Presentation on theme: "CMCSS Toolbox – Strategies and Techniques Part I: Teaching Vocabulary"— Presentation transcript:
1CMCSS Toolbox – Strategies and Techniques Part I: Teaching Vocabulary Consulting TeachersAugust, 2006
2Why are we here? Strategic Plan/High School Literacy Support Toolbox-Techniques and StrategiesHigh School ReformStudent Achievement/Reading Comprehension through Vocabulary Instruction
3High School Literacy Support Toolbox: Based on Reading StrategiesReading in Content Area IReading in Content Area IILanguage!Students withSevereNeeds
4Outcomes:Develop an understanding of the relationship between reading and vocabulary development.Develop an understanding of the importance of before, during, and after reading instruction.Learn the six step process for teaching essential academic vocabulary and practice application of the process.Utilize graphic organizers in teaching vocabulary.
5What do we know about students, reading comprehension, and vocabulary instruction? The Matthew EffectGood Reasons for Teaching VocabularySome vocabulary must be taught through direct instruction
6What is the Matthew Effect? Refers to the idea that some kids come to school from less academically advanced environments than their peers when it comes to early reading skills. These less fortunate peers tend to get left behind. Like the line in Matthew’s Gospel, the rich students get richer, and the poor students get poorer. (Keith Stanovich).
7Example of the Matthew Effect: A student in the 10th percentile reads about 60,000 words in a year in 5th grade.A student in the 50th percentile reads about 900,000 words a year in the 5th grade.Average students engage in about 15 times as much practice in a year compared with low achieving students.Percentile RankMinutesPer DayMinutes Per DayWords Read Per YearBooksText9865.067,34,358,0004,733,0009021.233.41,823,0002,357,0008014.224.61,146,0001,697,000709.616.9622,0001,168,000606.513.1432,000722,000504.59.2282,000601,000403.26,2200,000421,000301.84.3106,000251,000200.72.421,000134,000100.11.08,00051,0002(Anderson, R.C., 1992)
8WIDE READING – VOLUME READING A student in the 20th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day.This adds up to _________words read per year.A student in the 80th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day.This adds up to __________ wordsread per year..721,00014.21,146,000
9Some Good Reasons for Teaching Vocabulary… The major factor in text difficulty is vocabulary (Klare, 1984)Knowledge of vocabulary is highly correlated with reading comprehension (Nagy & Scott, 2000)There is even a close correlation between vocabulary development at age 3 and reading comprehension in 11th grade (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997)Vocabulary is implicated in the “4th grade slump” and the failure of beginning reading programs to ensure later success (Chall & Jacobs, 2003)
10Direct Instruction of Vocabulary Vocabulary Instruction is one of the essential elements of literacy development for students at risk (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002)To learn a word requires between 6 to 10 exposures to the word in context (Jenkins, Stein, and Wysocki, 1984)Chances of learning the word from context depends on student’s ability level, grade level, and background knowledge (Marzano & Pickering, 2004)
11Impact of Direct Vocabulary Instruction The direct vocabulary instruction was on wordsrelated to content and the effect size is .97
12Vocabulary Simulation: A Difficult Start The bleet and the gelz are borat at their nonporteze of what is haldon in the narbrack.
14A six step process adapted from Marzano and Pickering Teaching VocabularyA six step process adapted from Marzano and Pickering
15Process of Learning Vocabulary The success of vocabulary mastery is most influenced by quality instruction from the teacher.The six step process goes from general learning to specific learningEstablish set, the initial introduction/learning of the word (steps 1-3)Provide multiple exposures (steps 4-6)
16Step 1: The teacher will model and explain what the new word means Ask what students know about the wordUse this information to confirm, clarify, and/or build on the word meaning
17Ways to model, give a description, explanation, or example Give direct experiences that will provide examples of the wordTell a story that uses the wordUse video or computer images to aid in understandingDivide students into small groups and ask students to present a student friendly description or explanation of the word
18Ways to model, give a description, explanation, or example contd: Relate the word to current events that are familiar to the studentUse your own mental pictures to describe the wordUse pictures as examples of the term
19A Cautionary NoteInitial understanding of the word does not involve giving students a dictionary definition or asking them to look up the definitionThe goal of step 1 is to have a general understanding of the word
20Model and Practice Step 1 Model or explain what the word means.
21Step 2: The student will define the term in his/her own words Initial understanding of the word is still a work in progressStudents should not merely copy what you have saidStudents’ work can be very simple at this stage of learningStudents record their work on a selected vocabulary graphic organizer
223 Things to do if students struggle with Step 2: Provide additional descriptions, explanations, or examplesAllow students to talk about the word with a partner or in a small group.Move on to step 3 and ask students to create a picture, and then go back and restate their understanding using words
23Students restate meaning contd. Students use a graphic organizer to record initial description of the wordTeachers may consider keeping an academic notebook
24Model and Practice Step 2: Define the term in your own words.
25Step 3: Ask students to illustrate the word by creating a picture, symbol or graphic of the word Modeling is important in the beginningAllow students to work togetherShow examples of your work, as well as, other student workAsk students to share stories of how pictures have helped them learnIf you or your students are having trouble with a word, go to the Internet and do a searchStudents record work on a selected vocabulary graphic organizer
27Step 4: Students expand word knowledge with activities (use graphic organizers) Allow students to add to or revise initial word description within graphic organizerAllow students to record new insightsAdditional activities:Highlight word part to aid students in remembering the meaning of the wordIdentify synonyms or antonymsList related wordsDraw an additional picture or graphicWrite brief reminders or cautions of commonly confused wordsELL- translate the word into student’s native language
28Model and Practice Step 4 Plan activities to deepen word knowledge
29Step 5: Provide students with opportunities to share new word knowledge with peers Discussions can be informal or structuredStructured Activity: Think-Pair-ShareThink: Give students “think time” to individually review their word and graphic organizerPair: Organize students into pairs and ask them to discuss their descriptions and pictures of the word with their partners; this would also include areas of confusion and seeking clarificationShare: Students are invited to share new thoughts or understandings they have discussed in their pairs; encourage students to share examples of confusions that have come up during discussionsStudents are asked to make additions and revisions to their graphic organizer
30Model and Practice Step 5 Discuss word with partner using Lansdown card
32Step 6: The teacher will provide multiple interactions with the words Listen for misconceptions and areas of confusionEncourage students to work together to ensure that everyone is learning the word correctlyDraw MeTalk a Mile a MinuteName that CategoryVocabulary CharadesWhat is the QuestionExit games and questions
33Model and Practice Step 6 Provide multiple interactions.
34Managing Vocabulary Instruction Use process with essential vocabularyKeeping a vocabulary notebook is recommendedPrincipal expectation