36 illnesses per catering outbreak; 13 at restaurants: Between 1998 and 2008, there were 833 outbreaks of foodborne illness traced to caterers, incidents that sparked 29,738 illnesses, 345 hospitalizations and 4 deaths, according to Dana Cole, a CDC researcher
Federal Register Final Rule (July 9, 2009, 74 FR 33030): Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule that requires shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from contaminating eggs on the farm and from further growth during storage and transportation, and requires these producers to maintain records concerning their compliance with the rule and to register with FDA. – www.fda.gov Food Safety Update
Key points: - The FDA would have the authority to issue direct recalls of foods that are suspected to be tainted, rather than relying on individual producers to voluntarily issue recalls. - Food producers would be required to develop written food safety plans, accessible by the government in case of emergency. These would include hazard analysis and a plan for implementing corrective measures. - The Secretary of Health and Human Services would be required to create a food tracing system that would streamline the process of finding the source of contamination, should an outbreak occur. - Importers would be required to verify the safety of all imported foods to make sure it's in accordance with U.S. food safety guidelines. – www.cnn.com
Cost of a foodborne illness Loss of customers and sales Loss of prestige and reputation Lawsuits resulting in lawyer and court fees Increased insurance premiums Lowered employee morale Employee absenteeism Need of retraining employees EMBARRASSMENT!
1 The three (3) hazards that can result in food borne illnesses Types of Microorganisms, Pathogens, and Toxins The five (5) risk factors that can lead to food borne illnesses The seven (7) principles of a HACCP system Today’s Menu Agenda 2 3 4
Jewelry Pins, Staples Hair, Bone Foil, String Physical Hazards in Food Physical Hazards
Pesticide Residues Food Allergens Food Additives Food Toxins Cleaning Chemicals Vet Residues Chemical Hazards
Naturally Occurring Chemicals Food Allergens 90% of all allergies are caused by: Milk products Egg products Wheat proteins Peanuts Soy products Tree nuts Fish Shellfish. Common allergens
Man-Made Chemicals Man-made chemicals can be: Intentionally added Food additives Preservatives Non-intentionally added Cleaners Sanitizers. Pesticides are a common man-made chemical found on fruits and vegetables.
Flies Weevils RatsRoaches AntsMothsMice Treatment Pest Management Licensed PCO Look for infestation Use preventative care Biological (visible) Hazards
Biological (invisible) Hazards Molds Bacteria prefer foods that are high in proteins or high in carbohydrates. Parasites are small or microscopic creatures that need to live on or in another living organism to survive. Viruses are smaller than bacteria and require a living host in which to grow and reproduce. Viruses are smaller than bacteria and require a living host in which to grow and reproduce. Carbon dioxide and alcohol are produced as yeast slowly consumes food. Grow under almost any condition, but grow well in acidic foods with low water activity. Protozoa VirusesYeastsBacteria Microbiological
Bacteria Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus is commonly found in: Rice Pasta Potatoes Meats and fish Milk Vegetables. Bacillus cereus can be found in cooked rice.
Bacteria Clostridium botulinum Clostridium botulinum can commonly be found in: Home-canned foods Vacuum-packed refrigerated foods Garlic or onions stored in oil. Improperly vacuum- packed foods may contain Clostridium botulinum.
Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni Cross contamination is the major cause of Campylobacter jejuni. It is estimated that 100% of all raw poultry is infected with Campylobacter jejuni.
Bacteria Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is best controlled by: Cooking ground meats to at least 155 o F (68 o C) Storing foods at proper temperatures Practicing proper personal hygiene and avoiding cross contamination Using only pasteurized apple cider, fruit juices, and milk. Raw or undercooked ground beef has been known to contain Shiga toxin-producing e-coli.
Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is commonly found in: Raw meats Raw poultry Dairy products Raw vegetables Raw seafood Hot dogs and luncheon meats. Hot dogs may contain Listeria monocytogenes.
Bacteria Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. is commonly found in: Intestinal tracts of humans and animals Raw meat and raw poultry Pork Dairy products Chocolate Cream-filled desserts. Eggs are a common source of Salmonella spp.
Bacteria Shigella spp. Shigella spp. accounts for about 10% of all foodborne illnesses in the United States and is most commonly transferred by a food worker’s contaminated hands. Shigella spp. is commonly found in ready-to-eat foods.
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus can be commonly found in: Pre-cooked, ready-to-eat foods that have been re- contaminated by food workers Foods that require considerable food preparation and handling Vegetable and egg salads. Pre-cooked, ready-to-eat food
Bacteria Vibrio spp. Vibrio spp. is commonly found in seafood such as: Fish Oysters Crabs Shrimp Clams Lobster. Handle seafood carefully.
Viruses Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A virus can be transferred by: Contaminated or polluted water Infected food workers.
Viruses Norwalk Virus Norwalk virus is commonly found in raw and undercooked seafood. Eating raw or undercooked clams or oysters poses a high risk for infection.
Parasites Giardia duodenalis Parasites are small or microscopic creatures that need to live on or in another living organism to survive. Giardia duodenalis
Parasites Anisakis spp. Anisakis spp. is commonly found in bottom-feeding fish such as: Salmon Cod Haddock Crab Shrimp. Salmon fillet
Parasites Cyclospora cayetanensis Cyclospora cayetanensis is commonly found in: Contaminated water Raspberries Strawberries Fresh produce.
Parasites Trichinella spiralis Trichinella spiralis is commonly found in: Pork Wild game meats. Wild boar
Mold Basic Characteristics Spoil food and sometimes cause illness Grow under almost any condition, but grow well in acidic foods with low water activity. Freezing temperatures prevent or reduce the growth of molds, but do not destroy them
Yeasts Grow well in Jellies Jams Syrup Honey Fruit Juice Food should be discarded if spoiled by yeast!
The Five (5) Risk Factors Purchasing food from unsafe sources Failing to cook food adequately Holding food at improper temperatures Using contaminated equipment Poor personal hygiene
7 Principles HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) 7. Design and use a Record Keeping System 6. Design a Verification Process 5. Design Procedures for Corrective Action 4. Monitor the Critical Control Points 3. Set Limits for your Critical Control Points 2. Identify the Critical Control Points 1. Identify Potential Hazards
Resources Essentials of Food Safety & Sanitation: Food Safety Fundamentals: On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals for Education Management Corporation, 4th Edition. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38420815/ns/health-food_safety/ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38741401/ns/health-food_safety/ http://articles.cnn.com/2010-12-21/politics/house.food.safety_1_food- safety-modernization-act-government-inspections-food- supply?_s=PM:POLITICS http://www.cnn.com/video/Gupta http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/resources/CDCandFoodSafety_121410.pdf http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/mintemp.html