Presentation on theme: "Everything you wanted to know about food & insulin* Stephen W. Ponder MD, FAAP, CDE Scott & White Clinic Temple, Round Rock and College Station * And."— Presentation transcript:
Everything you wanted to know about food & insulin* Stephen W. Ponder MD, FAAP, CDE Scott & White Clinic Temple, Round Rock and College Station * And a bunch of other important stuff
One goal of diabetes care is managing glucose… Hint: It takes TIME and PATIENCE!
Insulin action opens the door for sugar (glucose) to leave the bloodstream
Diabetes – an energy management disorder This is T2, but forget about d-type for now.
Why do blood sugar levels shift all the time?
present past future
reactive vs. proactive diabetes care Reactive Actions predetermined Minimal to no flexibility: RIGID Outcomes dont immediately affect long term actions Easy to teach/learn Less time needed Favors concrete thinking Less motivation needed Proactive Actions are dependent on situation/circumstance Flexible and adaptable Outcomes influence subsequent actions Training needed, plus ongoing reinforcement More time intensive Favors problem-solving Requires motivation
Food = energy CarbohydratesProteinFat Glucose
(Glucose production – Glucose disposal) = FLUX Here is a picture of FLUX
To manage flux Everything becomes a TOOL to understand, use, and master Food Insulin Exercise Timing Devices, etc….
If insulin keeps us alive, as does food, then why should one get more attention than the other?
Because… 1)Most doctors are not nutrition specialists 2)Diagnosing and prescribing are what were trained to do 3)Our health care system downplays the role of RDs by not always paying for those services 4)Plus WE think were all food experts anyway!
New paradigm: Insulin keeps us alive while food helps keep us in control
A well trained mind is the greatest weapon against diabetes
Diabetes care is not an action, its a process…like a recipe
Why does diabetes seem so slippery? Its like the weather But like weather, it can be predicted and prepared for In the end, its a self managed condition And outcomes are largely driven by choices
Point of diminishing returns? The good is the enemy of the perfect
Tools to develop expertise with
Checking BG to fine tune? Or not?
Meters are commodity items a commodity is the generic term for any marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs The best BG meter is the one youll use $10.41/50 strips Changes ahead Ketone meter
Dont pass up an opportunity to correct a high (or low) BG Choose what you consider actionable? BG above or below chosen thresholds Consider recent and impending actions Check your results with BG levels Repeat as necessary
Check your targets often Make sure you hit your target zone sugar (± 30 mg/dl) Rapid-acting insulin results are best examined at 2-3 hours Results should feedback to the next attempt Practice makes better
Curb your liver! The liver makes as well as stores sugar A proper insulin level calms down the liver Aim for an in-range sugar level (<120 mg/dl) upon waking up each day
Why do lows happen at night? Hormonal patterns Lower insulin need Insulin peaks? Post-exercise effect Snacking stacking? Lower overnight insulin/add snack
D-teens count carbs POORLY 23%
clin i cal di e ti tian (n.) 1.A person specializing in medical nutrition therapy. 2.An underappreciated and underpaid member of the diabetes team. 3.Someone who can help your left brain
We have > 60,000 thoughts daily Groups of thoughts comprise decisions The typical non-D person makes ~ 250 decisions a day about food How many more food choices does a PWD/CWD make? What are we doing for dinner, dear? Eat at home
You can delegate authority but you cant delegate responsibility
Do 2 RNs = 1 kid? = Ok?Ok to me!
Assuming a good working knowledge of the system, diabetes control is generally proportional to the time and attention directed towards it.
Why do some PWD/CWDs seem to have it easier? It depends on your point of view Honeymoon Type 2 MODY? Other?
Its more than just food: the role of the gut
The pancreas has an off switch for insulin …and its triggered by exercise
Kinetic versus Dynamic Insulin Kinetic: how fast insulin gets in and out Dynamic: time that insulin lowers sugar Time in hours Glucose infusion rate (mg/kg/minute)
Current insulin pump therapy… Get my point? Early Insulin Pumps Multi-dose insulin therapy Lantus Levemir Humalog Novolog NPH 70/30 Different tools for different jobs Think of insulin as a tool
onset peak duration What is the 4 th dimension?The 3 dimensions of insulin
24 h12 h18 h6 h And the 4 th dimension is: consistency
The 2013 insulin arsenal Long (Lantus, Levemir) Intermediate (NPH) Fast (Regular) Rapid (Humalog, Novolog, Apidra) Premixed (75/25 and 70/30) Ultra-rapid? (in development) Ultra-long? (Degludec and others)
Comparing insulin actions
basal insulins are not very precise
Levemir variability in 9 subjects
Lantus variability in 9 subjects
Insulin Pens Discreet Different needle sizes ½ unit increments Disposable Durable units More popular today
This is why we site-rotate…
Timing of Bolus Insulin vs. GI or BG
Timing of Bolus Insulin (humalog/novolog/apidra) High GIModerate GILow GI BG Above Target Range30-40 min. prior15-20 min. prior0-5 min. prior BG Within Target Range15-20 min. prior0-5 min. prior15-20 min. after BG Below Target Range0-5 min. prior15-20 min. after30-40 min. after
Why timing matters… Note: Carbs estimated w/pre-meal insulin. Carbs known with post-meal insulin. Source: Clinical Therapeutics 2004; 26:
Why timing matters… Bolusing with meal Bolusing pre-meal CGMS data
Highs after meals depend on… Size of the bolus How early bolus is given How many carbs eaten Activity level after meal Foods glycemic index
Time to reach 100 mg/dl (at ~ 4 mg/dl/min) minutes Blood sugar mg/dl/min
Fixing breakfast highs
Timely insulin facts Rapid insulin cant lower BG any sooner than 20 minutes It peaks on average in about 1 h 15 min Its mostly gone in 2-4 hours Maximum fall in BG is 4 mg/dl/min (rare)
Beware of delayed-action foods Pizza Pasta/noodles Mexican foods Fried foods That slowly turn to sugar in body
Fried-food revenge and correction Fried food earlier in 8PM BG = unit 7AM BG = 115 in 3 hours
Proper meal planning ? ? ? ? ? ?
How does a basal insulin work? Turns off or tones down sugar coming out of the liver Allows a reasonable amount of sugar to enter cells Keeps sugar levels steady or in balance between meals and snacks.
Timing and consistency are essential to success
Exercise is the wild card since… It can occur suddenly or unexpectedly It can last for different periods of time Intensity can shift up or down Its hard to measure Its impact on blood sugar can vary
Tools you have seen today… The concept of FLUX Insulin onset, peak, duration, amount Macronutrients Fast, medium and slow carbohydrate effects The volatile role of exercise Role of amount, timing and consistency Increasing your assessment and analysis frequency The role of choice and persistence
Good control of diabetes is all about the journey, not the destination. Diabetes control exists largely in the moment