Presentation on theme: "Chunyan Shao (Shandong University). Ursula Kroeber Le Guin ( born October 21, 1929) is an American author. She has written novels, poetry, children's."— Presentation transcript:
Chunyan Shao (Shandong University)
Ursula Kroeber Le Guin ( born October 21, 1929) is an American author. She has written novels, poetry, children's books, essays, and short stories, notably in fantasy and science fiction. First published in the 1960s, her works explore Taoist, anarchist, ethnographic, feminist, queer theory, psychological and sociological themes.
She received wide recognition for her novel The Left Hand of Darkness, which won the Hugo and Nebula awards in Her subsequent novel The Dispossessed made her the first person to win both the Hugo and Nebula Awards for Best Novel twice for the same two books. The Left Hand of Darkness HugoNebulaThe Dispossessed
Main characters--people of color, the non- white majority of humans, the frequent lack of character illustrations on her book covers. Her writing often makes use of alien cultures to convey a message about human culture in general. Her writings force us to reexamine many of the things that we once took for granted, like our cities, our political and social structures.
In December 2009, Le Guin resigned from the Authors Guild in protest over its endorsement of Google's book digitization project. "You decided to deal with the devil," she wrote in her resignation letter. "There are principles involved, above all the whole concept of copyright; and these you have seen fit to abandon to a corporation, on their terms, without a struggle."
Allegory-- A literary, dramatic, or pictorial device in which characters and events stand for abstract ideas, principles, or forces, so that the literal sense has or suggests a parallel, deeper symbolic sense. Popularity has declined. Parable-- A simple story illustrating a moral or religious lesson. Fable-- A usually short narrative making an edifying or cautionary point and often employing as characters animals that speak and act like human beings.
Under what circumstances will you feel happy? How do you define happiness?
P. 1: The Festival of Summer P. 3: People of Omelas P. 4-6: Procession P. 8: The misery and suffering of the child P. 9, 10,12: Peoples attitude towards the child P. 14: Some peoples reaction towards the child P. 2, 7, 13: Direct communication with the readers
What processions are there for the Festival of Summer? What or who are involved in the processions? What other events are included in the Festival? Marching procession (old people, grave master workmen, women); dancing procession (gong, tambourine, people, children) Horse-race
What senses does the author resort to for the description of the Festival of Summer in Omelas? Pls. highlight the specific account of the Festival in different senses. Visual: (swallow soaring, bright-towered, rigging of boats in the harbor sparkled with flags…) Auditory: clamor of bells, chatting, music beating faster, gong and tambourine… Olfactory: sweetness
How do the topics change and develop in the first paragraph? Theme of the paragraph: the Festival of Summer Procession (people, music), horse race, what people see, feel, hear… all constitute the topics of this paragraph. Could you draw the outline of this paragraph?
Festival of Summer in Omelas boats streets, gardens, parks, buildings Processions People music children north side of the city water-meadow boys/girls horses gear/halter manes actions Mountains, air, wind music
Clamor--A loud, sustained noise Swallown. Rigging--The system of ropes, chains, and tackle used to support and control the masts, sails, and yards of a sailing vessel. Mossn., Decorous--Characterized by or exhibiting decorum; proper Stiff--Drawn tightly; taut
Mauve--A moderate grayish violet to moderate reddish purple Gong--n., Tambourine--n. An instrument consisting of a small drumhead with jingling disks that are fitted into the rim. It is shaken with one hand and struck with the other. Dodge--To move aside or in a given direction by shifting or twisting suddenly
Water-meadow--a meadow that remains fertile by being periodically flooded by a stream Lithe--Readily bent; supple Restive--Resisting control; difficult to control Bit-- The metal mouthpiece of a bridle, serving to control, curb, and direct an animal.
Mane-- The long hair along the top and sides of the neck of certain mammals, such as the horse and the male lion. Streamer--A long narrow strip of material used for ornament or decoration. Flare--To expand or open outward in shape Prance--To spring forward on the hind legs. Used of a horse. Racecourse--A course laid out for racing. Snap--To make a brisk, sharp cracking sound Flutter--To wave or flap rapidly in an irregular manner Clang--A loud, resonant, metallic sound.
A periodic sentence is a stylistic device employed at the sentence level, characterized as a sentence that is not grammatically complete until the final clause or phrase. In the streets between houses with red roofs and painted walls, between old moss-grown gardens and under avenues of trees, past great parks and public buildings, processions moved.
A loose sentence (also called a cumulative sentence) is a type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases. It adds modifying elements after the subject, complement, and verb. Some were decorous: old people in long stiff robes of mauve and grey, grave master workmen, quiet, merry women carrying their babies and chatting as they walked.
