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Studying Skillful Teaching: Using Data Day to Day

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1 Studying Skillful Teaching: Using Data Day to Day
Foundation of Essential Beliefs Overarching Objectives Curriculum Design Assessment Learning Experiences Personal Relationship Building Class Climate Expectations Clarity Principles of Models of Teaching Space Time Routines Attention Momentum Discipline Planning Management Instruction Strategies Motivation Curriculum Planning Do Now: Review the criteria for Experiment #1, and please turn it in. 1

2 Essential Question 3/31/2017 What do skillful teachers believe, know, and do—individually and collaboratively—to promote the learning and achievement of each and every student? 2 2 Assessment 2 2

3 Personal Relationship Building
3/31/2017 Area of Performance Foundation of Essential Beliefs Overarching Objectives Curriculum Design Assessment Learning Experiences Personal Relationship Building Class Climate Expectations Clarity Principles of Models of Teaching Space Time Routines Attention Momentum Discipline Planning Expectations 3 3

4 3/31/2017 Objectives for Today By the end of today, you will be able to… Explain attribution theory and its significance in terms of student learning and apply the research on attribution theory in your practice Apply attribution retraining strategies to change beliefs that get in the way of student motivation and achievement 4 Assessment 4 4

5 Itinerary for the Afternoon—We Are Here
Framing the day Attribution Theory Attribution Retraining Effective Effort Watch your language! Saturate the Environment Encourage Self-Assessment Assignment: Experiment #3 (due 1/9) 5

6 Attribution Theory ? ? ? ? 6 Assessment 6

7 Definition: Attribution Theory
TST-271 “Attribution theory… is concerned with the explanations we give ourselves when we succeed for why we succeeded and when we fail for why we have failed.” Source: John Saphier, Mary Ann Haley-Speca, and Robert Gower The Skillful Teacher, 6th ed. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching, p. 271. 7

8 Activator: Brainstorm and Record #1
What are some of the things you hear students give as explanations when they do not do well at tasks (e.g., homework, math problems, essays, written work)? 8 Assessment 8

9 Activator: Brainstorm and Record #2
What are some of the things you hear students give as explanations when they do well at tasks? 9

10 Definition: Attribution Theory
TST-271 “Attribution theory… is concerned with the explanations we give ourselves when we succeed for why we succeeded and when we fail for why we have failed.” Source: John Saphier, Mary Ann Haley-Speca, and Robert Gower The Skillful Teacher, 6th ed. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching, p. 271 10

11 Attribution Theory Our perceptions of the causes, rather than reality, are critical because they influence… Our self-concept Our expectations for future situations Our feelings of power and efficacy Our subsequent motivation to put forth effort 11 Assessment 11

12 Attribution Theory Internal External Constant (Fixed) Variable
TST-271 Internal External Constant (Fixed) Task Difficulty Ability Variable (Changeable) Effective Effort Luck Source: Based on the work of Bernard Weiner. (Bernard Weiner Theories of Motivation: From Mechanism to Cognition. Chicago: Markham. Bernard Weiner Achievement Motivation and Attribution Theory. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.) 12 Assessment 12

13 13

14 Attribution Theory “If I believe I have ability and can achieve success with effort, I have a positive self-concept as a student. If I believe that no matter how hard I try, I will not be successful, my impression of my ability and my self-concept suffers. If I believe my A was the result of teacher indulgence or luck, my self-esteem is not enhanced. Pride results from accomplishment only when we attribute that accomplishment to ability or effort.” — Madeline Hunter and George Barker Source: Madeline Hunter and George Barker. 1987, October. “ ‘If at First…’: Attribution Theory in the Classroom.” Educational Leadership, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 52. 14

15 Attribution Theory “Research on high achievers, whether in mathematics, athletics, the arts, science, or business, reveals that successful people exert enormous effort (Gardner 1983, Bloom 1985). Consequently, if students are to succeed, they must believe that when they expend effort—something they completely control—they will experience success. But note that if students believe success or failure is the result of ability, task difficulty, or luck, then there’s no point in putting forth a lot of effort. Also remember, it is their perceptions of causality, not reality, that matter in these events.” — Madeline Hunter and George Barker Source: Madeline Hunter and George Barker. 1987, October. “ ‘If at First…’: Attribution Theory in the Classroom.” Educational Leadership, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 51.

