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WARM-UP #7. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Genetic material of cells… GENES – units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAITGENES – units of.

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Presentation on theme: "WARM-UP #7. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Genetic material of cells… GENES – units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAITGENES – units of."— Presentation transcript:

1 WARM-UP #7

2 DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

3 Genetic material of cells… GENES – units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAITGENES – units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT Called NUCLEIC ACIDSCalled NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDESDNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES

4 DNA Nucleotide O O=P-O OPhosphate Group Group N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T) (A, G, C, or T) CH2 O C1C1 C4C4 C3C3 C2C2 5 Sugar Sugar(deoxyribose)

5 A HISTORY OF DNA DNA double helixDiscovery of the DNA double helix A. Frederick Griffith – Discovers that a factor in diseased bacteria can transform harmless bacteria into deadly bacteria (1928) B.Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA. (1952) C.Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklins X-ray. (1953) SEE p

6 Watson & Crick proposed… DNA had specific pairing between the nitrogen bases:DNA had specific pairing between the nitrogen bases: ADENINE – THYMINE CYTOSINE - GUANINE DNA was made of 2 long stands of nucleotides arranged in a specific way called the Complementary RuleDNA was made of 2 long stands of nucleotides arranged in a specific way called the Complementary Rule

7 DNA Double Helix Nitrogenous Base (A,T,G or C) Rungs of ladder Legs of ladder Phosphate & Sugar Backbone

8 DNA Double Helix P P P O O O P P P O O O G C TA

9 Nitrogenous Bases PURINESPURINES Adenine (A) 1.Adenine (A) Guanine (G) 2.Guanine (G) PYRIMIDINESPYRIMIDINES Thymine (T) 3.Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) 4.Cytosine (C) T or C A or G

10 Chargaffs Rule Adenine ThymineAdenine must pair with Thymine GuanineCytosineGuanine must pair with Cytosine about the sameTheir amounts in a given DNA molecule will be about the same. G C TA

11 BASE-PAIRINGS CG H-bonds T A

12 Genetic Diversity… Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms.Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms.

13 The Code of Life… The code of the chromosome is the SPECIFIC ORDER that bases occur.The code of the chromosome is the SPECIFIC ORDER that bases occur. A T C G T A T G C G G…

14 DNA is wrapped tightly around histones and coiled tightly to form chromosomes See p. 297

15 DNA Replication DNA must be copiedDNA must be copied The DNA molecule produces 2 IDENTICAL new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing:The DNA molecule produces 2 IDENTICAL new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing: A-T, G-C Each strand of the original DNA serves as a template for the new strand See p. 298Each strand of the original DNA serves as a template for the new strand See p. 298

16 DNA Replication Semiconservative Model:Semiconservative Model: Watson and Crick showed: 1.Watson and Crick showed: the two strands of the parental molecule separate, and each functions as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand.. Parental DNA DNA Template New DNA

17 1. Why is replication necessary? 2. When does replication occur? 3. Describe how replication works. 4.Use the complementary rule to create the complementary strand: A--- ? G--- ? C--- ? T--- ? A--- ? G--- ? A--- ? G--- ? C--- ? A--- ? G--- ? T--- ? Replication Quiz

18 1. Why is replication necessary? So both new cells will have the correct DNA 2. When does replication occur? During interphase (S phase). 3. Describe how replication works. Enzymes unzip DNA and complementary nucleotides join each original strand. 4. Use the complementary rule to create the complementary strand: A--- T G--- C C--- G T--- A A--- T G--- C A--- T G--- C C--- G A--- T G--- C T--- A Replication Quiz

19 (1961) Watson & Crick proposed… …DNA controlled cell function by serving as a template for PROTEIN structure.…DNA controlled cell function by serving as a template for PROTEIN structure. 3 Nucleotides = a triplet or CODON3 Nucleotides = a triplet or CODON (which code for a specific AMINO ACID) See p.303 AMINO ACIDS are the building blocks of proteins.AMINO ACIDS are the building blocks of proteins.

20 DNA Transcription DNA can unzip itself and RNA nucleotides match up to the DNA strand.DNA can unzip itself and RNA nucleotides match up to the DNA strand. Both DNA & RNA are formed from NUCLEOTIDES and are called NUCLEIC acids.Both DNA & RNA are formed from NUCLEOTIDES and are called NUCLEIC acids. See p.301

21 DNA Translation The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteinsThe cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins See p We will discuss details of this on a later date

22 Transcription/Translation Quiz 1.Why is transcription necessary? 2.Describe transcription. 3.Why is translation necessary? 4.Describe translation. 5.What are the main differences between DNA and RNA. 6.Using the chart on page 303, identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGC

23 1. Why is transcription necessary? Transcription makes messenger RNA (MRNA) to carry the code for proteins out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. 2. Describe transcription. RNA polymerase binds to DNA, separates the strands, then uses one strand as a template to assemble MRNA. 3. Why is translation necessary? Translation assures that the right amino acids are joined together by peptides to form the correct protein.

24 4. Describe translation. The cell uses information from MRNA to produce proteins. 5. What are the main differences between DNA and RNA. DNA has deoxyribose, RNA has ribose; DNA has 2 strands, RNA has one strand; DNA has thymine, RNA has uracil. 6.Using the chart on page 303, identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGC tryptophan-glutamine-cysteine

25 AMAZING DNA FACTS… DNA from a single human cell extends in a single thread for almost 2 meters long!!!DNA from a single human cell extends in a single thread for almost 2 meters long!!! It contains information equal to some 600,000 printed pages of 500 words each!!!It contains information equal to some 600,000 printed pages of 500 words each!!! (a library of about 1,000 books)

26 LETS REVIEW DNA… LM p.44 1.List the conclusions Griffith & Avery, Hershey & Chase drew from their experiments. 2.Summarize the relationship between genes & DNA. 3.Describe the overall structure of the DNA molecule. 4.What are the 4 kinds of bases?


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