2Standards Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age 7.1 Describe the great climatic and environmental changes that shaped the earth and eventually permitted the growth of human life. (H)7.2 Identify sights in Africa where archeologists have found evidence of origins of modern human beings and describe what the archeologists found.
3Standards Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age 7. 3 Describe the characteristics of the hunter gatherer societies of the Paleolithic age (their use of tools and fire, basic hunting weapons, use of beads and other jewelry) H7.4 Explain the importance of the invention of metallurgy and agriculture (the growing of crops and domestication of animals
4Standards Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age 7. 5 Describe how the invention of agriculture related to settlement, population growth, and the emergence of civilization7.6 Identify the characteristics of civilizationA. the presence of geographic boundariesB. An economy that produces surplusesC. A concentration of populationD. the existence of social classesE. developed systems of religion, learning, art and architectureF. A system of record keeping
5Understanding History: Geography and HistoryUnderstanding History:About 5’000 years ago, peoples in Southwest Asia and in Africa developed systems of writing. They began to keep written records of their experiences. These developments marked the beginning of history.History – The written and other recorded events of people.Prehistory – The time before history. ( The period of time before writing was invented.)
6How do we know what happened in the past? Archaeologists – Scientists who examine objects to learn about past peoples and cultures.ArtifactsPrimary SourcesSecondary Sources
7Why Is it important to study history? Think / Pair / ShareHomework Question #1: Ask someone at home why it is important to learn lessons from the past.
8Historians do not only rely on the objects discovered by archaeologists to learn about the past. They also study written records of human life to understand a society, for example its wars, religion and rulers. Written records usually begin as:Oral Traditions – Stories passed down by word of mouth. (Family history, stories about heroes and events.)
9Written RecordPrimary Sources: Actual accounts or witnesses to an eventSecondary Sources: Passed on accountsOral Tradition: Stories passed down verbally.Homework Question #2: Write about a story from your past that you learned a lesson from.
10Linking Geography and History Knowing the connections between geography and history if often the key to understanding why events happened. Knowing when and why historic events took place is important. To do this, historians often turn to:Geography – The study of Earth’s surface and the processes that shape it. (Climate, landscape, location.)Homework Question #3: What does where you live say about how you live? United States / Massachusetts / North Shore / Peabody
12Hominids – Modern humans and earlier groups that may have included ancestors or relatives of modern humans.Scientists think that hominids made these footprints 3.5 million years ago.
13Hominid Highlights Australopithecus – First biped/ Lucy/Africa Homo Habilis/ Handy Man- Used tools/Worked in Groups/AfricaHomo Erectus/Upright Man- Used Fire/Migrated out of Africa/Used Complex toolsNeanderthals- Lived in Europe mostly/ Fought HSS/ Skilled Hunters/ Survived Harsh ClimatesHomo Sapiens Sapiens/Cro-Magnons- Otherwise known as us/Means “Double wise man”/Very Skilled use of tools/ Large Brain
14Stone Age Hunting and Gathering Stone Age - Period during which hominids, including modern humans, made lasting tools mainly from stone.The Stone Age is divided into three periods: the Old Stone Age, the Middle Stone Age, and the New Stone Age.Homework Q#4: What is one tool you could not live with out?
15Fire!!!Between about 1,400,000 and 500,000 years ago, early hominids learned how to use fire.The ability to create fire was an important step for our ancestors. It allowed them to move to areas with colder climates.
16Settling New Areas Nomads – People who have no settled home. As early hominids developed the use of tools, they left their original homes in Africa. Many early hominids were nomads. They moved around to places they thought they could find food and stayed for several days.Nomads – People who have no settled home.
17The Beginning of Farming For tens of thousand of years, our ancestors continued to live as hunter-gatherers. However, some societies entered the Middle Stone Age, which was characterized by the use of more refined or advanced tools. Those who began the practice of farming would enter the New Stone Age.
18Early Farmers Plant Selection Raising Animals When people first began to plant crops, they carefully chose seeds from the biggest, best tasting plants. They began to:Domesticate – adapt wild plants for human use.Just as humans learned to domesticate plants, they also learned to domesticate animals. During the New Stone Age, humans learned to tame wild animals and breed them for human use. For example, dogs, sheep, goats and pigs.
19Paleolithic Neolithic Stone Age – Homo Habilis, 2 Million years ago through 3000 BCE when tools were made out of metal.PaleolithicNeolithicOld Stone AgeHunting- Wild animalsGathering- Nuts, berries,plantsLived in the openNomadic ( did not stay in one place)Cave dwelling.New Stone AgeFarming starts 8000 BCE.People settle down which led to farming.
20Does this photo best represent the Paleolithic or Neolithic part of The Stone Age?
23Irrigation - Supplying land with water from another place using a network of canals. Farming techniques like irrigation were important in creating early communities.
24Advantages of Settled Life Surplus – More than what is needed. (Farming allowed for a steady food supply all year round.)Population growth. (Having a surplus of food allowed parents to feed and have more children)Early Villages and Towns. (Gradually as the population increased, early settlements grew into towns and villages)Artisan – A worker who is especially skilled in crafting items by hand. ( With food surpluses, people did not have to spend all day producing food and to switch to other kinds of work.
25The Earliest Cities Early Cities Grew up along large rivers which allowed for rich soil for farming.Nile – EgyptTigris/Euphrates- IraqHuang- ChinaIndus- PakistanCityPresent-Day LocationDate FoundedUrIraqc.3500 B.C.MemphisEgyptc.3100 B.C.Mohenjo-DaroPakistanc.2700 B.C.KnossosGreecec.2500 B.C.AnyangChinac.1700 B.C.
26Government Population Growth = Government Formation What do Governments do?Keep order in societyProvide servicesSettle DisputesManage public relations/Irrigation projects
27The First Civilizations Civilization - A society that has cities, a central government run by official leaders, and workers who specialize in various jobs.Also, writing, art, and architecture.