16 Labeling Attributions: Abbreviations
At your tables, label each of the items on both lists according to their attribution: E — Effort A — Ability T — Task difficulty L — Luck 16 Assessment 16

17 Labeling Attributions: “Cue Card”
FAILURE Effort I didn’t study enough. I didn’t review my notes. I forgot to take my notes / book home. Ability I’ve never done well in _____. I’m bad at _____. Task Difficulty The test was too hard. Luck You didn’t teach us that. The teacher doesn’t like me. I didn’t have enough time. I didn’t study what the test was on. SUCCESS Effort I studied hard. I studied with a friend. I got help from my parents. I reviewed my notes. Ability I’m smart. I’m good at _____. Task Difficulty The test was easy. Luck I was just lucky. The teacher likes me. 17

18 Summarizing Attribution Theory
With your Attribution Theory learning partner, take turns restating key points about attribution theory. 18

19 "The Secret to Raising Smart Kids"
and "Even Geniuses Work Hard" 19 Assessment 19

20 Connections: Dweck’s Research and Your Students
What connections do you make between mindsets and your own students’ beliefs and behaviors? What concrete actions can you take to change negative mindsets? Consider… How and whom you call on How you respond to students’ answers How you deal with students’ mistakes Grades How you give feedback—verbal and written

21 Attribution Retraining
(and Training)

22 Definition: Attribution Retraining
means getting students to change their attributions of success and failure away from factors over which they have little immediate control (luck, task difficulty, and innate ability) to the factor over which they have the greatest control: effort.” Source: John Saphier, Mary Ann Haley-Speca, and Robert Gower The Skillful Teacher, 6th ed. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching, pp

23 This is important. You can do it. I won’t give up on you.
Three Key Expectations Messages This is important. You can do it. I won’t give up on you.

24 Effort-Based Belief / Incrementalist Belief / Growth Mindset
TST-270 CONFIDENCE + ABILITY ACHIEVEMENT + EFFECTIVE EFFORT Hard Work Strategies Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Waltham, MA. 24 Assessment 24

25 Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA.
Effective Effort B-254 CONFIDENCE + ABILITY ACHIEVEMENT + EFFECTIVE EFFORT Hard Work Strategies Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA. 25 Assessment 25

26 Definition: Effective Effort
B-254 Effective effort is… Working hard and using learning strategies deliberately to “get smarter” at important knowledge and skills.

27 Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA.
Hard Work B-254 CONFIDENCE + ABILITY ACHIEVEMENT + EFFECTIVE EFFORT Hard Work Strategies Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA. 27 Assessment 27

28 Elements of Hard Work B-254 Time Focus
A willingness to spend the hours needed to finish the job well. Focus Concentrating only on the work; no TV or other distractions. Resourcefulness Knowing where to go and whom to ask for help when I’m really stuck. Use of Feedback Looking carefully at responses to my work so I know exactly what to fix. Commitment Being determined to finish and do my very best work. Persistence If one strategy isn’t working, trying different ones until I find one that works.

29 A

30 A

31 Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA.
Strategies B-254 CONFIDENCE + ABILITY ACHIEVEMENT + EFFECTIVE EFFORT Hard Work Strategies Source: Adapted from The Efficacy Institute, Lexington, MA. 31 Assessment 31

32 Teaching Effective Effort by Direct Instruction
In order to teach the identified learning strategy, the teacher… Names it Explains why it is useful Demonstrates and models it Teaches the related vocabulary Gives students multiple opportunities to practice it Provides feedback to improve performance Celebrates when s/he sees it being used 32 Assessment 32

33 A Variant of the Cornell Method of Note-Taking
B-257 Topic: Date 2/3 Key Terms 2/3 Class Notes Outline Graphic organizer Response to a prompt or question Lecture On chalk board, overhead Video Demonstration 1/3 Personal connections and reflections 1/3 Summary of notes

34 Products and Performances: Silent Brainstorm
34 Assessment 34

35 Products and Performances: Examples
Learning logs Essays Written tests Lab reports Graphic organizers Summaries Response journal entries Geometry proofs Observational drawings Notes Oral presentations Physical skills (dribbling a basketball, backhand in tennis) Dance Dialogue in a second language Reading aloud Singing 35 Assessment 35

36 Attribution Retraining
Attribution retraining involves… Language: Consciously use incremental / effort-based belief language and avoid entity belief language. Teach students the “language” of attribution theory. Data: Listen to students and observe their behaviors to uncover what they currently believe about the causes of their successes and failures. Strategy Instruction: Explicitly teach students the strategies they need to accomplish tasks and to make their effort effective.

