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CMCSS Toolbox – Strategies and Techniques Part I: Teaching Vocabulary Consulting Teachers August, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "CMCSS Toolbox – Strategies and Techniques Part I: Teaching Vocabulary Consulting Teachers August, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 CMCSS Toolbox – Strategies and Techniques Part I: Teaching Vocabulary Consulting Teachers August, 2006

2 Why are we here? Strategic Plan/High School Literacy Support Strategic Plan/High School Literacy Support Toolbox-Techniques and Strategies Toolbox-Techniques and Strategies High School Reform High School Reform Student Achievement/Reading Comprehension through Vocabulary Instruction Student Achievement/Reading Comprehension through Vocabulary Instruction

3 High School Literacy Support Toolbox: Based on Reading Strategies Reading in Content Area I Reading in Content Area II Language! Students with Severe Needs

4 Outcomes: Develop an understanding of the relationship between reading and vocabulary development. Develop an understanding of the relationship between reading and vocabulary development. Develop an understanding of the importance of before, during, and after reading instruction. Develop an understanding of the importance of before, during, and after reading instruction. Learn the six step process for teaching essential academic vocabulary and practice application of the process. Learn the six step process for teaching essential academic vocabulary and practice application of the process. Utilize graphic organizers in teaching vocabulary. Utilize graphic organizers in teaching vocabulary.

5 What do we know about students, reading comprehension, and vocabulary instruction? The Matthew Effect The Matthew Effect Good Reasons for Teaching Vocabulary Good Reasons for Teaching Vocabulary Some vocabulary must be taught through direct instruction Some vocabulary must be taught through direct instruction

6 What is the Matthew Effect? Refers to the idea that some kids come to school from less academically advanced environments than their peers when it comes to early reading skills. These less fortunate peers tend to get left behind. Like the line in Matthews Gospel, the rich students get richer, and the poor students get poorer. (Keith Stanovich). Refers to the idea that some kids come to school from less academically advanced environments than their peers when it comes to early reading skills. These less fortunate peers tend to get left behind. Like the line in Matthews Gospel, the rich students get richer, and the poor students get poorer. (Keith Stanovich).

7 Example of the Matthew Effect: Percentile Rank Minutes Per Day Minutes Per Day Words Read Per Year BooksTextBooksText ,34,358,0004,733, ,823,0002,357, ,146,0001,697, ,0001,168, ,000722, ,000601, ,2200,000421, ,000251, ,000134, ,00051, ,000 8,000 (Anderson, R.C., 1992) A student in the 10th percentile reads about 60,000 words in a year in 5th grade. A student in the 50th percentile reads about 900,000 words a year in the 5th grade. Average students engage in about 15 times as much practice in a year compared with low achieving students.

8 A student in the 20th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day. A student in the 20th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day. This adds up to _________words read per year. This adds up to _________words read per year. A student in the 80th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day. A student in the 80th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day. This adds up to __________ words This adds up to __________ words read per year. read per year..7 21,000 1,146, WIDE READING – VOLUME READING

9 Some Good Reasons for Teaching Vocabulary… The major factor in text difficulty is vocabulary (Klare, 1984) The major factor in text difficulty is vocabulary (Klare, 1984) Knowledge of vocabulary is highly correlated with reading comprehension (Nagy & Scott, 2000) Knowledge of vocabulary is highly correlated with reading comprehension (Nagy & Scott, 2000) There is even a close correlation between vocabulary development at age 3 and reading comprehension in 11 th grade (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997) There is even a close correlation between vocabulary development at age 3 and reading comprehension in 11 th grade (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997) Vocabulary is implicated in the 4th grade slump and the failure of beginning reading programs to ensure later success (Chall & Jacobs, 2003) Vocabulary is implicated in the 4th grade slump and the failure of beginning reading programs to ensure later success (Chall & Jacobs, 2003)

10 Direct Instruction of Vocabulary Vocabulary Instruction is one of the essential elements of literacy development for students at risk (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) Vocabulary Instruction is one of the essential elements of literacy development for students at risk (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) To learn a word requires between 6 to 10 exposures to the word in context (Jenkins, Stein, and Wysocki, 1984) To learn a word requires between 6 to 10 exposures to the word in context (Jenkins, Stein, and Wysocki, 1984) Chances of learning the word from context depends on students ability level, grade level, and background knowledge (Marzano & Pickering, 2004) Chances of learning the word from context depends on students ability level, grade level, and background knowledge (Marzano & Pickering, 2004)

11 Impact of Direct Vocabulary Instruction The direct vocabulary instruction was on words related to content and the effect size is.97

12 Vocabulary Simulation: A Difficult Start The bleet and the gelz are borat at their nonporteze of what is haldon in the narbrack.

