3Genetic material of cells… GENES – units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAITCalled NUCLEIC ACIDSDNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES
4DNA Nucleotide O O=P-O N CH2 O C1 C4 C3 C2 Phosphate Group Nitrogenous base(A, G, C, or T)CH2OC1C4C3C25Sugar(deoxyribose)
5A HISTORY OF DNA SEE p. 292-293 Discovery of the DNA double helix A. Frederick Griffith – Discovers that a factor in diseased bacteria can transform harmless bacteria into deadly bacteria (1928)B. Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA.(1952)C. Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklin’s X-ray.(1953)
6Watson & Crick proposed… DNA had specific pairing between the nitrogen bases:ADENINE – THYMINECYTOSINE - GUANINEDNA was made of 2 long stands of nucleotides arranged in a specific way called the “Complementary Rule”
7DNA Double Helix “Rungs of ladder” Nitrogenous Base (A,T,G or C) “Legs of ladder”Phosphate &Sugar Backbone
12Genetic Diversity…Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms.
13The Code of Life… A T C G T A T G C G G… The “code” of the chromosome is the SPECIFIC ORDER that bases occur.A T C G T A T G C G G…
14See p. 297DNA is wrapped tightly around histones and coiled tightly to form chromosomes
15DNA Replication A-T, G-C DNA must be copied The DNA molecule produces 2 IDENTICAL new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing:A-T, G-CEach strand of the original DNA serves as a template for the new strand See p. 298
16DNA Replication Semiconservative Model: . 1. Watson and Crick showed: the two strands of the parental molecule separate, and each functions as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand..DNA TemplateNew DNAParental DNA
171. Why is replication necessary? 2. When does replication occur? Replication Quiz1. Why is replication necessary?2. When does replication occur?3. Describe how replication works.Use the complementary rule tocreate the complementary strand:A---?G---?C---?T---?
18Replication Quiz 1. Why is replication necessary? So both new cells will have the correct DNA2. When does replication occur?During interphase (S phase).3. Describe how replication works.Enzymes unzip DNA and complementary nucleotides join each original strand.4. Use the complementary rule tocreate the complementary strand:A---TG---CC---GT---A
19(1961) Watson & Crick proposed… …DNA controlled cell function by serving as a template for PROTEIN structure.3 Nucleotides = a triplet or CODON(which code for a specific AMINO ACID)See p.303AMINO ACIDS are the building blocks of proteins.
20DNA TranscriptionDNA can “unzip” itself and RNA nucleotides match up to the DNA strand.Both DNA & RNA are formed from NUCLEOTIDES and are called NUCLEIC acids.See p.301
21We will discuss details of this on a later date DNA TranslationThe cell uses information from “messenger” RNA to produce proteinsSee pWe will discuss details of this on a later date
22Transcription/Translation Quiz Why is transcription necessary?Describe transcription.Why is translation necessary?Describe translation.What are the main differences between DNA and RNA.Using the chart on page 303, identify the amino acids coded for by these codons:UGGCAGUGC
231. Why is transcription necessary? Transcription makes messenger RNA (MRNA) to carry the code for proteins out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.2. Describe transcription.RNA polymerase binds to DNA, separates the strands, then uses one strand as a template to assemble MRNA.3. Why is translation necessary?Translation assures that the right amino acids are joined together by peptides to form the correct protein.
244. Describe translation.The cell uses information from MRNA to produce proteins.5. What are the main differences between DNA and RNA.DNA has deoxyribose, RNA has ribose; DNA has 2 strands, RNA has one strand; DNA has thymine, RNA has uracil.Using the chart on page 303, identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGCtryptophan-glutamine-cysteine
25(a library of about 1,000 books) AMAZING DNA FACTS…DNA from a single human cell extends in a single thread for almost 2 meters long!!!It contains information equal to some 600,000 printed pages of 500 words each!!!(a library of about 1,000 books)
26LET’S REVIEW DNA… LM p.44List the conclusions Griffith & Avery, Hershey & Chase drew from their experiments.Summarize the relationship between genes & DNA.Describe the overall structure of the DNA molecule.What are the 4 kinds of bases?