In linguistics, an absolute construction is a grammatical construction involving a non- finite clause that is subordinate in form and modifies an entire sentence, but has no syntactic link to its main clause. They were vastly excited, the horse being the only animal who has adopted our ceremonies as his own.
With a clamor of bells that set the swallows soaring, the Festival of Summer came to the city Omelas, bright-towered by the sea. The loud ringing of the bells, which sent the frightened swallows flying high in the sky, marks the beginning of the Festival of Summer in Omelas, which is a port city, with towers shone bright in the sun.
…their high calls rising like the swallows crossing flights over the music and the singing. The shouting of the children could be heard clearly above the music and singing like the calls of the swallows flying by overhead.
…exercised their restive horses before the race. The riders were putting the horses through some exercises because the horses were eager to start, therefore hard to control.
What is the author doing in P. 2? Talking directly with the readers. What effect does that achieve?
Archaic--No longer current or applicable; antiquated: Stallion-- ( ) Litter- Barbarian--A member of a people considered by those of another nation or group to have a primitive civilization. Dulcet--Pleasing to the ear; melodious. Bland--Pleasant in manner; smooth Pedant--One who exhibits one's learning or scholarship ostentatiously
Sophisticate--To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly. Treason--A betrayal of trust or confidence Banal--Drearily commonplace and often predictable; trite Bid--To invite to attend; summon. Rise to the occasion--to succeed in dealing with a difficult situation
Exuberance--Growing, producing, or produced abundantly; plentiful Puritanical--Rigorous in religious observance; marked by stern morality Languor--A dreamy, lazy mood or quality Arcanum (arcana)--A deep secret; a mystery Magnanimous--Courageously noble in mind and heart.
What are the people in Omelas like? What things do Omelas citizens not have? What things are unnecessary but not destructive?
What are the people in Omelas like? They were not simple though happy. They were not barbarians, or dulcet shepherds, noble savages, bland utopians. They were not less complex than us. They were not naive and happy children. They were mature, intelligent, passionate adults whose life were not wretched. They have a boundless and generous contentment, a magnanimous triumph over life.
What things do Omelas citizens not have? King, swords, monarchy, slavery Stock exchange, advertisement, secret police, bomb, cars, helicopters. Guilt Clergy, soldiers.
What things are unnecessary but undestructive? Central heating, subway trains, washing machines, those not yet invented (floating light-source, fuelless power, cure for common cold)
Given a description such as this one tends to make certain assumptions. After reading the previous words one can easily assume certain things.
They were not simple folks, not dulcet shepherds, noble savages, bland utopians. The citizens of Omelas were not simple people, not kind and gentle shepherds, not savages of high birth, nor mild idealists dreaming of a perfect society.
This is the treason of the artist: a refusal to admit the banality of evil and the terrible boredom of pain. An artist betrays his belief if he does not admit that evil is nothing fresh or novel, and pain is very dull and uninteresting.
They were mature, intelligent, passionate adults whose lives were not wretched. They were fully developed and intelligent grown-up people full of intense feelings and they were not miserable people.
Perhaps it would be best if you imagined it as your own fancy bids, assuming it will rise to the occasion. Maybe the best thing to do is to picture Omelas to oneself as ones imagination allows one to do, assuming that his imagination will fulfill the task.
What is the contrast between the citizens of Omelas and us? Cheer Rules and laws Habit: view towards happiness Considering happiness as something rather stupid. Only pain is intellectual, only evil interesting. But to praise despair is to condemn delight, to embrace violence is to lose hold of everything else. We have almost lost hold.
What is happiness? Happiness is based on a just discrimination of what is necessary, what is neither necessary nor destructive, and what is destructive. How do you understand this sentence? What is necessary, neither necessary nor destructive, and destructive for you?
What is drooz supposed to do to the people there? The author states that the sense of victory and the celebration of courage also belong in the city. The victory over what? What courage?
Omelas believes that the joy built upon successful slaughter is not the right kind of joy. People there have a boundless and generous contentment, a magnanimous triumph felt not against some outer enemy but in communion with the finest and fairest in the souls of all men everywhere and the splendor of the worlds summer: this is what swells the heart of the people in Omelas, and the victory they celebrate is that of life. What kind of people do you think the citizens of Omelas are?
I really dont think many of them need to take drooz. Under what circumstances do you think people need to take drugs? Why people in Omelas dont need to take drooz?
