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The Beginnings of Human Society

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Presentation on theme: "The Beginnings of Human Society"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Beginnings of Human Society

2 Standards Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age
7.1 Describe the great climatic and environmental changes that shaped the earth and eventually permitted the growth of human life. (H) 7.2 Identify sights in Africa where archeologists have found evidence of origins of modern human beings and describe what the archeologists found.

3 Standards Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age
7. 3 Describe the characteristics of the hunter gatherer societies of the Paleolithic age (their use of tools and fire, basic hunting weapons, use of beads and other jewelry) H 7.4 Explain the importance of the invention of metallurgy and agriculture (the growing of crops and domestication of animals

4 Standards Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age
7. 5 Describe how the invention of agriculture related to settlement, population growth, and the emergence of civilization 7.6 Identify the characteristics of civilization A. the presence of geographic boundaries B. An economy that produces surpluses C. A concentration of population D. the existence of social classes E. developed systems of religion, learning, art and architecture F. A system of record keeping

5 Understanding History:
Geography and History Understanding History: About 5’000 years ago, peoples in Southwest Asia and in Africa developed systems of writing. They began to keep written records of their experiences. These developments marked the beginning of history. History – The written and other recorded events of people. Prehistory – The time before history. ( The period of time before writing was invented.)

6 How do we know what happened in the past?
Archaeologists – Scientists who examine objects to learn about past peoples and cultures. Artifacts Primary Sources Secondary Sources

7 Why Is it important to study history?
Think / Pair / Share Homework Question #1: Ask someone at home why it is important to learn lessons from the past.

8 Historians do not only rely on the objects discovered by archaeologists to learn about the past. They also study written records of human life to understand a society, for example its wars, religion and rulers. Written records usually begin as: Oral Traditions – Stories passed down by word of mouth. (Family history, stories about heroes and events.)

9 Written Record Primary Sources: Actual accounts or witnesses to an event Secondary Sources: Passed on accounts Oral Tradition: Stories passed down verbally. Homework Question #2: Write about a story from your past that you learned a lesson from.

10 Linking Geography and History
Knowing the connections between geography and history if often the key to understanding why events happened. Knowing when and why historic events took place is important. To do this, historians often turn to: Geography – The study of Earth’s surface and the processes that shape it. (Climate, landscape, location.) Homework Question #3: What does where you live say about how you live? United States / Massachusetts / North Shore / Peabody

11 Prehistory

12 Hominids – Modern humans and earlier groups that may have included ancestors or relatives of modern humans. Scientists think that hominids made these footprints 3.5 million years ago.

13 Hominid Highlights Australopithecus – First biped/ Lucy/Africa
Homo Habilis/ Handy Man- Used tools/Worked in Groups/Africa Homo Erectus/Upright Man- Used Fire/Migrated out of Africa/Used Complex tools Neanderthals- Lived in Europe mostly/ Fought HSS/ Skilled Hunters/ Survived Harsh Climates Homo Sapiens Sapiens/Cro-Magnons- Otherwise known as us/Means “Double wise man”/Very Skilled use of tools/ Large Brain

14 Stone Age Hunting and Gathering
Stone Age - Period during which hominids, including modern humans, made lasting tools mainly from stone. The Stone Age is divided into three periods: the Old Stone Age, the Middle Stone Age, and the New Stone Age. Homework Q#4: What is one tool you could not live with out?

15 Fire!!! Between about 1,400,000 and 500,000 years ago, early hominids learned how to use fire. The ability to create fire was an important step for our ancestors. It allowed them to move to areas with colder climates.

16 Settling New Areas Nomads – People who have no settled home.
As early hominids developed the use of tools, they left their original homes in Africa. Many early hominids were nomads. They moved around to places they thought they could find food and stayed for several days. Nomads – People who have no settled home.

17 The Beginning of Farming
For tens of thousand of years, our ancestors continued to live as hunter-gatherers. However, some societies entered the Middle Stone Age, which was characterized by the use of more refined or advanced tools. Those who began the practice of farming would enter the New Stone Age.

18 Early Farmers Plant Selection Raising Animals
When people first began to plant crops, they carefully chose seeds from the biggest, best tasting plants. They began to: Domesticate – adapt wild plants for human use. Just as humans learned to domesticate plants, they also learned to domesticate animals. During the New Stone Age, humans learned to tame wild animals and breed them for human use. For example, dogs, sheep, goats and pigs.

19 Paleolithic Neolithic
Stone Age – Homo Habilis, 2 Million years ago through 3000 BCE when tools were made out of metal. Paleolithic Neolithic Old Stone Age Hunting- Wild animals Gathering- Nuts, berries,plants Lived in the open Nomadic ( did not stay in one place) Cave dwelling. New Stone Age Farming starts 8000 BCE. People settle down which led to farming.

20 Does this photo best represent the Paleolithic or Neolithic part of The Stone Age?

21 Paleolithic or Neolithic?

22 The Beginnings of Civilization

23 Irrigation - Supplying land with water from another place using a network of canals.
Farming techniques like irrigation were important in creating early communities.

24 Advantages of Settled Life
Surplus – More than what is needed. (Farming allowed for a steady food supply all year round.) Population growth. (Having a surplus of food allowed parents to feed and have more children) Early Villages and Towns. (Gradually as the population increased, early settlements grew into towns and villages) Artisan – A worker who is especially skilled in crafting items by hand. ( With food surpluses, people did not have to spend all day producing food and to switch to other kinds of work.

25 The Earliest Cities Early Cities
Grew up along large rivers which allowed for rich soil for farming. Nile – Egypt Tigris/Euphrates- Iraq Huang- China Indus- Pakistan City Present-Day Location Date Founded Ur Iraq c.3500 B.C. Memphis Egypt c.3100 B.C. Mohenjo-Daro Pakistan c.2700 B.C. Knossos Greece c.2500 B.C. Anyang China c.1700 B.C.

26 Government Population Growth = Government Formation
What do Governments do? Keep order in society Provide services Settle Disputes Manage public relations/Irrigation projects

27 The First Civilizations
Civilization - A society that has cities, a central government run by official leaders, and workers who specialize in various jobs. Also, writing, art, and architecture.

28 The Bronze Age

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