Presentation on theme: "Symbols Language Geography History cities art. cultural events climate Perthshire, Angus and Dundee, The Kingdom of Fife Argyll, The Isles, Loch Lomond,"— Presentation transcript:
Symbols Language Geography History cities art. cultural events climate Perthshire, Angus and Dundee, The Kingdom of Fife Argyll, The Isles, Loch Lomond, Stirling and The Trossachs Parts of Scotland SCOTLAN D Aberdeen and Grampian Highlands Outer Islands and Western Isles Highlands of Scotland
The Thistle A longside tartan, the thistle is perhaps the most identifiable symbols of all things Scottish and nowadays, it can be seen promoting the 'Scottishness' of a wide variety of products, services and organisations.the thistle
The Thistle Legend B ut why is it that such a proud people as the Scots should choose a humble weed as its national symbol? In truth, no-one knows. There is a legend which relates how a sleeping party of Scots warriors were almost set upon by an invading band of Vikings and were only saved when one of the attackers trod on a wild thistle with his bare feet. His cries raised the alarm and the roused Scots duly defeated the Danes. In gratitude, the plant became known as the Guardian Thistle and was adopted as the symbol of Scotland. Sadly, there is no historical evidence to back up the tale and in fact, there's even confusion as to the type of thistle that we see represented everywhere. There are many species of thistle and the spear thistle, stemless thistle, cotton thistle, musk thistle and melancholy thistle have all been suggested as possible candidates. The Thistle as Symbol Whatever its origins, the thistle has been an important Scottish symbol for more than 500 years. Perhaps its first recognisable use was on silver coins issued in 1470 during the reign of James III and from the early 16th century, it was incorporated into the Royal Arms of Scotland. Scotland's premier Order of Chivalry, established in 1687, is The Most Ancient and Noble Order of the Thistle and its members wear a collar chain whose links are made of golden thistles. The Knights and Ladies of the Thistle also wear a breast star which bears the thistle emblem and a motto which is regularly associated with it, Nemo Me Impune Lacessit - 'no-one provokes me with impunity'.
The Saltire T he Scottish national flag is a white- on-blue saltire (a diagonal cross on a coloured background) and it derives from the shape of the cross on which Scotland's patron saint, St Andrew, was crucified.flag
History and Legend H istory and Legend Tradition has it that in 832 AD near the East Lothian village of Athelstaneford, a battle was fought which led to the adoption of the Saltire as Scotland's national flag. A joint army of Picts and Scots under the High King of Alba, Angus mac Fergus, was invading Lothian which at that time was still Northumbrian territory. Angus's force was surrounded by a larger army of Angles and Saxons and fearing defeat, the king led prayers for deliverance. Angus believed he had received a divine sign when above him in a clear blue sky, he saw a great white cross like that of St Andrew's. The king vowed that if, with the saint's help, he gained the victory, then Andrew would thereafter be the patron saint of Scotland and his cross the flag of Scotland. Angus did win and the Saltire duly became the national flag.
Whisky A sk people what they associate most with Scotland and you'll probably get a variety of answers - tartan, golf and Robert Burns would certainly all be mentioned. But the most common answer is likely to be whisky.whisky Acknowledged as Scotland's national drink, whisky - in the Gaelic, uisge beatha (pronounced oosh- ga beh-huh), meaning water of life - has been produced here for longer than anyone can remember. Something that began centuries ago as a way of using up rain-soaked barley after a wet harvest, the whisky industry has now grown into one of the country's biggest earners, bringing in hundreds of millions of pounds every year.
Whisky Regions Y ou might think the name should make this answer a given; but people in other countries have produced whisky which they've then labelled as 'Scotch'. Legally, whisky has to be produced and matured in Scotland before it can be given the name Scotch whisky. Even the spelling is protected by law - if your whisky is produced in Scotland, you can't call it 'whiskey' with an 'e'! Within Scotland, there are five very different production areas, each with its own flavour characteristics: Lowland, Campbeltown, Islay, Highland and Islands.
