336 illnesses per catering outbreak; 13 at restaurants: Between 1998 and 2008, there were 833 outbreaks of foodborne illness traced tocaterers, incidents that sparked 29,738 illnesses, 345 hospitalizations and 4 deaths, according to Dana Cole, a CDC researcher
4Food Safety UpdateFederal Register Final Rule (July 9, 2009, 74 FR 33030): Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and TransportationThe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule that requires shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from contaminating eggs on the farm and from further growth during storage and transportation, and requires these producers to maintain records concerning their compliance with the rule and to register with FDA.
6FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Key points:- The FDA would have the authority to issue direct recalls of foods that are suspected to be tainted, rather than relying on individual producers to voluntarily issue recalls.- Food producers would be required to develop written food safety plans, accessible by the government in case of emergency. These would include hazard analysis and a plan for implementing corrective measures.- The Secretary of Health and Human Services would be required to create a food tracing system that would streamline the process of finding the source of contamination, should an outbreak occur.- Importers would be required to verify the safety of all imported foods to make sure it's in accordance with U.S. food safety guidelines.
7Cost of a foodborne illness Loss of customers and salesLoss of prestige and reputationLawsuits resulting in lawyer and court feesIncreased insurance premiumsLowered employee moraleEmployee absenteeismNeed of retraining employeesEMBARRASSMENT!
8Today’s Menu Agenda1The three (3) hazards that can result in food borne illnesses2Types of Microorganisms, Pathogens, and Toxins3The five (5) risk factors that can lead to food borne illnesses4The seven (7) principles of a HACCP system
9Physical Hazards in Food Foil, StringPins, StaplesHair, BoneJewelryPhysical Hazards in Food
14Biological (visible) Hazards AntsMothsMiceFliesWeevilsRatsRoachesTreatmentPCO = Pest Control OperatorPest ManagementLicensed PCOLook for infestationUse preventative care
15Biological (invisible) Hazards Bacteria prefer foods that are high in proteins or high in carbohydrates.Parasites are small or microscopic creatures that need to live on or in another living organism to survive.Viruses are smaller than bacteria and require a living host in which to grow and reproduce.BacteriaYeastsProtozoaMoldsVirusesCarbon dioxide and alcohol are produced as yeast slowly consumes food.Grow under almost any condition, but grow well in acidic foods with low water activity.Microbiological
16Bacteria Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus is commonly found in:RicePastaPotatoesMeats and fishMilkVegetables.Bacillus cereus can be found in cooked rice.
17Bacteria Clostridium botulinum Clostridium botulinum can commonly be found in:Home-canned foodsVacuum-packed refrigerated foodsGarlic or onions stored in oil.Improperly vacuum-packed foods may contain Clostridium botulinum.
18Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni Cross contamination is the major cause of Campylobacter jejuni.It is estimated that 100% of all raw poultry is infected with Campylobacter jejuni.
19Bacteria Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is best controlled by:Cooking ground meats to at least 155oF (68oC)Storing foods at proper temperaturesPracticing proper personal hygiene and avoiding cross contaminationUsing only pasteurized apple cider, fruit juices, and milk.Raw or undercooked ground beef has been known to contain Shiga toxin-producing e-coli.
20Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is commonly found in:Raw meatsRaw poultryDairy productsRaw vegetablesRaw seafoodHot dogs and luncheon meats.Hot dogs may contain Listeria monocytogenes.
21Bacteria Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. is commonly found in:Intestinal tracts of humans and animalsRaw meat and raw poultryPorkDairy productsChocolateCream-filled desserts.Eggs are a common source of Salmonella spp.
22Bacteria Shigella spp.Shigella spp. accounts for about 10% of all foodborne illnesses in the United States and is most commonly transferred by a food worker’s contaminated hands.Shigella spp. is commonly found in ready-to-eat foods.
23Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus can be commonly found in:Pre-cooked, ready-to-eat foods that have been re-contaminated by food workersFoods that require considerable food preparation and handlingVegetable and egg salads.Pre-cooked, ready-to-eat food
24Bacteria Vibrio spp. Vibrio spp. is commonly found in seafood such as: FishOystersCrabsShrimpClamsLobster.Handle seafood carefully.
25Viruses Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A virus can be transferred by:Contaminated or polluted waterInfected food workers.
26Norwalk virus is commonly found in raw and undercooked seafood. Viruses Norwalk VirusNorwalk virus is commonly found in raw and undercooked seafood.Eating raw or undercooked clams or oysters poses a high risk for infection.
27Parasites Giardia duodenalis Parasites are small or microscopic creatures that need to live on or in another living organism to survive.Giardia duodenalis
31Mold Basic Characteristics Spoil food and sometimes cause illnessGrow under almost any condition, but grow well in acidic foods with low water activity.Freezing temperatures prevent or reduce the growth of molds, but do not destroy them
32Food should be discarded if spoiled by yeast! Yeasts Grow well inJelliesJamsSyrupHoneyFruit JuiceFood should be discarded if spoiled by yeast!
33The Five (5) Risk Factors Purchasing food from unsafe sourcesFailing to cook food adequatelyHolding food at improper temperaturesUsing contaminated equipmentPoor personal hygiene
347 Principles HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) 1. Identify Potential Hazards2. Identify the Critical Control Points3. Set Limits for your Critical Control Points4. Monitor the Critical Control Points5. Design Procedures for Corrective Action6. Design a Verification Process7. Design and use a Record Keeping SystemEvaluate their Risks. 2. Where hazards can be reduced or eliminated. 3. Measurable comparisons. 4. Confirm they are being measured (take temperature readings).5. Corrective action. 6. Overall functionality. 7. Back-up data.
35ResourcesEssentials of Food Safety & Sanitation: Food Safety Fundamentals: On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals for Education Management Corporation, 4th Edition.