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Shakespeare’s Macbeth.

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1 Shakespeare’s Macbeth

2 Introduction to Macbeth
1- The plot of Macbeth 2- The characters 3- The source of the play 4- The Themes of the play 5- The language and Imagery of the play 6- The construction of the play

3 Macbeth is another one of Shakespeare’s great tragedies written around 1605; published in 1623.
It tells about the fall of the ambitious couple, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Macbeth is a story about the murder of a king, the revenge of a son, three witches who plot against Macbeth, and Macbeth’s rise and fall.

4 What is the nature of a tragedy?
Macbeth is one of Shakespeare’s most famous tragedies (it is also his shortest) Aside from the violent nature of the plot Shakespeare uses several literary devices to enhance the feeling of evil He creates a serious and sinister mood by having most of the play take place at night There is a heavy emphasis on the supernatural (witches, dreams, spells, and ghosts) Tragedy involves the descent of a great man—a man of influence—from success to defeat to death because of a tragic flaw. Often the audience appeal goes from pity, fear, disgust, and sympathy as we feel for the suffering of others and recognize our own convictions of right and wrong. The tragic hero usually dies with a bitter realization of his errors and releases society from the disorder he has caused. The downfall of the “hero” is a result of a chain of events and choices. Macbeth is the tragic hero, a character who has a fatal (tragic) flaw within himself that he cannot change. He is not a bad person; he is just too ambitious

5 Tragic Hero A character, usually of noble status, who suffers a downfall as a result of: * fatal character flaw(s), such as hubris – excessive pride * errors in judgment * or forces beyond human control, such as fate Reversal of fortune that leads the protagonist to have a recognition of his/her fall

6 The Plot The play opens in Scotland. Macbeth and Banquo have defeated their enemies in battle, leading King Duncan to give the title of thane of Cawdor to Macbeth (who doesn’t know this yet). While Macbeth and Banquo are walking, they encounter three chanting witches. The witches speak to Macbeth as thane of Glamis, thane of Cawdor, and king hereafter. They also tell Banquo that though he will not be king, he will beget kings (note: his son’s name is Fleance). Macbeth wonders about this prediction as the king’s messenger arrives. He tells him that he has been appointed thane of Cawdor. Macbeth is momentarily tempted to kill the king in order to fulfill the prophesy, but decides not to.

7 Lady Macbeth, however, urges her husband to kill the king
Lady Macbeth, however, urges her husband to kill the king. Since the king is staying at their castle overnight, that must be when they kill him. She plans the whole thing, making the king’s guards drunk. By using their daggers to kill the king and putting the king’s blood on them, Lady Macbeth will frame the guards. It is now time for Macbeth to stab the king. Though he has bad visions and feelings, Macbeth kills the king. Afterwards, he is troubled. "I am afraid to think what I have done; Look on ‘t again I dare not," he says. The next morning, the murder is blamed on the guards. Macbeth kills them before they can protest, explaining that he killed them out of rage. The king’s sons, however, are still fearful for their lives and runaway. Macbeth is crowned king. Macbeth knows that Banquo is suspicious of him. When Macbeth learns that Banquo and his son are riding, he sends men out to kill them. They are only half successful in their job, and Banquo’s son escapes. Meanwhile, at Macbeth’s ball, the seat for Banquo is empty (because he’s dead). In the empty seat, the ghost of Banquo appears, frightening Macbeth to death.

8 Macbeth also learns that King Duncan’s son Malcolm and Lord Macduff are attempting to kill him. Unsure of what to do, Macbeth visits the three witches again. The witches, along with the moon goddess Hecate, have planned what they will tell Macbeth in order to destroy him. They prepare a brew, singing "Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble." When Macbeth arrives, they give him a false hope, telling him three things. First, beware of Macduff. Second, "none of woman born shall harm Macbeth." Third, Macbeth will not be conquered until Birnam wood comes to the hill of Dunsinane. They also tell Macbeth that Banquo’s descendents will become kings.

9 Macduff has left for England, so Macbeth sends people to kill his wife and children. In England, Macduff befriends the dead king’s son, after they are sure of the other’s loyalty. Lady Macbeth has begun sleepwalking because her conscience weighs too heavily on herself. She tells about her crimes and the murder of the king, unaware that her doctor and waiting woman are watching her. She later dies, possibly from suicide. The invaders from England have come to defeat Macbeth. The soldiers carry boughs from Birnam Wood in order to camouflage themselves. So, the witch’s prophesy of defeat when "Birnam forest come to Dunsinane" starts to become true. Macbeth then faces Macduff, but isn’t really scared. He has been told that he will not die from anyone woman born. But then Macduff tells him that he was not woman born; he was "from his mother’s womb untimely ripp’d" (C-section). When Macbeth realizes that he has been tricked, he gives up and is killed. Macduff decapitates him and King Duncan’s son becomes the new king of Scotland.

10 Cast of Characters Macbeth: brave general under Duncan who becomes too ambitious after three witches prophesy that he will be King of Scotland. He turns to evil, killing the King, the guards, Banquo, and others. Macbeth dies at the hands of Macduff. Lady Macbeth: vicious wife of Macbeth, even more ambitious than Macbeth. She convinces Macbeth to murder the King. Later, she becomes insane from her wrongdoings and sleepwalks. She dies. Macduff: general, believes that Macbeth killed the King. His family is murdered by Macbeth; he later kills Macbeth. Banquo: Macbeth’s friend and general, suspected Macbeth of killing the King. He is killed by murderers sent by Macbeth, though his son escapes. King Duncan: King of Scotland, murdered by Macbeth who was one of his generals whom he had just promoted. Malcolm: Duncan’s eldest son, runs away to England after he learns of his father’s murder in order to escape the same fate. Becomes King of Scotland at the end of the play.

11 The three witches: They tell Macbeth that he is to become King, leading him to evil.
They also tell him that he will be defeated, but they disguise it in a way as to give him false confidence. Hecate: moon goddess and goddess of the witches, directs supernatural occurrences. Makes plan to give Macbeth false security. Donalbain: Duncan’s youngest son, runs away to Ireland after he learns of his father’s murder in order to escape the same fate Ross: Macduff’s cousin, messenger who carries news to people like Macbeth and Macduff throughout the play. Lennox: nobleman, suspicious of the murder of the king Seyton: Macbeth’s lieutenant. Porter: watches Macbeth’s castle; when drunk, thought that he was the keeper of Hell’s Gates and that sinners were knocking at the door to be admitted

12 Old Siward: Earl of Northumberland, ally of Malcolm and Macduff against Macbeth.
Young Siward: Old Siward’s son, killed by Macbeth in an encounter at the end of the play. Seyton: Macbeth’s lieutenant. Porter: watches Macbeth’s castle; when drunk, thought that he was the keeper of Hell’s Gates and that sinners were knocking at the door to be admitted.

13 The Source Macbeth is a man who overthrows the rightful King of Scotland Shakespeare wrote Macbeth at the beginning of King James I reign Before James succeeded Elizabeth I he was king of Scotland Placing the play in James’ homeland probably pleased him Plot for Macbeth based on Raphael Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland Real-life Macbeth reigned as King of Scotland from Shakespeare may have been drawn to the play for several reasons, one obvious reason was the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 – extremist supporters of the Catholic Church, with the help of Guy Fawkes, a soldier of fortune, to blow up the king and Parliament James I (6th of Scotland) believed himself to be a direct descendent of Banquo, a key figure in the play Shakespeare sided with the king and seemed to think that a play about treason and death would find an audience at this time

14 The play is loosely based upon actual events
The play is loosely based upon actual events.  The action is set in 11th century Scotland and England. Macbeth ruled Scotland virtuously for 10 years before turning to tyranny. His predecessor, Duncan, had been mysteriously killed. (Macbeth was likely the murderer.) He was well-read in literature and was a writer. More of the “historical fiction” aspect is directly linked to King James himself… King James VI of Scotland became James I of England in 1603 after the death of Queen Elizabeth. King James frequently called for Shakespeare and his associates to appear at his court to give them special privileges and grants of money.

