blend the sounds. I look for little words in the big words. I try another word that makes sense. I know how to ask for help! Like all good readers… I look at the title and think about what might be coming. I look for sight words. I look for patterns in the text. I look at the stopping marks. I point to the words from left to right. I stop to think if my reading makes sense. I know what to do when I come to a word I dont know. Side 1 Side 2 Source: Kim Cook, Kindergarten teacher, Burlington, Mass

63 63 Strategies for Figuring Out Unfamiliar Words Ask: What would make sense there? Look for context clues before and after the word. See if there are parts of the word you already know: word family, root, prefix/suffix. Look at the pictures for clues. Ask someone the meaning of the word. Look up the meaning of the word. B-257

64 64 Strategies for Learning New Information Copy daily objectives (so I know whats important). Copy key questions for the day. Write a summary of class notes. Read the questions at the end of the chapter and take notes on those questions. Read actively (highlight, underline, take notes). Make flash cards with definitions of important terms. Practice terms and vocabulary with a friend. Write sample questions based on the objectives. B-257

65 65 Encourage students to self-assess their level of effective effort. Attribution Retraining 12.Create and add to charts that identify learning strategies for studying and completing specific products and performances, e.g., Strategies for getting smarter at… 13.Prior to beginning a task, have students identify the learning strategies they will use to increase the effectiveness of their effort. 14.When students succeed at a task, have them identify the learning strategies they used that contributed to their success. 15.Create self-assessment instruments for students to use when completing products and performances, e.g., criteria for success lists, rubrics, exemplars. C B-255

66 DateAssignmentHow I Studied (Strategies) How Long I Studied How I Did Effort and Achievement Log

67 67 Student Self-Assessment of Effective Effort Time: I am willing to spend the hours needed to finish the job well. Not true Somewhat true True Very true Focus: When I work, I stay very focused. I concentrate only on work and am not distracted by TV or anything else. Not true Somewhat true True Very true Resourcefulness: I am resourceful. When I am really stuck I know where to go and whom to ask. Not true Somewhat true True Very true Use of feedback: I make good use of feedback. I look carefully at responses to my work so I know exactly what to fix. Not true Somewhat true True Very true Commitment: I am committed to doing good work. I am determined to complete my assignment and to do my very best. Not true Somewhat true True Very true Persistence: If one strategy isnt working, I keep trying different ones until I find one that works. Not true Somewhat true True Very true

68 68 A A

69 69 A A

70 70 AAAAAA A A

71 Failures Successes List 10 things that you feel you tried and were not successful at Choose 2 things that you want to move from the failure side to the success side Failure/Success T-Chart

72 Classroom Contract I, __________________, choose to accept the challenge set forth by Mr. Duprey. That challenge is to believe that I can accomplish great things in this class and in school, if I try. My goal this year is to work hard and put forth effective effort to learn new things. I believe that I can learn the proper strategies to help me succeed in Mr. Dupreys class and in school. I will do my best to do all my work, study hard, come for extra help if necessary, and maintain an attitude of success. In exchange for accepting this challenge, Mr. Duprey has committed to help me set learning goals and to teach me the strategies I need to succeed in class. Signed: ________________________________ (student) Date:________ Signed: ________________________________ (teacher) Date:________ (Contract also signed by hand prints on the Wall of Effort!!)

73 A AS A STUDENT IN A STANDARDS-BASED CLASSROOM As a student in Mr. Dupreys class, I will be responsible for… Monitoring my attention and participation and refocusing as I need to Coming to class prepared with the materials I need in order to learn Self-evaluation of my work to make sure it meets the criteria and standards set forth in class Redoing my work and coming for extra help when my first effort does not yet meet the standard Applying knowledge and demonstrating understanding in new settings and situations Doing my best work A

74 Wall Chart I do not accept apathy, laziness or lack of self- discipline as an excuse for failure. If you put forth continued effective effort, you will succeed in this class. When you walk through my door, you become the best students you can be…no exceptions! Mr. Duprey

75 This is important. You can do it. I wont give up on you. Three Key Expectations Messages

76 76 B-31-32, , and B

77 77 Sharing of Attribution Retraining Ideas In your groups, share specifics about how you will incorporate some of these attribution retraining strategies into your practice. Take your binders with you for reference and note- taking.

78 Components of Attribution Retraining Attribution retraining involves… Language: Consciously use incremental / effort- based belief language and avoid entity belief language. Teach students the language of attribution theory. Data: Listen to students and observe their behaviors to uncover what they currently believe about the causes of their successes and failures. Strategy Instruction: Explicitly teach students the strategies they need to accomplish tasks and to make their effort effective.

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