37 Attribution Retraining
Talk about effective effort with your classes and with individual students. 1. Avoid innate-ability belief statements. 2. Counter innate-ability beliefs with incremental or effort-based belief responses. 3. Share your own personal stories of effort and getting smarter. 4. Ask students to recall personal stories when they or a family member succeeded because they didn’t give up. 5. Explicitly teach attribution theory. 6. Use a graphic or analogy to explain the relationship between effort and achievement. 7. Use the strategy of pause-prompt-praise. 37 Assessment 37

38 Watch Your Language! bright talented weakness slow average smart can’t

39 currently performing strengths and needs
Incremental Language currently performing skilled can’t YET capable strengths and needs

40 Watch Your Language! Good luck!

41 Ganbatte!

42

43 Watch your language! Don’t worry, it’s easy.

44 You did a great job. You’re so smart!
Watch Your Language! You did a great job. You’re so smart!

45 Becoming More Skillful
Partners Practice ~ Becoming More Skillful With Our Language

46 Partners Check: Practicing Our Language
Partner A Partner B 1. I’ve never been good at ___. 2. I was absent the day you taught that. 3. That test was easy. 4. This is boring and stupid. 5. My father isn’t good at ___ either. 6. I had to go to my aunt’s birthday party. 7. I hate ___. 8. I don’t want to take that AP course because I don’t want to jeopardize my grade point average. 9. My mother says I shouldn’t take that course level because it will be too hard for me. 10. I can’t do that. I have a learning disability.

47 “People must behave their way into new ideas and skills, not just think their way into them.”
— Michael Fullan Source: Michael Fullan Change Forces. London: Falmer Press, pp

48 Effort-Ability Graphic
48 Assessment 48

49 Pause - (Acknowledge) - Prompt - (Leave) - Praise
Pause. When you see that a student looks frustrated, go to the student and get him/her to pause while you pause at his/her desk. Acknowledge the challenge of the task. Prompt. Offer the student a strategy to enable him/her to get “unstuck” and continue. Leave. Don’t stay and do the work for the student. Much as the student might like you to do so, staying can promote learned helplessness. Return and Praise. Praise success if the student has been able to continue and complete the task. Praise the effort if the student has persisted, whether successful or not yet successful. If the strategy hasn’t helped, offer another or give a cue for the next step. 49 Assessment 49

50 Quiet Reflection Please make notes on how you plan to talk about effective effort with your students as part of your attribution retraining efforts.

51 Attribution Retraining
Saturate the environment with the three key expectations messages. B-255 Search for examples of people who have succeeded as the result of great effort. Be sure to include people who reflect diversity of cultures, backgrounds, and experiences. Share books about effort. Make effort a theme in your classroom and your school. 51 Assessment 51

52 Brainstorming with a Graphic Organizer
What does it look like? What does it sound like? It’s quiet. Asking for help Thinking out loud Sounding it out. Tapping (like Fundations) You never give up. It’s careful and neat. You try and think. You take the time. It doesn’t matter if it’s wrong or right if it is your best work. There’s no fooling around. EFFORT What happens when you use it? You get smarter. You get better at things. You are proud of yourself. You learn more. You do your work and get good grades. Source: Kim Cook, Kindergarten teacher, Burlington, MA.

53 Student-Created Wall Chart (Kindergarten)
Extra time is what it takes. Forget fooling around. Focus on your work! Only do your own work—no copying. Remember your strategies. Take the time to try your best. Source: Kim Cook, Kindergarten teacher, Burlington, MA.

54 Attribution Retraining
Saturate the environment with the three key expectations messages. B-255 Search for examples of people who have succeeded as the result of great effort. Be sure to include people who reflect diversity of cultures, backgrounds, and experiences. Share books about effort. Make effort a theme in your classroom and your school. Inundate the classroom culture with and discuss quotes about effective effort. 54 Assessment 54

55 Attribution Retraining
“There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work and learning from failure.” — Colin Powell 55 Assessment 55

56 Attribution Retraining
“I'm a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work, the more I have of it.”  — Thomas Jefferson 56 Assessment 56

57 Attribution Retraining
“Talent is unique and very special, but there is no substitute for hard work.”  — Mia Hamm 57 Assessment 57

58 “Be like a postage stamp- stick to one thing until you get there.”
Margaret Carty, Director Maryland Library Association 58 Assessment 58

59 It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.
- Confucius “It does not matter how slowly you go, as long as you do not stop.” -Confucius Thanks to Shelley D’Elia, Westport P.S., Grade 1, for these ideas. 59 Assessment 59

60 Attribution Retraining
Sharing Ideas for Attribution Retraining

61 Attribution Retraining
C Encourage students to self-assess their level of effective effort. Create and add to charts that identify learning strategies for studying and completing specific products and performances, e.g., “Strategies for getting smarter at…” 61 Assessment 61

62 Source: Kim Cook, Kindergarten teacher, Burlington, Mass
Bookmarks Side 1 Side 2 When I come to a word that I don’t know… I look at the letters and think of the sounds. I look at the picture for clues. I think about what makes sense. I get my mouth ready to say the word. I try to blend the sounds. I look for little words in the big words. I try another word that makes sense. I know how to ask for help! Like all good readers… I look at the title and think about what might be coming. I look for sight words. I look for patterns in the text. I look at the stopping marks. I point to the words from left to right. I stop to think if my reading makes sense. I know what to do when I come to a word I don’t know. Source: Kim Cook, Kindergarten teacher, Burlington, Mass