15 Why would King James have been pleased with the production of Macbeth?
He believed that witches were agents of the devil who punished the wicked and tempted and tested the faith of the virtuous. He believed that man is judged by his choices. Five of the virtuous characters in Macbeth are direct ancestors of king James. A King is divine or chosen by God The play’s theme is based upon the king’s ideas and writings.

16 Will the real Macbeth please stand up?
Macbeth was a real king of Scotland He did kill King Duncan Reigned from Unlike the Macbeth in Shakespeare’s play The real Macbeth had a legitimate claim to the throne The real Macbeth was a strong leader The real Macbeth’s reign was successful The real Macbeth was killed at Lumphanan as opposed to Dunsinane

17 The construction of the play
Exciting play with a well-constructed , fast moving and direct plot A great variety of characters ranging from the kings and noblemen to the porter and the weird sisters No sub-plot- every thing which takes place refers directly to the main story –Macbeth’s rise to power and his downfall- The climax occurs in act 3,sc.3 Language Nearly all the play is written in verse-using iambic pentameter form Shakespeare uses prose ,instead of verse, in four important scenes in which a change of emphasis is required: 1- The scene where lady Macbeth reads her husband’s letter about his meeting with the witches 2- The drunken porter’s speech 3- The conversation between Lady Macduff and her son 4-Lady Macbeth’s sleep-walking

18 imagery Shakespeare develops a structure of figurative language to suggest the psychological development of tragic hero Macbeth has a great number of metaphors expressing certain ideas ex: a great deal of imagery refers to clothing and covering up of the body with cloth some kind: (v.ii.20-2) (II,iv,31-2) (I.iii,108-9) (I.iii,112-13)

19 THEMES Ambition for power can lead to loss of humanity
Betrayal and treachery is central to the play, and was of a considerable interest to Shakespeare's contemporary audience at the turn of the 17th C Demonstrates the moral and psychological effects of evil on the life of one man. Shakespeare is commenting on the destructive power of uncontrolled ambition

20 Motifs "Fair is foul, and foul is fair."  This theme is reiterated throughout the play by Macbeth and the weird sisters. What does it mean? "Blood will have blood."  Macbeth attained his position by bloodshed, so it was inevitable that he should pay with his own life.

21 Look for examples of … Double meanings Grim humor Sharp twists
IRONY: Double meanings Grim humor Sharp twists Audience dramatic ironies SYMBOLISM & CONTRASTS: Evil Hell Disorder Darkness Good Heaven Order Light

22 Macbeth Act and Scene Summaries

23 Macbeth Act 1 Summary

24 Setting ‘Macbeth’ is set mainly around Scotland. The story starts off with the fighting near Duncan’s castle, and then shifts to Macbeth’s castle on Dunsinane Hill. Fife is where Macduff lives and where his family is killed. Macbeth meets the witches in a desert place. There is one scene in England as well when Macduff meets Malcolm. The time period is in the 11th century.

25 Act I Act I, Scene 1: Three witches meet in a deserted location and plan to meet Macbeth Act I, Scene 2: A sergeant arrives to give a report to King Duncan about a battle being fought between Scotland and Norway Macbeth is reported to have fought bravely Act I, Scene 3: Macbeth and Banquo meet with the witches and learn of their prophesies. Macbeth and Banquo meet Duncan’s men and learn that one of the prophecies has come true. Act I, Scene 4: Duncan welcomes back Macbeth and praises him for his loyalty and accomplishments. Duncan announces that his son Malcolm will be successor to the throne. Duncan plans to go to Macbeth’s castle Inverness to celebrate their victory. Act I, Scene 5 Lady Macbeth reads a letter from her husband about his strange meeting with the witches. She delivers two soliloquies which give insight into both her and Macbeth’s characters. Macbeth returns to the castle and she urges him to hide any evil intentions and appear welcoming to the king. Act I, Scenes 6-7 King Duncan arrives at Macbeth’s castle and is greeted warmly by Lady Macbeth. Macbeth expresses doubts about murdering Duncan. Lady Macbeth attempts to ‘pour my spirits in thine ear’ and convince Macbeth to murder Duncan.

26 Act 1 The play takes place in Scotland.
Duncan, the king of Scotland, is at war with the king of Norway As the play opens, Duncan learns of Macbeth's bravery in battle against a Scot who sided with Norway. He also hears of the betrayal (deceit, treason, disloyalty) of the Thane of Cawdor, who was arrested. Duncan decides to give the title of Thane of Cawdor to Macbeth.

27 Act 1 (continued) Macbeth and Banquo, traveling home from the battle, meet three witches, The witches predict that Macbeth will be Thane of Cawdor and king of Scotland, and that Banquo will be the father of kings. The witches disappear, and Macbeth and Banquo meet up with two nobles who inform them of Macbeth's new title. Hearing this, Macbeth begins to contemplate murdering Duncan in order to realize the witches' second prophecy.

28 Act 1 (continued) Macbeth and Banquo meet up with Duncan, who tells them he is going to pay Macbeth a visit at his home at Inverness. Macbeth rides ahead to prepare his household. Meanwhile, Lady Macbeth receives a letter from Macbeth informing her of the witches' prophesy (prediction, forecast) and Macbeth's new title of Thane of Cawdor. A servant appears and tells her of Duncan's approach. Lady Macbeth calls upon supernatural powers to strip her of her feminine softness and prepare her to murder Duncan. When Macbeth arrives at Inverness, Lady Macbeth tells him that she will take care of all the details of Duncan's murder.

29 Scene 1– The Witches “Fair is foul and foul is fair.”
The witches will meet Macbeth on the heath in the near future.

30 Scene 2- The War and The Thane of Cawdor
The war with Norway is won and Macbeth and Banquo are the heroes. Macbeth captures and kills the traitor. The King tells Ross to take the news of the title of Cawdor to Macbeth (3rd in line to the throne). The Norwegian king must pay ransom for burial of his men. Glamis Castle

31 Scene 3- Macbeth and the Witches
Macbeth and Banquo meet the witches on the heath. The witches tell Macbeth,“Hail Thane of Glamis ( he already is this), Hail Thane of Cawdor (the title he is to receive from the King, and Hail King (there already is a King Duncan). The witches tell Banquo that his sons will be kings, but he will not. The witches vanish and Macbeth and Banquo discuss what had just happened. Macbeth wonders if he will have to commit a horrible deed (regicide) in order to become the King of Scotland.

32 Scene 4- The “Step” Macbeth must “or’leap”
At the king’s palace, Duncan hears reports of Cawdor’s execution from his son Malcolm, who says that Cawdor died nobly, confessing freely and repenting of his crimes. Macbeth and Banquo enter with Ross and Angus. Duncan thanks the two generals profusely for their heroism in the battle, and they profess their loyalty and gratitude toward Duncan. Duncan announces his intention to name Malcolm the heir to his throne.

