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Anti-Semitism, Media and Zionism Shira Pinczuk University of Winchester HCJ - 2013 The Dreyfus Affair.

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Presentation on theme: "Anti-Semitism, Media and Zionism Shira Pinczuk University of Winchester HCJ - 2013 The Dreyfus Affair."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anti-Semitism, Media and Zionism Shira Pinczuk University of Winchester HCJ - 2013 The Dreyfus Affair

2 Introduction Dreyfus affair: Innocence project Power of mass media Anti-Semitism Jewish nationalism Zionism

3 The Power of Media Without media we wouldnt have heard about the story Journalism is what turned the Dreyfus file into Dreyfus affair and into Dreyfus myth Media is the big winner of the whole affair Yellow journalism, rather then eyes and ears for the public Agenda, propaganda, public opinion Few facts, not accurate, circulation, big headlines, illustrations

4 The Events Sep 1894: Secret French military information is found in wastepaper basket at the German Embassy in Paris The counter-intelligence office immediately implicates Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young Jewish French- from Alsace, artillery officer Oct 1894: a secret martial court charges him with treason. He declares his innocence throughout Jan 1895: he is stripped of his military rank and sent to Devils Island (French Guinea) for life Mathieu Dreyfus, the elder brother became the chief architect of the restoration of his brother France is divided: –Against: army, catholic church, monarchists –In support: republicans, socialists, Jews

5 The Events 1896: a French Army major named Ferdinand Esterhazy is identified as the real culprit by Lt Col Piquard High-ranking military officials suppress the new evidence, Esterhazy is acquitted and flees France. Piquard is sent to serve at the southern border of Tunisia 1898: Emile Zola- JAccuse 1899: after a massive public campaign Dreyfus is pardoned but not acquitted of charges 1906: Dreyfus is acquitted in court, fully rehabilitated, reintegrated in the ranks with a promotion

6 Political context 1894 the Third Republic is twenty-four years old, very divided and broken –France has been defeated in the Franco-Prussian war in 1871 and lost Alsace- Lorraine –1871 Paris Commune – 1892 a major corruption scandal around the construction of the Panama Canal has erupted –1889 The Boulangisme

7 Military France is very militaristic – the army is seen as the symbol of French identity There is high hope for vengeance Army is a status symbol, collectively and individually Army is active It is the safe-keeper of tradition Close society There is a gap between army's values and the new republican society: democracy Vs hierarchy and obedience The army is racist and anti-Semitic –Captain Mayer, a Jewish officer, is killed in a death duel - which triggers considerable emotion, far beyond Jewish circles.

8 Anti-Semitism Nationalism Concern about the sense of French greatness Jewish emancipation has evolved since the French revolution 1886: publication of Jewish France by Drumont The press is virtually free to write and disseminate any information, even when offensive or defamatory. Legal risks are limited if the target is a private person La Libre Parole newspaper: France is for French allows Drumont to further expand his audience to a popular readership

9 Anti-Semitism La Croix succeeds in bringing together certain groups of Roman Catholics who are seeking to position themselves outside the party politics and ideologies (Hanna Arendt) LEclair, Le Petit Journal, La Patrie, Intransigeant Hanna Arendt - about Rahel Varnhgen - Jewish German writer, who was converted to Catholicism Social discrimination


11 The Affair in The Media 28 October 1984 A letter is received at La Libre Parole, with information about Dreyfus case, …they say that he is away, but this is a lie, they want to keep it quiet… 29 October La Libre Parole publishes an article about the arrest: Why do military authorities keep the silence? they ask. This marks the beginning of a very violent press campaign until the trial. The affair enters the field of anti-Semitism, and it does not leave until its final conclusion 1 November Big headlines: Severe threat! Jewish officer was arrested! Capitan Dreyfus! La Petit Journal launches a personal attack on General Mercier :Scarecrow General, If he kept silent for 2 weeks its only because Jewish people put pressure on him…

12 The big day

13 Defence is in the media November 1896 Bernard Lazare - Dreyfus Affair- A Miscarriage of Justice –ending with the phrase Jaccuse 13 January 1899 Emile Zola - JACCUSE –Strong provocation –200,000 copies sold! –perfect timing –Metaphors –Repetitive key words –Rhythm –Naturalism/observational journalism

14 The circulation of media Circulation- anti Dreyfusards La Libre Parole 500,000 readers Le Petit Journal 1,500,000 At the end of the 19th century, it was the most widely read Roman Catholic publication in France Deryfusards 200,000 LAurore Only 10%from the French press Published mainly in Paris Intellectuals and artists

15 Herzl, Lazare and Zionism Bernard Lazare was a French Jewish political journalist, and anarchist. 1894: Anti-Semitism, its History and Causes, an in-depth study and critique of the origins of anti-Semitism. –The Jewish assimilation and dissolution will stop the anti-Semitism. –It is the oldest of all existing religions, and it would seem right that it should be the first to disappear –The number of orthodox Jews is still great and as long as they exist it would seem that anti-Semitism must exist Doesnt want to take part with the affair as Dreyfus family is wealthy enough to sort themselves out - mainly if he is not guilty Mathieu Dreyfus shows him some of the documents he has, and Lazar joins the fight with passion

16 Bernard Lazare November 1896 Bernard Lazare - Dreyfus Affair- A Miscarriage of Justice ending with the phrase Jaccuse The New Ghetto Dreyfus affair convinces him that the solution for the Jewish problem is a land of their own Friend with Herzl, but later on deaparts from Herzls ideas, as he was bourgeois Jews in France didnt like him Dies in 1903- only few come to his funeral Mathieu Dreyfus arrive, Alfred Dreyfus is absent.

17 Theodor Herzl Austro-Hungarian journalist and writer. He is the father of modern political Zionism and in effect the foundation of the State of Israel Completely secular. See him self as a German, but proud of his background Very concerned about anti-Semitism Wagner burial ceremony His solution again- to become assimilated On his diary he comes with an idea to ask the Pope to make a massive baptism for all the Jews in Europe It is essential that the sufferings of Jews…become worse…this will assist the realization of our plans…I have an excellent idea…I shell induce anti-Semites to liquidate Jewish wealth…(diary) As the Paris correspondent for Neue Freie Presse, Herzl follows the Dreyfus Affair

18 "In Paris, as I have said, I achieved a freer attitude toward anti-Semitism... Above all, I recognized the emptiness and futility of trying to 'combat' anti- Semitism" 1894 The New Ghetto 1896 The State of the Jews - envisions the founding of a future independent Jewish State during the 20th century 1897 First Zionist Congress in Basel

19 The end? Strengthening of parliamentary democracy and failure of monarchist and reactionary forces The creation of the French League for Human Rights Anti-Semitism is still prominent. The Dreyfus affair created difficulties, blocking the way for improved relations between France and Italy after the customs war, as Italy was Europe's most Dreyfusard nation. The shock of the Dreyfus Affair also had an impact on the Zionist movement "which found fertile ground for its emergence". Captain Dreyfus monument by Louis Mitelberg

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