13 Questions? Any Questions?

14 Teaching Vocabulary A six step process adapted from Marzano and Pickering

15 Process of Learning Vocabulary The success of vocabulary mastery is most influenced by quality instruction from the teacher. The success of vocabulary mastery is most influenced by quality instruction from the teacher. The six step process goes from general learning to specific learning The six step process goes from general learning to specific learning –Establish set, the initial introduction/learning of the word (steps 1-3) –Provide multiple exposures (steps 4-6)

16 Step 1: The teacher will model and explain what the new word means Ask what students know about the word Ask what students know about the word Use this information to confirm, clarify, and/or build on the word meaning Use this information to confirm, clarify, and/or build on the word meaning

17 Ways to model, give a description, explanation, or example Give direct experiences that will provide examples of the word Give direct experiences that will provide examples of the word Tell a story that uses the word Tell a story that uses the word Use video or computer images to aid in understanding Use video or computer images to aid in understanding Divide students into small groups and ask students to present a student friendly description or explanation of the word Divide students into small groups and ask students to present a student friendly description or explanation of the word

18 Ways to model, give a description, explanation, or example contd: Relate the word to current events that are familiar to the student Relate the word to current events that are familiar to the student Use your own mental pictures to describe the word Use your own mental pictures to describe the word Use pictures as examples of the term Use pictures as examples of the term

19 A Cautionary Note Initial understanding of the word does not involve giving students a dictionary definition or asking them to look up the definition Initial understanding of the word does not involve giving students a dictionary definition or asking them to look up the definition The goal of step 1 is to have a general understanding of the word The goal of step 1 is to have a general understanding of the word

20 Model and Practice Step 1 Model or explain what the word means.

21 Step 2: The student will define the term in his/her own words Initial understanding of the word is still a work in progress Initial understanding of the word is still a work in progress Students should not merely copy what you have said Students should not merely copy what you have said Students work can be very simple at this stage of learning Students work can be very simple at this stage of learning Students record their work on a selected vocabulary graphic organizer Students record their work on a selected vocabulary graphic organizer

22 3 Things to do if students struggle with Step 2: Provide additional descriptions, explanations, or examples Provide additional descriptions, explanations, or examples Allow students to talk about the word with a partner or in a small group. Allow students to talk about the word with a partner or in a small group. Move on to step 3 and ask students to create a picture, and then go back and restate their understanding using words Move on to step 3 and ask students to create a picture, and then go back and restate their understanding using words

23 Students restate meaning contd. Students use a graphic organizer to record initial description of the word Students use a graphic organizer to record initial description of the word Teachers may consider keeping an academic notebook Teachers may consider keeping an academic notebook

24 Model and Practice Step 2: Define the term in your own words.

25 Step 3: Ask students to illustrate the word by creating a picture, symbol or graphic of the word Modeling is important in the beginning Modeling is important in the beginning Allow students to work together Allow students to work together Show examples of your work, as well as, other student work Show examples of your work, as well as, other student work Ask students to share stories of how pictures have helped them learn Ask students to share stories of how pictures have helped them learn If you or your students are having trouble with a word, go to the Internet and do a search If you or your students are having trouble with a word, go to the Internet and do a search Students record work on a selected vocabulary graphic organizer Students record work on a selected vocabulary graphic organizer

26 Model and Practice Step 3: Illustrate the word

27 Step 4: Students expand word knowledge with activities (use graphic organizers) Allow students to add to or revise initial word description within graphic organizer Allow students to add to or revise initial word description within graphic organizer Allow students to record new insights Allow students to record new insights Additional activities: Additional activities: –Highlight word part to aid students in remembering the meaning of the word –Identify synonyms or antonyms –List related words –Draw an additional picture or graphic –Write brief reminders or cautions of commonly confused words –ELL- translate the word into students native language

28 Model and Practice Step 4 Plan activities to deepen word knowledge

29 Step 5: Provide students with opportunities to share new word knowledge with peers Discussions can be informal or structured Discussions can be informal or structured Structured Activity: Think-Pair-Share Structured Activity: Think-Pair-Share Think: Give students think time to individually review their word and graphic organizer Think: Give students think time to individually review their word and graphic organizer Pair: Organize students into pairs and ask them to discuss their descriptions and pictures of the word with their partners; this would also include areas of confusion and seeking clarification Pair: Organize students into pairs and ask them to discuss their descriptions and pictures of the word with their partners; this would also include areas of confusion and seeking clarification Share: Students are invited to share new thoughts or understandings they have discussed in their pairs; encourage students to share examples of confusions that have come up during discussions Share: Students are invited to share new thoughts or understandings they have discussed in their pairs; encourage students to share examples of confusions that have come up during discussions Students are asked to make additions and revisions to their graphic organizer Students are asked to make additions and revisions to their graphic organizer

30 Model and Practice Step 5 Discuss word with partner using Lansdown card

31 Questions? Any Questions?

32 Step 6: The teacher will provide multiple interactions with the words Listen for misconceptions and areas of confusion Listen for misconceptions and areas of confusion Encourage students to work together to ensure that everyone is learning the word correctly Encourage students to work together to ensure that everyone is learning the word correctly –Draw Me –Talk a Mile a Minute –Name that Category –Vocabulary Charades –What is the Question –Exit games and questions

33 Model and Practice Step 6 Provide multiple interactions.

34 Managing Vocabulary Instruction Use process with essential vocabulary Use process with essential vocabulary Keeping a vocabulary notebook is recommended Keeping a vocabulary notebook is recommended Principal expectation Principal expectation


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