33 Macbeth declares his joy but notes to himself that Malcolm now stands between him and the crown. Plans are made for Duncan to dine at Macbeth’s castle that evening, and Macbeth goes on ahead of the royal party to inform his wife of the king’s impending arrival.

34 Scene 5- Lady Macbeth In Inverness, Macbeth’s castle, Lady Macbeth reads to herself a letter she has received from Macbeth. The letter announces Macbeth’s promotion to the thaneship of Cawdor and details his meeting with the witches. Lady Macbeth murmurs that she knows Macbeth is ambitious, but fears he is too full of “th’ milk of human kindness” to take the steps necessary to make himself king (I.v.15). She resolves to convince her husband to do whatever is required to seize the crown.

35 Cont. A messenger enters and informs Lady Macbeth that the king rides toward the castle, and that Macbeth is on his way as well. As she awaits her husband’s arrival, she delivers a famous speech in which she begs, “you spirits / That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, / And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full / Of direst cruelty”

36 Cont. Macbeth enters, and he and his wife discuss the king’s forthcoming visit. Macbeth tells his wife that Duncan plans to depart the next day, but Lady Macbeth declares that the king will never see tomorrow. She tells her husband to have patience and to leave the plan to her.

37 Act I, Scenes 6-7 Duncan, the Scottish lords, and their attendants arrive outside Macbeth’s castle. Duncan praises the castle’s pleasant environment, and he thanks Lady Macbeth, who has emerged to greet him, for her hospitality. She replies that it is her duty to be hospitable since she and her husband owe so much to their king. Duncan then asks to be taken inside to Macbeth, whom he professes to love dearly. Inverness Castle

38 Cont. Inside the castle Macbeth paces by himself, pondering his idea of assassinating Duncan. He says that the deed would be easy if he could be certain that it would not set in motion a series of terrible consequences. He then considers the reasons why he ought not to kill Duncan: Macbeth is Duncan’s kinsman, subject, and host; moreover, the king is universally admired as a virtuous ruler. Macbeth notes that these circumstances offer him nothing that he can use to motivate himself. He faces the fact that there is no reason to kill the king other than his own ambition, which he realizes is an unreliable guide.

39 Cont. Lady Macbeth enters and tells her husband that the king has dined and that he has been asking for Macbeth. Macbeth declares that he no longer intends to kill Duncan. Lady Macbeth, outraged, calls him a coward and questions his manhood: “When you durst do it,” she says, “then you were a man”

40 Cont. He asks her what will happen if they fail; she promises that as long as they are bold, they will be successful. Then she tells him her plan: while Duncan sleeps, she will give his chamberlains wine to make them drunk, and then she and Macbeth can slip in and murder Duncan. They will smear the blood of Duncan on the sleeping chamberlains to cast the guilt upon them. Astonished at the brilliance and daring of her plan, Macbeth tells his wife that her “undaunted mettle” makes him hope that she will only give birth to male children. He then agrees to proceed with the murder.

41 Macbeth Questions

42 Act 1 Why does King Duncan Make Macbeth Thane of Cawdor?
How does Banquo react to Macbeth’s new title? Lady Macbeth calls upon the spirits to “make thick my blood, stop up the access and passage to remorse” What is she asking?

43 Act 1 At the end of Act 1, give all the reasons Macbeth does not want to murder the king? In what ways does Lady Macbeth attack Macbeth’s manhood? How does she show she is more of a man than he?

44 Act II Act 2, Scene 1: Past midnight, Macbeth tells Banquo that they'll speak of the witches another time and bids him goodnight.  Macbeth imagines he sees a dagger. Act 2, Scene 2: Lady Macbeth waits for Macbeth to come with the news that he has killed the King.  I can’t say anything else without being a plot spoiler…  Act 2, Scene 3: The Porter pretends that he is hell's gatekeeper, then lets two noblemen, Macduff and Lennox, into the castle.  Macduff discovers King Duncan's body.  Macbeth pretends to be angry, while Lady Macbeth faints at the news. Act 2, Scene 4: Ross, a nobleman, and an Old Man discuss what a strange night it has been. Ross and Macduff discuss whether Malcolm and Donalbain are responsible for their father's murder. 

45 Act II Macbeth has a vision (mental image) of a bloody dagger floating before him and leading him to Duncan's room. When he hears Lady Macbeth ring the bell to signal the completion of her preparations, Macbeth follows through with his part of the plan and leaves for Duncan's room.

46 Act II (conntinued) Lady Macbeth waits for Macbeth to finish killing Duncan. Macbeth enters, still carrying the bloody daggers. Lady Macbeth again chastises him (tells him off) for his weak-mindedness and plants the daggers on the bodyguards herself. As she does so, Macbeth imagines that he hears a voice saying "Macbeth will sleep no more." Lady Macbeth returns and assures Macbeth that "a little water clears us of this deed."

47 Act II (conntinued) At the gate the porter pretends that he is guarding the door to hell. The thanes knock at the gate, and Macduff discovers Duncan's body when he goes in to wake him up. Macbeth kills the two bodyguards, supposedly in a fit of grief and rage, when they are discovered with the bloody daggers. Duncan's sons Malcolm and Donalbain, fearing that their lives are in danger, flee to England and Ireland; their flight brings them under suspicion (question) of conspiring (planning, scheming) in Duncan's death Macbeth is crowned king of Scotland.

48 Guided Reading Questions and Notes
Macbeth Act II Guided Reading Questions and Notes

49 Act II, Scene 1 Guided Reading Questions
Describe the mood in this scene. Macbeth lies to Banquo in this scene. What lie does he tell, and why does he tell it? What is the signal that it is time to commit the murder? What hallucination does Macbeth have during his soliloquy in this scene? What is Macbeth thinking about in this soliloquy?

50 Act II, Scene 1 Act II—Rising Action
Characters make decisions and begin to act upon them Can begin to separate the “good” characters from the “bad” Atmosphere is very dark (FORESHADOWING) Moon is down No stars in the sky

51 Act II, scene 1 cont’d Banquo is uneasy and cannot sleep
Evidence of dramatic foil Macbeth says that he isn’t thinking about the witches’ prophecies That’s really all he’s been thinking about He lies to throw off suspicion (he is putting on a “false face”

52 Act II, Scene 1 Macbeth hallucinates a dagger hovering in the air leading him on to commit the murder He notices every sound around him—he is uneasy. Still has second thoughts about the murder Questions his own sanity Says that wicked dreams will abuse his sleep (this will recur throughout the play) Wants to get the job done quickly (while he talks, Duncan lives)

53 Act II, Scene 2 Guided Reading Questions
Why does Lady Macbeth claim to have been unable to kill Duncan herself? Why is this ironic? What does BLOOD symbolize in the play? After the murder, Macbeth claims to hear voices. Are they real or are they something else? What do the voices say? What is the biggest difference between Lady Macbeth and Macbeth that becomes apparent in this scene?

54 Act II, Scene 2 Lady Macbeth says Duncan reminded her of her father as he slept Irony—this does not seem like the same Lady Macbeth from Act I (she is ALONE on stage!) BLOOD=Guilt It cannot be washed away Macbeth hears voices—his conscience? “Macbeth does murder sleep” “Cawdor shall sleep no more”

55 Act II, Scene 2 cont’d Macbeth claims he cannot say amen (Pray)
He is already suffering from guilt Difference between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth He worries that there is not enough water in all of the oceans of the world to wash the “blood” off his hands (HYPERBOLE) She acts as though it is nothing

56 Act II, Scene 3 Guided Reading Questions
What is ironic about the porter’s description of his job? Who is the first person to discover Duncan’s dead body? Who witnesses Macbeth’s murder of the guards? Why does he CLAIM to have killed the guards? Why does he REALLY kill them? Where do Malcolm and Donalbain plan to flee? Why do they think they need to leave?