St Andrew S t Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland, a task he shares with Greece, Russia and Romania. The brother of St Peter and one of the original Apostles, Andrew was reputedly martyred at Patras in Greece, having petitioned the Roman authorities who had sentenced him to death not to crucify him on the same shape of cross as Christ. His request was granted and Andrew was duly crucified on the x- shaped cross (or saltire) which has subsequently become his symbol.Andrew
St Andrew and Scotland. S aints and Symbols Records show that St Andrew was probably the patron of Scotland by the year 1000. In 1286, the Seal of the Guardians of Scotland bore, on the obverse, a representation of St Andrew on his x-shaped cross, with the Latin inscription Andrea Scotis Dux Eesto Compatriotis - 'St Andrew be leader of the compatriot Scots'. In I390, St Andrew was first used as a national symbol on a coin of the realm, a five-shilling piece minted in the reign of Robert III. St Andrew's Day, 30 November, is not a public holiday in Scotland.
The Honours of Scotland T he Scottish Crown Jewels, known as the Honours of Scotland, are the oldest regalia in the British Isles. They comprise a crown, a sword and a sceptre, all of which date from the 15th and 16th centuries. Together with the Stone of Destiny, these symbols of Scottish nationhood are on permanent public display at Edinburgh Castle.
The Kilt T he skirt-like kilt which is familiar to us today evolved around the middle of the 18th century from the more commonly worn and functional belted plaid (in Gaelic, feileadh breacan or feileadh mor, 'the big kilt')kilt
The Original Kilt T he feileadh mor was a longer untailored garment, around five metres in length, which was gathered and then belted at the waist to provide cover for both the upper and lower body. From the waist down, the feileadh mor resembled a modern kilt while the remaining material above the waist was draped over the shoulder and pinned there. This upper portion could be arranged in a variety of ways around the shoulders according to the demands of weather, temperature or freedom of movement required. At the end of day, the belt could be unbuckled to transform the feileadh mor into a warm covering for the night. The Gaelic plaid actually means 'blanket'.
Tartan T artan is, without doubt, one of the nation's major 'brands' - instantly recognised the world over as uniquely Scottish. What makes tartan different from other chequered materials is the history and romance of the Highlands that is seemingly woven into every aspect of the fabric. In reality however, this mythologising of tartan is a surprisingly modern development and although tartan has come to be identified as particularly Scottish, any individual, family or institution can commission and register their own tartan.tartan
Early History S ome writers give the origin of term 'tartan' as the French tiretane although this may simply refer to a type of material of French origin, rather than any pattern on the cloth. In earliest times, Highlanders were known to wear clothes dyed with local plants, mosses and berries and woven into distinctive striped or checked patterns. However, the weave of the cloth, and the way it was worn, tended to be dictated by the custom in a particular area, rather than a family or clan.
Gaelic G aelicG aelic is the longest-standing language used in Scotland and can boast one of the richest song and oral traditions in Europe. It is part of a family of Celtic languages which today are spoken in six separate areas: Scotland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, Wales, Cornwall and Brittany in France.
Celtic Roots S cots Gaelic emerged from the vast pan-European commonwealth of Celtic nations that eventually succumbed to the might of the conquering Roman Empire. The Celts in both Scotland and Ireland remained outwith Rome's influence and it was from Ireland that the Gaels were to come to Scotland. The first Irish Gaels, the Scots, arrived in Scotland around 450 AD and settled in Argyll (Earra Ghàidheal), which they called Dal Riata, after the homeland they had left. While establishing themselves, they were fiercely resisted by the established Pictish people and it was not until 843 that the Gaelic leader, Kenneth MacAlpin united the Picts and the Gaels and became the first ruler of Alba which comprised most of Scotland north of Forth and Clyde. Alba has since remained the Gaelic name for Scotland. The culture of the Gaels spread throughout the country, and their language became the language of the king, court and most of the common people. James IV (1473-1513) was the last Scottish monarch to speak Gaelic.
The Bagpipes I t's perhaps a little ironic to feature bagpipes in this section since one thing that is certain about the early history of the instrument is that it was definitely not uniquely Scottish.bagpipes E arly History In fact, the earliest recorded reference to bagpipes is on a Hittite slab from Asia Minor which has been dated to1000 BC while by the 1st century AD, bagpipes existed in many countries from India to Spain and from France to Egypt. It's also clear that bagpipes were popular throughout the rest of the British isles prior to their documented appearance north of the border. When, and how, they did first appear in Scotland is a hotly contested topic with competing theories claiming they were either a Roman import or that the instrument came from Ireland.