Provisioner-- Amiable--Friendly and agreeable in disposition; good-natured and likable. Benign--Of a kind and gentle disposition Crumb--A very small piece broken from a baked item, such as a cookie, cake, or bread Pastry--Dough or paste consisting primarily of flour, water, and shortening that is baked and often used as a crust for foods such as pies and tarts
Entangle--To twist together or entwine into a confusing mass; snarl Rapt--Deeply absorbed; engrossed Private--Of or confined to the individual; personal Imperious--Urgent; pressing Neigh--To utter the characteristic sound of a horse; whinny
Topics: Processionsmellchildrena manyouth and girlsan old womantall young mena child flute playersound horsesriderscrowds What impression have you got from the tableau? People were all involved in and enjoying the Festival.
Cobweb--The web spun by a spider to catch its prey Clot--A clump, mass, or lump, as of clay Feeble-minded--Deficient in intelligence Imbecile--Well below par in mental acumen Fumble--To grope awkwardly to find or to accomplish something hunch--To assume a crouched or cramped posture
Whine--To utter a plaintive, high-pitched, protracted sound, as in pain, fear, supplication, or complaint. Calf-- Protrude--To push or thrust outward. Grease-- Buttock-- Fester-- Excrement--Waste material, especially fecal matter, that is expelled from the body after digestion.
What is the room like? What is the child like? How do people treat the child?
Basement Locked door, no windows A little light between cracks of boards A couple of mobs, with stiff, clotted, foul- smelling heads Rusty bucket Damp floor with dirt Three paces long two paces wide A broom closet or disused tool room
6/10, feeble-minded Born defective, imbecile through fear, malnutrition, neglect Fumble with toes or genitals Sits hunched in the corner of the room Afraid of mops Sometimes begging Used to scream for help, now only whining, speaks less and less So thin that there is no calves to its legs, belly protrude Live on a half-bowl of corn meal and grease Naked, its buttocks and thighs a mass of festered cores Sits on its own excrement
Kick the child up Peer in at it with frightened, disgusted eyes Fill the bowl and jug hastily Never say anything Never answer the whining
William James: (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher who was trained as a physician. He was one of the strongest proponents of the school of functionalism in psychology and of pragmatism in philosophy. James held a world view in line with pragmatism, declaring that the value of any truth was utterly dependent upon its use to the person who held it.
The essence of virtue or good is to meet everyones need. Everyones need should be respected. And the ideal society should meet every need as soon as it is pronounced. Is it possible to meet everyones need? There is a big gap between ideal and reality. An ideal society: the happiness of thousands of people is built upon the misery of the lost soul of one single person in a far away place.
The central idea of this psychomyth, the scapegoat, turns up in Dostoyevskys Brothers Karamazov, and several people have asked me, rather suspiciously, why I gave the credit to William James. The fact is, I havent been able to reread Dostoyevsky, much as I loved him, since I was twenty-five, and Id simply forgotten he used the idea. But when I meet it in James The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life, it was with a shock of recognition.
Of course I didnt read James and sit down and say. Now Ill write a story about that lost soul. It seldom works that simply. I sat down and started a story, just because I felt like it, with nothing but the word Omelas in mind. It came from a road sign: Salem (Oregon) backward. Salem equals Schelomo equals salaam equals Peace. Melas. O melas. Omelas. Where do you get your ideas from, Ms. Le Guin? from forgetting Dostoyevsky and reading road signs backwards naturally. What else?
How are you impressed by the description about the child? What is the contrast between the happiness of the town people and the misery of the child?
Abominable--Thoroughly unpleasant or disagreeable Vile--Loathsome; disgusting Brood--To be deep in thought; meditate Uncouth--Awkward or clumsy; ungraceful Vapid--Lacking liveliness, animation, or interest; dull Poignancythe quality of being profoundly moving; touching Snivel--To complain or whine tearfully
Why are some people content to know that the child is there? Why does it have to be there?
What is usually explained to the children? Who came to see the child? What are the youngs reaction to the child? What could have been done for the child? What would be the cost if they do something good for the child? What are the terms?
What would the young people do when they have seen the child? Why wouldnt the child get much good of its freedom? When do the young peoples tears dry? What is the bitter and cruel reality?
Why is the existence of the child explained to children? What would let guilt within the walls? Is there guilt in Omelas? How does the young peoples attitude towards the child contrast when they first see the child and when they realize the bitter reality? What are the sources of the splendor of their life?
Why is the child so indispensible and necessary? Or what is the significance of the existence of the child? What is necessary for the people in Omelas? Is there a dilemma for the young people? How are they swallowed by the cruel reality? If you cant lick em, join em. If it hurts repeat it.
What is happiness? Are the townspeople in Omelas happy? Is the child happy? Could you make the child happy? What will happen if you make the child happy? Then what is happiness again? Do you think we could achieve group happiness? Then what should we do? If you cant lick em, join em. If it hurts repeat it.