57 Act II, Scene 3 Porter—an old drunk man whose job it is to answer the door, carry baggage, etc. He is there for comic relief to relieve the tension of the previous scene (common in Elizabethan dramas) Irony—he compares his job to the porter at the gate of hell Inverness is a type of hell for everyone this morning

58 Act II, Scene 3 cont’d First person to see Duncan’s body
Macduff Lennox witnesses the killing of the guards Macbeth CLAIMS that he killed the guards out of love for Duncan Macbeth REALLY killed them to Keep them quiet (dead men tell no tales!) Appear to be a protector (a resume builder)

59 Act II, Scene 3 cont’d Malcolm and Donalbain plan to flee 2 reasons:
Malcolm to England Donalbain to Ireland 2 reasons: For their safety (if the real killer is still alive, they could be next) They will be suspected (they have the most to gain from Duncan’s death)

60 Act II, Scene 4 Guided Reading Questions
Describe strange events and the weather the night of Duncan’s murder (some of this information is in the previous scene). What news does Macduff report from the meeting inside the castle? What is unusual about Macduff’s decision concerning Macbeth’s coronation? How will Macbeth react to this news? At the end of Act II, which characters are questioning the guilt of the guards in Duncan’s murder?

61 Act II, Scene 4 Unnatural events and a TERRIBLE storm night of Duncan’s murder: Earthquakes Hurricane force winds Animals shrieking all night (suspicion states that animals can sense danger or evil) Pitch black the next day Duncan’s horses ate each other (Great Chain of Being)

62 Act II, Scene 4 Macduff reports that the verdict is that the guards MUST have been guilty They were probably bribed (suborned) by Malcolm and Donalbain) Malcolm and Donalbain fled so they must be guilty of something The guards stood to gain nothing on their own by killing Duncan

63 Act II, Scene 4 Macbeth will become king
Macduff will not go to the coronation Macbeth will consider him a traitor Questioning the guards’ guilt at the end of the act: Macduff Banquo Malcolm Donalbain

64 Macbeth Questions Act 2

65 1. After the murder, Macbeth is agitated. Why
1. After the murder, Macbeth is agitated. Why? What does Lady Macbeth urge him to do? 2. Why is the porter scene included? What makes this important, funny? 3. What was Lennox and Macduff’s impression of the night before showing at Macbeth’s castle? What does it signify?

66 4. Why do Malcom and Donalbaine flee from Scotland? Where does each go?
5. What is the “dagger of the mind” symbolic of? How does the dagger change throughout the soliloquy, and what do these changes represent?

67 Act III Act 3, Scene 1 Banquo expresses his suspicion of Macbeth.
Macbeth questions Banquo about the ride he's taking and insists he return in time for a banquet that night. Macbeth persuades two Murderers that they have a new enemy who needs to be killed… Act 3, Scene 2: Lady Macbeth and Macbeth both envy the peaceful dead, who sleep in peace, while they, who have everything, live in constant fear of losing everything. Macbeth reassures Lady Macbeth that their problems will soon be solved. Act 3, Scene 3 The Murderers carry out their work. Act 3, Scene 4: Macbeth and Lady Macbeth welcome the guests to their banquet. The First Murderer reports back to Macbeth. Macbeth sees an unwelcome guest at the banquet. He decides to meet with the witches again. Act 3, Scene 5: The three Witches appear with Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft. Act 3, Scene 6: Lennox and another Lord have a conversation which shows doubts about Macbeth’s leadership.

68 Macbeth Act 3 Scene 1 Banquo suspects Macbeth - gains comfort from 2nd prediction - his own children will be Kings Even with new title Macbeth does not feel at ease calls murderers dogs but he shows his inhumanity and imperfections -also wants to kill Fleance 68

69 Act 3 Scene 2 Macbeth plans murder not Lady Macbeth
Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s world not at peace Macbeth wants to get rid of his bond with humanity “We have scorched the snake, not killed it.”—Macbeth, “Duncan is in his grave; After lifeʼs fitful fever he sleeps well.”—Macbeth, –5 69

70 Act 3 Scene 3 Banquo killed - Murderers lantern extinguished - Fleance escapes Forces of darkness are at odds with light Murderers capable of poetry Escape of Fleance turning point - Peripeteia - sudden reversal of fortune Banquo’s dying words “to revenge” 70

71 Act 3 Scene 4 Macbeth has Thanes of Scotland over - Macduff not there
Murderers tell Macbeth what happened - Macbeth losses it Macbeth sees ghost - goes into a fit Macbeth has lost control Macbeth will kill Macduff and visit three sisters “It will have blood, they say: blood will have blood.” —Macbeth, –53 71

72 Act 3 Scene 5 Hecate joins three sisters
Some say this scene was not in the orginal play 72

73 Act 3 Scene 6 Lennox reveals doubts about Macbeth - Did he kill the guards hastily? Macduff has fled to England to join forces with Malcolm also asks help from King Edward of England 73

74 Act III Guided Reading Questions and Notes
Macbeth Act III Guided Reading Questions and Notes

75 Act III, Scene 1 Guided Reading Questions
How is Banquo beginning to feel about Macbeth? How does Macbeth feel about Banquo? What does Macbeth suddenly realize about his murdering of Duncan? What plan does Macbeth concoct against Banquo? What persuasive tactics does he use to get his plan accomplished? Why does Macbeth claim he cannot kill Banquo?

76 Act III, Scene 1 Turning Point—a high point in the action
Protagonist does/does not achieve goal Protagonist makes an important discovery or decision Protagonist must begin to act in order to protect his position Tragic Flaw becomes apparent

77 Act III, Scene 1 Banquo voices his concerns—he has doubts about how Macbeth got the crown “I fear/ Thou playd’st most foully for it.” Macbeth states that he “fears” Banquo He is the only outsider who knows the witches’ prophecies His prophecy was GREATER than Macbeth’s Sudden realization (EPIPHANY)—Macbeth killed Duncan for Banquo’s eventual gain!

78 Act III, Scene 1 Macbeth makes a plan to kill both Banquo and Fleance
Macbeth’s behavior at this point: Finding it difficult to trust people Seems desperate to do what is necessary to maintain his position He has become a tyrant willing to kill his best friend because of his ambition

79 Act III, Scene 1 Macbeth hires two killers
Mercenaries Makes them believe that Banquo is responsible for their position in life (they have had a previous conversation) Questions their manhood (whom does this remind us of?) Says he cannot kill Banquo because they have mutual friends who would never forgive him for it.

80 Act III, Scene 1 The real reason Macbeth must persuade the murderers in this way? He wants to appear to have no real connection to the murder Makes the murderers themselves feel that it is THEIR choice to kill Banquo Are they alone in the room when the plan is concocted?

81 Act III, Scene 2 Guided Reading Questions
When Lady Macbeth is alone on stage, what does she reveal about her inner feelings? How much information does Macbeth reveal to Lady Macbeth about his plans for Banquo? Why does he choose to limit his information?

82 Act III, Scene 2 Lady Macbeth alone on stage—how is she beginning to change? Behavior seems to flip-flop from earlier in the play “What’s done is done” when Macbeth reenters Macbeth’s reference to the nightmares that “shake” them nightly. Watch for constant references to lack of sleep or inability to sleep restfully Macbeth “murdered” sleep PSYCHOLOGICALLY what is causing their lack of sleep?