Components and Styles of Pipe I n whichever country it developed, the basic bagpipe comprised the same elements: a bag with a chanter (on which the melody was played) and one or more drones (pipes which play a continuous note). Some examples were mouth-blown while others used a bellows attachment to supply the air to the bag. The bag provided a sustained tone while the musician took a breath and allowed several tones to be played at once. The original Scottish pipes probably had, at the most, a single drone. The second drone was added to the pipes in the mid- to late 1500s while the third, or great drone, came into use early in the 1700s. While different styles of pipe emerged in Scotland, it is the Highland bagpipe or the piob-mhor 'the Great Pipe', which has emerged as national instrument. These are blown by mouth and the bags were traditionally made from the skin of a sheep, although nowadays leather, rubber or other synthetic materials are used. The pipes themselves were originally made of bone or ivory, but hardwood is the modern choice. The melody is played on a reeded chanter leading down from the bag while the three drone pipes sit on the piper's shoulder and provide a constant, steady sound as a background to the melody.
Geography P erched on the outer rim of Europe, Scotland forms the northern part of Great Britain and is about two-thirds the size of England and Wales which occupy the remaining portion. It is surrounded by sea on three sides: to the west and north by the Atlantic Ocean and on the east by the North Sea. Its only land border, that with England, runs for approximately 60 miles (96 km) along the line of the Cheviot Hills. Scotland's geography has been integral to its political, social, economic and cultural development, themes which are explored elsewhere on the site. In this section, you can discover more about the physical make-up of the country, together with some facts and figures about its people.
Physical Characteristics G eographically, Scotland can be divided into three distinct areas: the Southern Uplands, the Central Lowlands and the northern Highlands and Islands. The Southern Uplands The Southern Uplands are the fertile plains and hills bordering England. The region boasts magnificent scenery, albeit of a gentler nature than that found in the Highlands: the highest peak in the area is 2763 feet (815 m) high. The Central Lowlands The Central Lowlands stretch from the Firth of Forth in the east to the Firth of Clyde in the west. This area contains the nation's main industrial belt and the country's two largest cities, Glasgow in the west and Edinburgh, the capital, in the east. Most of the Scotland's population lives in this area. The Highlands and Islands The Highlands comprise dramatic mountain ranges of sandstone and granite, which rise to their greatest height at Ben Nevis, which at 4406 feet (1343 m) is Britain's highest mountain. Although this region accounts for more than half the total area of Scotland, it has few major population centres apart from the cities of Aberdeen, Inverness and Dundee. Of Scotland's 790 islands, 130 or so are inhabited. The major groups include the Inner and Outer Hebrides off the west coast, the Orkneys and the Shetland isles which lie to the northeast of the mainland.
Geology W hile the Earth is estimated to be about 4600 million years old, Scotland's oldest rocks are only about 3000 million years old. Most, in fact, are less than 1000 million years old. The theory of plate tectonics (whereby the earth's crust floats on top of the denser mantle below, divided into huge plates) helps to explain Scotland's geology. For example, sections of current day Scotland were originally believed to have been positioned 30 degrees south of the equator but have now moved up to their present position of 55-60 degrees north over the course of about 600 million years. Along with this move in time, the sections also moved through different climatic zones and today there is evidence of both glacial and tropical conditions in Scottish rock formations.
Aurora Borealis T he Aurora is most visible at latitudes higher than 65 degrees north. In Scotland, this would be the most northerly points on the mainland, as well as in Orkney and Shetland. There have, however, been many smaller 'light showers' in various areas around Scotland, including some southerly parts of the country. These generally occur in the intervening years between its 11-year cycle, and are most frequent in the autumn, winter and spring.
Population S cotland's population based on the results of the 2001 Census was 5,062,011, of which 2,432,494 were male and 2,629,517 were female. Glasgow is the largest city with a population of approximately 619,000 while the capital, Edinburgh, has around 448,000 with Aberdeen next at just under 219,000 For 2001 the nation's other vital statistics include: The number of live births was 52,531 (26,778 boys and 25,743 girls). The number of deaths was 57,378 (27,319 males and 30,059 females). The number of marriages was 29,621, of which 5,278 were held at Gretna. The number of divorces was 10,631.