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© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Design of Two Near Term Commercial Space Stations Using Innoslate Keith A. Taggart, Ph.D. and Steven H. Dam, Ph.D., ESEP
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Why Commercial Space Stations? Need to have business case for being in space requires near term value obtainable from activities that can be conducted either only in space or more inexpensively in space Business cases for space tourism and mining/manufacturing have been made However, where are people going to visit, work and live? Space stations are one option, but how can we make them affordably?
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Two Space Station Concepts Type 1 Type 2 By Keith Taggart
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Key Usability Requirements 35 m radius at 3 rpm gives.35 g –Result of trade between gravity, coriolis force, and size/cost/construction time Total volume under gravity 3300 m 3 or 117,000 cubic feet Total floor space under gravity about 7200 square feet –One Module is about 300 square feet –A nice hotel room or office or lab These stations could support: Closed Environment Research Space Tourism Space Based Manufacturing Space Based Power Assembly and Testing Asteroid Exploration Research for Radiation Mitigation Techniques Satellite Repair Research in Long Term Effects of Low Gravity (not micro gravity) Environment Low Gravity Research in General Plant Growing in low gravity Lunar Exploration and Resource Exploitation Debris Collection
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Potential Construction Constraints Modular Construction 7m long x 5 m diameter modules 24 to 30 modules Plus About 35 Falcon Heavy Launches –Roughly One a Month –40 metric tons per launch to roughly 300km –Modules fit in Falcon Heavy Shroud –Plus – Radial Members, Couplings, Initial Crew Quarters About 12 Falcon 9 Launches –Construction Crew of 6 Serves for 9 Months –Supply Launch at same time as crew launch –Additional Supply Launch at 4.5 Months Construction Time About 3 Years –Modules are plug and play –Much assembly work can be done by teleoperation –Operators must be close at hand to avoid latency problems
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Module Construction Module Structure Mass M=( ) metric tons –M=15.2 metric tons Available Launch Mass –M=40 metric tons Five Layer Shell –Insulation / Impact - Orange 1cm Mylar and Kevlar Layers, white surface M=220x.01x1.4=3.1 metric tons –Pressure - Blue 2x0.5 cm Aluminum M=2x220x.005x2.7=5.9 metric tons –Sealant - Green 1 cm Seals small holes M=220x.01x2.0=4..2 metric tons –Interior - Red.5 cm Structural Plastic, Foamed Core M=(220+60)x.005x1.4=2.0 metric tons Falcon Heavy Provides 160% Launch Margin Work / Living Utilities Down Hall Utilities ~3m ~2.5m ~1.5m
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Back of the Envelope Cost Estimates Launch Costs 35 Falcon Heavy Launches –35x40 metric tons=1400 metric tons to about 300 km –35x120 M$ per launch = B$ 8 Falcon 9 Launches –4 x 6 Construction Crew –4 x 10 = 40 Metric tons of supplies –8 x 56 M$ per launch =.45 B$ Total Launch Costs to Construct –4.7 B$ Construction Costs (Much Less Precise) 30 Modules at 100 M$ each equals 3.0 B$ Crew Cost –18 person years x 8760 hours per year x $1000 per hour equals 160 M$ –Equipment and Supply Cost 200 M$ –Ground Support 200 M$ –Fudge Factor 400 M$ Total Construction Cost about 4.0 B$ Total Costs About 9 B$
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Operating Cost Issues Supplies and Trash Removal –10 Permanent Residents –10 Visitors Food –Assume 3000 calories per day per person –Assume 3 calories per gram –One kilogram of food per person per day –Multiply by 2 for packaging gives about 15 metric tons per year –Roughly the same amount of waste needs to be returned to earth Supplies, including food, water, and other consumables could be handled with weekly or bi-weekly visitor transport on Reusable Falcon 9 launches
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Operating Cost Issues (continued) Recycle versus Renew –4.3 Metric Tons of Atmosphere 5 Metric Tons of Reserve in Pressurized Storage 1% loss per week About 5 Metric Tons Replacement per year –Water 40 gallons per person per day 0.15 cubic meters 20 people need 3 cubic meters or 3 metric tons per day Assume a week to recycle the water with 1% loss Requires 21 cubic meters of water stored Plus 0.21 cubic meters replacement per week or About 12 metric tons per year –If Recycle Efficiency Falls below 95% per week then replacement cost could become problematic.
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Difficulties / Opportunities Power Radiation Protection Orbital Debris –Collision Protection –Collision Avoidance Station Dynamics and Control –Orbital Change of a Spinning Station –Attitude Control –Spin Control Recycling –Atmosphere –Water –Waste Economic Viability Liability / Insurance A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty. Winston Churchill
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Applying MBSE To take this design to the next stage, a number of systems engineering trade studies needs to be applied to this initial architecture Creating system models of this architecture will support the trade studies and enable more detailed design work We begin by identifying the requirements embedded in the design
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Requirements Analysis
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Functional Analysis
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Discrete Event Simulation Execution of model provides timing, resources and costs
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Cost Profile from DES Cost (M$)
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Other Analyses As the work progresses, we can capture risks, key decisions, related artifacts (e.g., standards, regulations), metrics, results of high-fidelity simulations, V&V activities, and anything else associated with the design By providing all this in a collaborative environment (via private or public cloud computing) we can bring large teams together
© 2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved Summary We have just begun to explore the utility of commercial space stations Applying MBSE techniques during the architecture phase enables more robust trade-offs Having a scalable, integrated tool cuts time, and therefore costs, that can then be applied to great quality and profitability
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