83 Act III, Scene 2 Macbeth makes vague references to something BAD that will happen that night, but does not give any real details to Lady Macbeth Macbeth tells his wife he wants her to be “innocent of the knowledge” of tonight’s plan The fewer people who know about it the better Another sign of his distrust He is taking charge of the situation (their gender roles are becoming more “standard” for the time period)

84 Act III, Scene 3 Guided Reading Questions
Who is the third murderer who shows up in this scene? Give evidence to support your answer. What happens to Fleance? What does LIGHT symbolize in the play?

85 Act III, Scene 3 Two murderers were hired Who is the third murderer?
THREE show up The other two seem confused (and almost angered) by this intrusion Who is the third murderer? NEVER find out Doesn’t appear to be a mistake on Shakespeare’s part Could be someone who is still loyal to Macbeth Could be Macbeth covering his tracks or showing more signs of distrust by quickly adding a third person himself

86 Act III, Scene 3 Banquo is killed
Fleance manages to escape Why is this a HUGE problem for Macbeth? If one believes the witches’ prophecies (which have all come true so far), Fleance poses a bigger threat to Macbeth than Banquo does Watch for references now to LIGHT Symbol of LIFE “Who did strike out the light?”

87 Act III, Scene 4 Guided Reading Questions
Macbeth thinks his friends are playing tricks on him. What is causing his paranoia? When Macbeth reacts to the Ghost of Banquo, how does Lady Macbeth excuse his behavior? When did Macbeth begin to distrust Macduff? How does Macbeth know what is going on with Macduff right now? Lines Translate the COMPLETE sentence contained in those lines.

88 Act III, scene 4 Only Macbeth can see the ghost of Banquo at the dinner—observe his reaction (and remember that he is on front of an “audience”) Macbeth seems to think his friends are playing a trick on him—signs of paranoia Two reasons for paranoid feelings: Guilt Lack of sleep (caused by guilt)

89 Act III, Scene 4 Lady Macbeth excuses his behavior as FITS that he has had since childhood Personality trait is in direct conflict with the feelings of security people want in their king Questions his manhood to his face Tells others to ignore him What happens when they both realize that people can hear their “private” conversation?

90 Act III, scene 4 From earlier in the act, we know that Lady Macbeth is not as calm as she pretends to be. Dramatic Irony—when the audience knows something the characters do not. Macbeth says that “blood will have blood.” Beginning to understand that there are consequences for all actions Things are beginning to snowball for him—he is losing control and desperately trying to hold on.

91 Act III, scene 4 Macbeth doesn’t trust Macduff
Began when Macduff did not honor him at his coronation Now Macduff has refused to attend the state banquet Macbeth has spies in all his thanes’ houses Macbeth will go to the three witches to find out if they will tell him any more information

92 Act III, Scene 5 Guided Reading Questions
Why is Hecate angry with the three witches (more than one answer)? What negative trait does Hecate plan to have the three witches bring out in Macbeth (tragic flaw)?

93 Act III, scene 5 Scholars believe that scene 5 may have been added after Shakespeare’s death to give more of a role to the witches (who were a crowd favorite) and in order to clarify the tragic flaw in the play. Hecate is angry with the three witches Acting without her knowledge Not including her Giving information to someone like Macbeth (maybe he couldn’t handle it)

94 Act III, scene 5 She misdirects her vengeance—she’s angry with the witches, so she plans to hurt Macbeth (this is a pattern in the play) She details her plan to get Macbeth to feel OVERCONFIDENT so that it will bring about his eventual downfall TRAGIC FLAW “Security is mortals’ chiefest enemy”—if he feels safe in his position he will let down his guard so mistakes can occur

95 Act III, Scene 6 Guided Reading Questions
In Lennox’s sardonic speech, what does he seem to say is wrong with people’s assumptions about Duncan’s murder? Where is Macduff? How will Macbeth react to Macduff’s refusal to report to see hm?

96 Act III, scene 6 Sardonic Combination of SARCASTIC and IRONIC Lennox is being VERY sarcastic in this speech. When he says it only makes sense to think that something is true, he is really saying it’s RIDICULOUS to jump to these conclusions Lennox casts suspicion on Macbeth (remember—he was the one who was with Macbeth when he killed the guards!)

97 Act III, scene 6 If you believe that Malcolm and Donalbain are guilty of Duncan’s murder because they fled, then you MUST believe that Fleance killed Banquo (since he fled) HOWEVER, it is illogical to believe that Malcolm and Donalbain are guilty when all the evidence points to someone else People in Scotland better beware of walking late at night—no one is safe in Scotland when the sun goes down

98 Act III, scene 6 The lord reports that Macduff is fleeing to England to see Malcolm They want to bring back English troops to help dethrone Macbeth When Macbeth learned that Macduff was planning to leave, he commanded him to report to see him, Macduff refused. How will Macbeth react (think about how people in this play take out vengeance)?

99 Act III, scene 6 IRONY: Macbeth was given his first promotion (to Thane of Cawdor) because a man was a traitor He was overly trusted by Duncan who was the victim of a traitor Now, Macbeth will fell what it’s like to have his “friends” betray him!

100 Act IV Act IV, Scene 1: The witches call up apparitions which give Macbeth new prophecies. The witches vanish and Macbeth calls in Lennox, who tells him that Macduff has fled to England. Macbeth takes drastic steps… Act IV, Scene 2: Ross brings Lady Macduff the news that her husband has fled Scotland.  Lady Macduff and her son joke about Macduff being a traitor. A messenger rushes in to warn Lady Macduff about impending danger. Act 4, Scene 3: Macduff seeks Malcolm's support for a war against Macbeth. Malcolm tests Macduff's intentions. Speaking to Malcolm and Macduff, Ross tells of Scotland's suffering under Macbeth and of the slaughter of Macduff's wife and children. Everyone is now ready to make war against Macbeth.

101 Macbeth Act 4 Scene 1 “Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn, and cauldron bubble.”—Witches, –1 Macbeth goes to weird sisters and demands to be shown apparitions of the future 1. disembodied head of a warrior who warns Macbeth of revenge 2. blood-covered child who cannot be killed by any man “ of woman born” 101

102 “I’ll make assurance double sure.”—Macbeth, 4.1.93
3. a child wearing a crown promises Macbeth cannot lose in battle until Birnam wood moves to Dunsinane Macbeth asks about Banquo’s sons and sees a procession of Banquo and future kings Macbethless future Macduff has fled to England and Macbeth announces revenge of Macduff’s wife and children “I’ll make assurance double sure.”—Macbeth, 102

103 Act 4 Scene 2 Lady Macduff feels Macduff has acted dishonestly
Son says the world is full of dishonest men 103

104 Act 4 Scene 3 “At one fell swoop.”—Macduff, 4.3.256
Malcolm tests Macduff’s loyalty - says he would be a great tyrant - reverse psychology Macduff still hates Macbeth - Malcolm has gotten what he wants Macduff’s loyalty Ross tells him of the slaughter of wife and child - Macduff vows revenge 104

105 Act IV

106 Act IV, Scene i

107 Summary Witches and their brew- odd components of brew
Prophecies and apparitions, apparitions visit MacBeth Meeting with Lennox Macduff flees to England but his family remains in the castle MacBeth plans to capture Macduff’s castle and kill Macduff’s wife and his children

108 Q1: Analyze the contents of the witches’ brew in relation to their pagan beliefs.
Witches put in the potion: “Liver of blaspheming Jew…Nose of Turk and Tartar’s lips,”(26-29) Jews, Turks, and Tartars are enemies of Christianity. These people are put in the potion on the basis of being unchristian. This situation is ironic, because witches are believed to be pagan, not Christian, and they are condemning their pagan enemies by placing them in the potion.