Are you happy generally? Upon what do you build your happiness? Have you thought about those who are miserable but serve as the cost of your happiness?
Why do some people leave? Where do those people go? Why are they going alone? What does it require for one to go?
Are you going to stay or leave? What are you going to do if you stay? What are you going to do if you leave?
Happy Omelasmisery of the child No guiltmaltreatment of the child Necessity of happiness for majority of citizens: the misery of one single child --Strong contrast engenders your deep sympathy for the child and your doubt over happiness in Omelas.
Ps: 2, 7, 13 Depiction of the happy Omelas Joyous! How is one to tell about joy? How to describe the citizens of Omelas? People of Omelas and their happiness How can I tell you about the people of Omelas?...O miracle! But I wish I could describe it better… for certainly I cannot suit you all. Procession Do you believe? Do you accept the festival, the city, the joy? No? Then let me describe one more thing. The child and peoples attitude towards him Now do you believe in them? Are they not more credible? But there is one more thing to tell, and this is quite incredible. --The interjection of the authors voice evokes questions about the happiness of the people and introduces readers to the following paragraphs.
The procession(p. 1) Comments (p.2) People in Omelas and their view on happiness (p.3) Procession (people, flute player, horserace) (p. 4-6) Comments (p.7) Misery of a child (p.8) Peoples attitude towards the child (p. 9-12) Comments (p. 13) People leave Omelas (p. 14) --deviation from typical arrangement of the text, interweaving description and comments together.
Long paragraphs (1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14) Short paragraphs (2, 5, 7, 11, 13) The contrast: deviation from the typical Strong, but penetrating Emphasized points
P. 1: Visual and auditory (many), olfactory or sense of taste (sweet) --observers perspective P. 8: Haptical ( ) Auditory Speech: specific words Feeling --The childs perspective: Close to the child --more sympathy with the child and the not so genuine happiness of the people there.
Allegory-- A literary, dramatic, or pictorial device in which characters and events stand for abstract ideas, principles, or forces, so that the literal sense has or suggests a parallel, deeper symbolic sense. What does the city symbolize? What do the people there symbolize? What does the child symbolize? What does the happiness symbolize? What does the Festival of Summer symbolize? What do those young people symbolize? What do those who leave symbolize?
He did not speak clearly and correctly. He did not speak clearly or correctly. We cannot live without water or sunshine. We cannot live without water and sunshine. We cannot live with water and sunshine. We cannot live with water or sunshine.
VIII Passionate: Capable of, having, or dominated by powerful emotions --Fear of his father and fear of the strange environment fused into a passionate anger. Impassioned: characterized by intense emotion --Mid Hants Railway are making an impassioned plea to the public to support the steam attraction over the Easter.
Naive: Lacking worldly experience and understanding, especially Simple and guileless; artless --I was naive thinking that they were just going to roll over and play dead on this Artless: Having or displaying no guile, cunning, or deceit --Because it was like him to say such things, and in an artless way, not like somebody trying to set you up or belittle you for your failure to see the obvious.
Wretched: In a deplorable state of distress or misfortune; miserable --Would you have me leave a child to such a wretched fate? " he asked. Sad: Affected or characterized by sorrow or unhappiness.
Marvelous: Causing wonder or astonishment --I think he's done a marvelous job, quite frankly, on lots and lots of things Incredible: So implausible as to elicit disbelief --I think with Almodóvar we did an incredible job in that way, breaking things.
a happy smile heard the glad news a cheerful greeting make a joyful noise joyous laughter
I had the pleasure of shaking hands with now Olympic gold medalist. To my great delight, I found that not only were trains running… It should be a joy almost every day to be married, to feel relief and gratitude. Industrial use is changing to use of the area for recreational enjoyment.
Savage: Not civilized Barbarian: A member of a people considered by those of another nation or group to have a primitive civilization Barbaric: Of, relating to, or characteristic of barbarians Barbarous: Primitive in culture and customs
old people the ancient Roman story the French antique furniture an archaic federal court system obsolete Now, with technological changes, a number of traditional jobs, particularly those of low caste people, became obsolete.
I had been surviving on righteous indignation and self-pity for weeks. Young's victims looked utterly mad, their faces contorted with rage and disappointment. Two of them assaulted Nozaki with the fury only the betrayed can feel. When, twenty years before, he fled from Esau's wrath, Jacob stumbled on a holy place
Collective/group happiness can never be achieved. What is your opinion on this statement? Write an essay of about 400 words to illustrate your points. Cite examples and evidence to support your viewpoint. Due date: December 16, 2011