63 Strategies for Figuring Out Unfamiliar Words
B-257 Ask: What would make sense there? Look for context clues before and after the word. See if there are parts of the word you already know: word family, root, prefix/suffix. Look at the pictures for clues. Ask someone the meaning of the word. Look up the meaning of the word. 63 Assessment 63

64 Strategies for Learning New Information
B-257 Copy daily objectives (so I know what’s important). Copy key questions for the day. Write a summary of class notes. Read the questions at the end of the chapter and take notes on those questions. Read actively (highlight, underline, take notes). Make flash cards with definitions of important terms. Practice terms and vocabulary with a friend. Write sample questions based on the objectives. 64 Assessment 64

65 Attribution Retraining
C Encourage students to self-assess their level of effective effort. Create and add to charts that identify learning strategies for studying and completing specific products and performances, e.g., “Strategies for getting smarter at…” Prior to beginning a task, have students identify the learning strategies they will use to increase the effectiveness of their effort. When students succeed at a task, have them identify the learning strategies they used that contributed to their success. Create self-assessment instruments for students to use when completing products and performances, e.g., criteria for success lists, rubrics, exemplars. 65 Assessment 65

66 Effort and Achievement Log How I Studied (Strategies)
Date Assignment How I Studied (Strategies) How Long I Studied How I Did

67 Student Self-Assessment of Effective Effort
Time: I am willing to spend the hours needed to finish the job well. Not true Somewhat true True Very true Focus: When I work, I stay very focused. I concentrate only on work and am not distracted by TV or anything else. Resourcefulness: I am resourceful. When I am really stuck I know where to go and whom to ask. Use of feedback: I make good use of feedback. I look carefully at responses to my work so I know exactly what to fix. Commitment: I am committed to doing good work. I am determined to complete my assignment and to do my very best. Persistence: If one strategy isn’t working, I keep trying different ones until I find one that works. 67 Assessment 67

68 A A 68 Assessment 68

69 A A 69 Assessment 69

70 A A A 70 Assessment 70

71 Failure/Success T-Chart
Successes List 10 things that you feel you tried and were not successful at Choose 2 things that you want to move from the failure side to the success side

72 (Contract also signed by hand prints on the Wall of Effort!!)
Classroom Contract I, __________________, choose to accept the challenge set forth by Mr. Duprey. That challenge is to believe that I can accomplish great things in this class and in school, if I try. My goal this year is to work hard and put forth effective effort to learn new things. I believe that I can learn the proper strategies to help me succeed in Mr. Duprey’s class and in school. I will do my best to do all my work, study hard, come for extra help if necessary, and maintain an attitude of success. In exchange for accepting this challenge, Mr. Duprey has committed to help me set learning goals and to teach me the strategies I need to succeed in class. Signed: ________________________________ (student) Date:________ Signed: ________________________________ (teacher) Date:________ (Contract also signed by hand prints on the Wall of Effort!!)

73 IN A STANDARDS-BASED CLASSROOM
AS A STUDENT IN A STANDARDS-BASED CLASSROOM As a student in Mr. Duprey’s class, I will be responsible for… Monitoring my attention and participation and refocusing as I need to Coming to class prepared with the materials I need in order to learn Self-evaluation of my work to make sure it meets the criteria and standards set forth in class Redoing my work and coming for extra help when my first effort does not yet meet the standard Applying knowledge and demonstrating understanding in new settings and situations Doing my best work A

74 Wall Chart I do not accept apathy, laziness or lack of self-discipline as an excuse for failure. If you put forth continued effective effort, you will succeed in this class. When you walk through my door, you become the best students you can be…no exceptions! — Mr. Duprey

75 This is important. You can do it. I won’t give up on you.
Three Key Expectations Messages This is important. You can do it. I won’t give up on you.

76 Attribution Retraining (Extended)
3/31/2017 B-31-32, , and B Experiment #3: Attribution Retraining (Extended) An Explanation 76 Assessment 76 76

77 Sharing of Attribution Retraining Ideas
In your groups, share specifics about how you will incorporate some of these attribution retraining strategies into your practice. Take your binders with you for reference and note-taking. . 77 Assessment 77

78 Components of Attribution Retraining
Attribution retraining involves… Language: Consciously use incremental / effort-based belief language and avoid entity belief language. Teach students the “language” of attribution theory. Data: Listen to students and observe their behaviors to uncover what they currently believe about the causes of their successes and failures. Strategy Instruction: Explicitly teach students the strategies they need to accomplish tasks and to make their effort effective.

79 Summarizer: Talking Stick
3/31/2017 Summarizer: Talking Stick 79 79 Assessment 79 79


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