109 Q2: Who comes to visit the witches as they are making the spell?
Macbeth walks in This is ironic because they say that something wicked comes this way and then Macbeth walks in. “By the pricking of my thumbs, something wicked this way comes…” (Lines 44-45)

110 Q3: What does Macbeth want from the witches?
He wants to know what comes next in their prophecies

111 Q4: “The power of man, for none of woman born Shall harm Macbeth.”
What do you think this means? How does Macbeth take it? Predict Macbeth’s demise.

112 Answer: Significance: Very few people will be able to kill MacBeth. Either a supernatural being or a person not naturally born. MacBeth takes this as proving how unstoppable he his, how he is invincible. Consequently, MacBeth will have a different attitude. He might become more violent and cruel, thinking that no one will be able to stop him. MacBeth’s downfall will be that he will act differently because of this information.

113 Q5: Do you think the witches really predicting fate or just orchestrating events the way they want to? The witches do not make MacBeth kill others, so they are not really orchestrating the events. They are predicting fate because they just tell things how they are supposed to be and do not interfere in the lives of the characters too much. (The witches tell MacBeth prophecies, but they do not make him evil and cause him to kill).

114 Q6: What are the apparitions? What is the purpose of them?
1) Armed head, symbolizing MacDuff. Beware or be careful of Macduff 2) Bloody child, symbolizing MacDuff at birth. This apparition is truly important to the rest of the story. FORSHADOWING. 3) A child crowned with a tree in his hand, symbolizing Malcom. Until Great Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill nothing will happen to MacBeth. The 3 apparitions are visions that the witches reveal to Macbeth to reveal the prophesies and calm Macbeth’s fears.

115 Q7: Discuss the theme of blood in apparitions and earlier in the play
Earlier in the play blood symbolizes the guilt of both Lady Macbeth and Macbeth himself After Duncan’s murder the remaining blood on Macbeth’s hands represents his guilt resulting from the murder What is the importance of blood in this scene?

116 Q8: What is the significance of the line of kings?
All of those in the line of kings are descendents of Banquo The witches show the line of kings to MacBeth, fulfilling the first prophecy they made to him (when they said MacBeth would be king, also that Banquo’s sons will be king).

117 Q9: Compare/Contrast Macbeth’s thoughts as he plans the murder of Macduff’s family with his thoughts before Duncan’s murder When MacBeth killed Duncan, he had feelings of humanity, guilt. He also second guessed himself. And this plan was conceived by MacBeth’s wife, not himself. When MacBeth killed Macduff’s family, he had no second thoughts. He is all evil, and becoming crazier. The murder of Macduff’s family further proves that MacBeth will do whatever he can to have power over everybody.

118 Act V Act 5, Scene 1: Lady Macbeth's servant tells a doctor of the Lady's sleep-walking.  Lady Macbeth walks and talks in her sleep, revealing guilty secrets. Act 5, Scene 2: The Scottish forces against Macbeth are on the march. Act 5, Scene 3: Macbeth hears that his thanes are abandoning him, that the English army is approaching, and that his wife is ill, but he tries to convince himself that he has nothing to fear, and prepares to fight. Act 5, Scene 4: The forces opposed to Macbeth enter Birnam wood. Malcolm gives the order for every soldier to cut a tree branch and hold it before him. Act 5, Scene 5: Macbeth expresses his defiance of the forces marching against him. He hears the news about his wife A messenger reports of the approach of Birnam woods coming to Dunsinane. Act 5, Scene 6: The English and Scottish forces, led by Malcolm, begin their attack upon Dunsinane. Act 5, Scene 7: Macbeth fights Young Siward and kills him Macduff seeks revenge on Macbeth. Malcolm and Siward take possession of Dunsinane. Act 5, Scene 8: Macduff and Macbeth do battle. The fight for Scotland is decided.

119 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 1 “Out, damned spot! out, I say!”—Lady Macbeth, “All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand.” —Lady Macbeth, –7 “What’s done cannot be undone.”—Lady Macbeth, –3 Played in dark except one candle Lady Macbeth has gone mad - sleepwalks and tells fragments of events 119

120 overheard by doctor and lady-in-waiting
Lady Macbeth is seen rubbing her hands - (quotes at the beginning) Lady Macbeth needs a “divine” Spiritual darkness - 1 candle 120

121 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 2 Four lords of Scotland - Lennox, Mentith, Angus, and Caithness resolve to join Malcolm and English forces who are at Birnam Wood Caithness speech - warrior hero - valiant fury - but not righteous - “ Distemper’d Cause” 121

122 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 3 Macbeth dismisses reports of invasion ( confident tyrant) Trusts the prophecies Servant ( cream faced lilly livered) announces huge army Doctor tells of Lady Macbeth “ yellow leaf” - fall of his own reputation 122

123 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 4 English and Scotish armies under leadership of Malcolm meet at Birnam Wood Malcolm orders soldiers to cut a branch and carry it in front of them as camouflage “To shadow the number of our host” taken from Holinshed’s Chronicles 123

124 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 5 Macbeth fully armed - brave rhetoric
shriek offstage - The queen is dead Birnam Wood appears to have uprooted itself advancing towards Dunsinane Shakespeare - Power-seeking tyrants tend toward self-destruction “I have supped full with horrors.”—Macbeth, Banquo’s ghost “Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow.”—Macbeth, 124

125 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 6 Malcolm and his troops have reached Dunsinane
Siward first to advance - age Macduff order of troops- discipline - harbinger or sign of what is to come 125

126 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 7 Macbeth challenged by son of Siward
Macbeth’s forces have surrendered Dunsinane Castle “They have tied me to a stake: I cannot fly” kills young Siward - “Thou wast born of woman” Macduff - ironic timing- takes place of Siward 126

127 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 8 Macbeth and Macduff finally face to face
words are tossed Macbeth ponders suicide but hey I can’t die Macduff tells him he entered the world “Untimely ripp’d” from mothers womb Macbeth realizes witches are “imperfect speakers” Macbeth dies 127

128 Macbeth Act 5 Scene 9 Malcolm proclaimed new king of Scotland
true friends “we miss” loyalty he will rule with graciousness and humility Macduff enters with Macbeth’s head 128

129 Macbeth Act III Quiz

130 1.What is the “barren scepter” Macbeth refers to symbolize?
2.Why does Macbeth hire murderers to kill Banquo, instead of killing himself? How does Fleance escape? 3. Discuss Macbeth’s reaction to the escape of Fleance.

131 3. How does Lady Macbeth cover for Macbeth when he sees Banquo’s ghost?
4.How does Hecate react to the Fate’s intervention into Macbeth’s life? 5. How does Lennox begin to feel about Macbeth at the end of Act III? How does he show his change of mind?

132 Macbeth Act IV Quiz

133 1. What are the three prophesies the witches show to Macbeth
1. What are the three prophesies the witches show to Macbeth? What does each mean? (Quote each and discuss.) 2. What does Macbeth decide to do after hearing his prophesy? (Find quote and discuss.) 3. Why does Lady Macduff call her husband a traitor? Why does her son think it foolish?

134 4. When Macduff hears news of his family, what does Malcolm urge him to do? How does Macduff show both male and female tendencies? 5. What was King Duncan’s flaw? How does Malcolm show he has learned from this flaw? Find quotes and discuss.

135 Macbeth Act V Quiz

136 1.Why does the gentle woman refuse to repeat Lady Macbeth’s sleep talk to the Doctor? Why can the doctor not treat her? 2. How does Macbeth reassure himself that Malcom and Macduff are of no threat? 3.How does Macbeth react to his wife’s death?

137 4. Why does Macduff declare that he must kill Macbeth?
5.How do the apparitions prophesies come true? What is the real meaning of each apparition?

138 Quotation 1 “Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time. And all of our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle. Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, And then is heard no more. It is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.” ~Act V, Scene V In this quote, Macbeth has just found out about the death of his wife and the attackers approaching his house. This quote really shows the growth of Macbeth as a character and demonstrates how his life was ruined by his vaulting ambition. This quote can be summed up to meaning that life has no meaning at all and that everyone is insignificant in the big picture. This statement by Macbeth can be seen as a way to justify his horrible actions because since life itself is truly meaningless, he can not feel guilty about the awful things he has done.

139 Quotation 2 “Out, damned spot; out, I say. One, two— why, then ‘tis time to do’t. Hell is murky. Fie, my lord, fie, a soldier and afeard? What need we fear who knows it when none can call our power to account? Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him?” ~Act V, Scene I In this quote, Lady Macbeth is sleep walking and is trying to rub off the imaginary blood that has stained her from the murdering of the King. This quote shows Lady Macbeth’s conscience about the murders even though she had called her husband a coward earlier in the work because of these same thoughts. For the first time in the play we see remorse from Lady Macbeth. This quote is significant because we see that Lady Macbeth has gone crazy just as Macbeth has because of the paranoia of being convicted. The reader learns a lot about Lady Macbeth through this scene and specifically the quote mentioned.

140 Focus Questions What does it mean when the witches say that they’ll meet again “when the hurley burley’s done/ When the battle’s lost and won”? (Shakespeare ). What two forces were facing each other in battle? How did the Thane of Cawdor betray the king?

141 What are the witches three prophesies regarding Macbeth?
Focus Questions What are the witches three prophesies regarding Macbeth? How do the witches prophesies set up a conflict between Macbeth and Banquo?

142 What conflict is Macbeth experiencing regarding the prophesies?
Focus Questions What conflict is Macbeth experiencing regarding the prophesies? Why is Macbeth upset that fate will make him king? What does Macbeth mean by “borrowed robes”?

143 Focus Questions When reading the letter, what does Lady Macbeth fear regarding Macbeth’s nature or character?

144 Focus Questions Why is Macbeth angry with Duncan for naming Malcolm heir? How is Lady Macbeth’s ambition opposite of Macbeth‘s and what does she mean by “unsex me here” when she call upon the evil spirits? How does Macbeth struggle with the prophesy of becoming king in his soliloquy after the king arrives?

145 Focus Questions How does Lady Macbeth insult Macbeth after he says he does not wish to kill the king after all? What is Lady Macbeth’s response when Macbeth wonders what would happen if they fail in their attempt to kill the king, and what is her plan to carry out the assassination?

146 Focus Questions Who are the “weird sisters,” and what are Macbeth’s and Banquo’s concerns regarding them? What prophesies have begun to come true for Macbeth and what potential problems do they create for him?

147 Focus Questions for Macbeth
Act II Focus Questions for Macbeth

148 Focus Questions Why does the dagger have to lead the way for Macbeth and what does it symbolize? How are Lady Macbeth’s actions different from her husband’s following the king’s murder? Who appears more in control of the emotions? Macbeth or Lady Macbeth?

149 Where do Malcolm and Donalbain go?
Focus Questions Where do Malcolm and Donalbain go? Where does Macduff tell Ross he’s going?

150 Focus Questions for Macbeth
Act III Focus Questions for Macbeth

151 What are Banquo’s concerns regarding the witches’ prophesies?
Focus Questions What are Banquo’s concerns regarding the witches’ prophesies? Why does Macbeth want to know if Fleance is with Banquo? What does Macbeth mean by “fruitless crown?”

152 Focus Questions How does Macbeth convince the two men to murder Banquo? What psychological reason causes Macbeth to see the ghost of Banquo? What part of Dramatic Structure does Banquo’s death represent? What are Macbeth’s concerns about Macduff not being at the banquet?

153 Focus Questions for Macbeth
Acts IV and V Focus Questions for Macbeth

154 Focus Questions (Act IV)
What are the new prophesies the witches give Macbeth? What is his response to these prophesies, especially in relation to Macduff?

155 Focus Questions (Act IV)
What plan does Macbeth reveal in his soliloquy? What are Lady Macduff’s concerns about her husband not being home? What is the outcome of Macbeth’s plan?

156 Focus Questions (Act IV)
What does the physician notice about Lady Macbeth’s behavior? Why do you believe she acts this way?

157 Focus Questions (Act IV and V)
How large is the English force that is approaching Dunsinane? What advice does Malcolm give Macduff regarding his grief?

158 Focus Questions (Act IV and V)
What does Macbeth reflect upon regarding what his life should have been? What message does Macbeth get regarding his wife and how does he react to it?

159 Focus Questions (Act IV and V)
How is Macbeth’s “tomorrow, tomorrow, and tomorrow” soliloquoy existential? What similes, metaphors, and personification are used in his “tomorrow, tomorrow, and tomorrow” soliloquy?

160 Important quotes in Scene i
44-45: By the pricking of my thumbs, something wicked this way comes. The witches said this, and then MacBeth approached them. MacBeth is evil, and even the wicked witches believe this. 80-81: “The power of man, for none of woman born Shall harm Macbeth.”

161 ACT IV, Scene ii

162 How does Lady Macduff feel about Macduff’s escape?
She is angry and disappointed Believes that because he fled he will appear guilty to the others She calls him a traitor because he broke their vows of marriage and has left her and their son “To leave his wife, to leave his babes,/ His mansion and his titles in a place/ From whence himself does fly? / He loves us not (line 8-10)

163 Why does Macduff leave his family at risk?
He goes to England to meet with Malcolm to talk about Macbeth

164 What does Lady Macduff tell her son about his father, and what is his response? How does he know it is not true? Why did she lie? -She tells him that his father has died, but he does not believe her -She also tells him his father is a traitor He knows his father is not dead (or a traitor) because she is not crying “If he were dead, you’d weep for him. If you would not, it were a good sign that I should quickly have a new father.” (lines 69-71)

165 “Then the liars and swearers are fools: for there are liars and swearers enow to beat the honest men and hang them up.” What is the significance of this line? (64-66) It is said by Macduff’s son during a conversation about what happens to traitors He is saying that there are not many honest men left to punish the liars and traitors

166 What does the messenger warn? Who do you think sent him?
The messenger tells Lady Macduff that she should flee because danger is coming She will not leave because she says she did nothing wrong to endanger herself “Whither should I fly? I have done no harm.” Is there a tie between 3rd murderer and messenger? Who do you think sent the messenger?

167 Who kills Macduff’s son and why? What happens to Lady Macduff?
Murderer, sent by Macbeth killed Macduff’s son after verbal argument Lady Macduff flees, but is also killed

168 Act IV, Scene ii Summary Lady Macduff tells her son that Macduff is dead, but the son will not believe her A messenger comes in and tells Lady Macduff she is in danger but she does not believe him Murderer kills Macduff’s son, and Lady Macduff flees but is chased by the murderers

169 ACT IV, Scene iii

170 At the beginning of this scene who is Macduff with
At the beginning of this scene who is Macduff with? What are they discussing? He is with Malcolm They are discussing a plan against Macbeth

171 What does Macduff want from his companion
What does Macduff want from his companion? Why has he come to this person? He wants his support against Macbeth He comes to him because his father, Duncan, was killed and he too should be killed.

172 Why do they consider Macbeth a tyrant? What theme is present?
He came to power by force No hope in Scotland, people are dying He presents a speech about the funeral bells of Scotland The theme of kingship vs. tyranny is present here King: Should be loyal to its country and should put his country and people ahead of himself Tyrant: Brings chaos to the country and become selfish in the quest for more power

173 What is the purpose of Malcolm’s test of loyalty?
He believes that Macduff is working for Macbeth He wants to give him a test of loyalty and trust to make sure that he would be a good king

174 How does Macduff react to the news of the death of his wife and son?
He is overcome with grief Malcolm urges him to come up with a plan of revenge against Macbeth

175 Who is King Edward and what is his gift? What is his importance?
King Edward is able to heal people of all different diseases by placing a gold coin on their neck and praying holy prayers over them Used his supernatural powers to benefit his people What do you think his importance is? Probably shows the theme of tyrant vs. kingship because unlike Macbeth, King Edward was a very selfless king who was loved by his people

176 What is the state that Scotland is in?
“Alas, poor country! Almost afraid to know itself! It cannot be called our mother but our grace, were nothing But who knows nothing is once seen to smile; Where sighs and groans and shrieks that rent the air, Are made, not marked where violent sorrow seems a modern ecstasy. The man’s knell is there scarce asked for who, and good men’s lives expire before the flowers in their caps, dying or ere they sicken.” (Line )

177 What will happen if/when Malcolm returns to Scotland
What will happen if/when Malcolm returns to Scotland? Who is joining him? When Malcolm returns to Scotland he will attack Macbeth He will be joined by King Edward’s army forces in the attack

178 What is the reoccurring theme in Malcolm’s “comforting” of Macduff
What is the reoccurring theme in Malcolm’s “comforting” of Macduff? Give examples. The theme of masculinity. To be a man they believe that you need to act in violence and killing. When Macduff finds out about deaths of his wife and son Malcolm urges him to respond with revenge: “masculinity”

179 How does the scene end? Malcolm and Macduff decide on a plan as revenge against Macbeth

180 Scene iii Summary Malcolm conducts a test of loyalty for Macduff and he passes it Ross at first tells Macduff that his family is fine, but then confesses that they were murdered by Macbeth Macduff is filled with grief and him and Malcolm come up with a plan of revenge

181 Soliloquy

182 Focus Questions for Macbeth
Act V Focus Questions for Macbeth

183 Why does Macbeth initially choose to not kill Macduff?
Focus Questions How is each of the witches’ three prophesies fulfilled in the plot’s resolution of main conflict? Why does Macbeth initially choose to not kill Macduff?

184 Who is the new King of Scotland?
Focus Questions Why does Macbeth choose to fight Macduff once he discovers he was not “born of woman”?? Who is the new King of Scotland?

185 Literary Terms, Themes and Motifs

186 Alliteration The repetition of one or more beginning sounds,
usually consonants, in a group of words. Fair is foul, and foul is fair: Hover through the fog and filthy air. (Ii) (Witches) So withered and so wild in their attire (Iiii) (Macbeth) Tonight we hold a solemn supper, Sir, And I’ll request your presence. (IIIi) (Macbeth) “s”, very serpent-like, he’s inviting Banquo.

187 Irony Dramatic irony: the opposite outcome of what a character expects, or when the audience knows more than the characters onstage. Duncan: “This castle hath a pleasant seat. The air nimbly and sweetly recommends itself unto our senses.” Ivi Duncan will soon die (and lose his “seat”) in this castle. Macbeth: “Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown… For (Banquo’s sons) the gracious Duncan have I murdered; To make them kings…” Macbeth recognizes the irony that he paved the way to make the 3rd prophecy come true about Banquo’s lineage becoming kings.

188 A comparison of unlike objects without using like or as.
Metaphor A comparison of unlike objects without using like or as. From Macbeth: Macbeth:“Why do you dress me in borrowed robes?” (Iiii) Compared to being given a title that someone still has. Lady Macbeth: “That I may pour my spirits into thine ear” Compared to wanting to use the right words to convince Macbeth to be strong. Macbeth: “Life’s but a walking shadow…” Vv

189 When objects are given human characteristics.
Personification When objects are given human characteristics. Ross: “That darkness does the face of earth entomb…” Iiiv Macbeth: “The bell invites me.” IIi Macduff: “Make all our trumpets speak.” Vvi

190 Paradox Contradictory statement that is eventually explained
to be revealed as truth and/or logical. The witches:“When the battle’s lost and won… Fair is foul, and foul is fair” (Ii) “Lesser than Macbeth, and greater… Not so happy, yet much happier” (Iiii) The prophecy about Birnam Woods meeting with Dunsinane Castle (Ivi) Banquo: “…the instruments of Darkness tell us truths; win us with honest trifles, to betray ‘s.” (Iiii)

191 THEME: Illusion vs. Reality
Paradoxical language at the beginning of the play is used to create logical confusion. What may seem “fair” can turn out to be “foul” and visa versa. Banquo: “‘Tis strange: and oftentimes, to win us to our harm, the instruments of / Darkness tell us truths; win us with honest trifles, to betray ’s.” Iiii Lady Macbeth: “Look like th’ innocent flower, / But be the serpent under’t” Iv Macbeth: “And make our faces vizards to our hearts, / Disquising what they are.” IIIii Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s hallucinations (the bloody dagger, sleeping guards’ whispers, Banquo’s ghosts, blood on hands that won’t wash off) The witches prophecies are never what they seem to be. What seems as good news, backfires: “All hail, Macbeth! That shalt be king hereafter” comes true but doesn’t say for how long; “non of woman born shall harm Macbeth” but Macduff was born by caesarian section; “Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill shall come against him.” is made possible due to Malcolm’s war tactic to use trees as camouflage.

192 MOTIF: Blood and Evil A motif can be any reoccurring pattern (symbol, imagery, metaphor, etc) Duncan: “What bloody man is that?” (soldier from Iii) Lady Macbeth: “Go, carry them, and smear The sleepy grooms with blood.” Iiii Macbeth: “And, with thy (Night’s) bloody and invisible hand, Cancel, and tear to pieces that great bond (with Banquo) / Which keeps me pale!” IIIii Bloody baby apparition: “Be bloody, bold and resolute.” Ivi Lady Macbeth: “Out damned spot! Out, I say!” Vi

193 Motif: Sleeplessness and Natural Order
Not being able to sleep symbolizes guilt and being in an unnatural state. Macbeth: “Methought, I heard a voice cry, ‘Sleep no more! Macbeth doth murder sleep.’” Iiii Macbeth: “and sleep in the affliction of these terrible dreams That shake us nightly.” IIIii Act 5 Scene 1: Lady Macbeth is sleepwalking and ranting due to her guilt. Lady Macbeth: “Wash your hands, put on your nightgown. Look not so pale.” Vi Act 2 Scene 4: The descriptions of the strange occurances in the land are examples of imagery to reflect the unnatural occurances in politics (immoral activity). Doctor: “Foul whisperings are abroad: unnatural deeds / Do breed unnatural troubles.”Vi

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