Presentation on theme: "Click the Pagoda to take you home. Chinese Art Confucianism School of thought founded by Confucius and his disciple Mencius (Mengzi) stressing social."— Presentation transcript:
Click the Pagoda to take you home
Chinese Art Confucianism School of thought founded by Confucius and his disciple Mencius (Mengzi) stressing social responsibility and order. The ideal social order is personified by the junzi ( superior person) who possesses ren (human- heartedness). Anyone can become a junzi by cultivating virtues such as empathy, pursuit of morality and justice, and respect for tradition. Daoism Philosophy arising from the metaphysical teachings of Laozi and Zhuangzi stressing an intuitive awareness and harmony with nature. The Dao is the universal path where strength comes from flexibility and inaction. It stresses the cultivation of individuals, often in reclusion. Clustered brackets A system of cantilevering a roof to allow for broad overhang of eaves using beams, lintels, struts, purlins, and rafters, all interlocking without mortar or glue. Bays Spaces between supporting columns in architecture.
The prehistoric Yangshao culture located along the Yellow River in northeastern China. Its major artistic form was Earthenware pottery.
Yangshao Culture vases from Gansu Province, China mid-third millennium B.C.E. Earthenware is fired at low temperatures in open pits or simple kilns and remains soft and porous, allowing liquids to seep through. Stoneware is fired at a much higher temperature in a kiln, and has a stonelike hardness and density. Potters of the Yangshao Culture produced fine decorated earthenware bowls in the 4th millennium BCE, prior to the invention of the potter's wheel. Techniques for decorating earthenware and stoneware in early China relied on changes made to the piece during firing. Decoration on Yangshao pottery included zigzags, lozenges, and spirals
Guang probably from Anyang, China Shang dynasty 12th or 11th century BCE. bronze 6 1/2 in. high Shang dynasty bronzes used animal forms probably connected with the world of spirits. Bronze ritual vessels were most characteristic of the Shang period.
Standing figure from Sanxingdui, China ca. 1200–1050 B.C.E. bronze 8 ft. 5 in. high, including base Types of objects found in tombs of Shang rulers and those of Sanxingdui and the material from which they were made. bronze vessels Elephant tusks and an ivory beaker inlaid with turquoise jade (nephrite) objects Turtle shells and animals bones inscribed in the earliest form of the Chinese language lacquer and gold objects Bronze statues
The Zhou dynasty was among the longest in Chinese history.
Bi disk with dragons from Jincun(?), China Eastern Zhou dynasty fourth to third century B.C.E. Nephrite 6 1/2 in. diameter When used in burials, the Bi is placed under the head or heart of the deceased, to conduct the hun soul to heaven While all theories presented to date are speculative, we can forward one based upon the Warring States text Zhou li (Rites of Zhou), that "bi" are thought to represent symbols of heaven and were used in ancient rituals together with square tubes (cong) symbolizing the earth. "To worship heaven with a bi" explains their importance and use. "Bi" also symbolize status of high social rank and sheds light on why many carved jades have been found in Zhou royal tombs. Among the most common finds in tombs during the Zhou dynasty are bi disks
Army of the First Emperor of Qin in pits next to his burial mound Lintong, China Qin dynasty ca. 210 B.C.E. painted terracotta average figure 5 ft. 10 7/8 in. high. In addition to his work on the Great Wall, the Qin ruler Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China, is remembered in art history for the army of life-sized ceramic and bronze warriors and horses he commissioned for his tomb
What was found in excavations around the tomb mound of Emperor Shi Huangdi at Shaanxi? A vast underground funerary palace filled with more than 6000 life-size painted terracotta figures of soldiers and horses, as well as bronze horses and chariots.
Han ancestral shrines documented the emergence of private, non-aristocratic families as patrons of religious and mythological art.
The Archer Yi? and Reception in a Mansion Jiaxiang, China Han Dynasty ca C.E. rubbing of a stone relief 3 x 5 ft..
Stylistic characteristics of Han reliefs Scenes are separated into horizontal courses each with its own groundline. Slightly twisted perspective, giving a flat appearance with no depth of space. Strong silhouettes with a mix of curvilinear and angular forms.
Funeral Banner from Tomb 1 Mawangdui, China Han Dynasty ca.168 B.C.E. painted silk 6 ft. 8 3/4 in. x 3 ft. 1/4 in. The Silk Road The overland route that brought silk from China to Rome and other fine goods (and ideas, like Buddhism) along the way; a network of caravan tracts across Central Asia linking it to the Mediterranean world. Buddhism was brought to China from India in the first century BCE.
Model of a house Han dynasty first century CE Painted earthenware 4 ft. 4 in. high
Chinese raised-beam construction
Shakyamuni Buddha From Hebei Province Period of Disunity 338 gilded bronze 1 ft. 3 1/2 in. high Three stylistic features, derived from Gandharan prototypes, that occur in the earliest Chinese image of the Buddha The ushnisha and the cross- legged position. The flat, relief-like handling of the robes folds. The dhyana (meditation) mudra, which is actually misrepresented here, with the hands facing the stomach instead of the viewer. Buddhism and Buddhist images became important in China during the Period of Disunity
Gu Kaizhi Lady Feng and the Bear, detail of Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies Period of Disunity late fourth century handscroll, ink and colors on silk entire scroll 9 3/4 in. X 11 ft. 4 1/2 in.
Shakyamuni and Prabhutaratna from Hebei Province Northern Wei dynasty 518 Gilded bronze 10 1/4 in. high The earliest extant precisely datable Chinese Buddhist image is a gilded bronze statuette of Shakyamuni Buddha
Worldly and dignified typifies the Tang court and the art it commissioned.
Drawing of East Main Hall Foguang Si Mount Wutai, China Tang dynasty ca. 857
Vairocana Buddha, disciples, and bodhisattvas Fengxian Temple, Longmen Caves, Luoyang, China Tang dynasty completed 675 Limestone Buddha 44 ft. high. The Vairocana Buddha is massive in size (44 feet tall), but in addition, is carved in the round with a geometric regularity of contour and smoothness of planes to emphasize the volume of the figure, as opposed to the flatter, more relief-like carving of the Zhao Shakyamuni Buddha.
Vairocana Buddha, disciples, and bodhisattvas Fengxian Temple, Longmen Caves, Luoyang, China Tang dynasty completed 675 Limestone Buddha 44 ft. high.
Vairocana Buddha, disciples, and bodhisattvas Fengxian Temple, Longmen Caves, Luoyang, China Tang dynasty completed 675 Limestone Buddha 44 ft. high. Tang dynasty artists and craftspeople taught visitors from Korea and Japan, and some traveled abroad.
Unlike Egyptian and Greek architecture, Chinese architecture had roofs with curving silhouettes and were constructed differently. Builders laid beams between columns, decreasing the length of the beams as the structure rose. The beams supported vertical struts, which supported higher beams and eventually the purlins running the length of the building. The purlins carry the roofs sloping rafters, which could be straight or curved. Materials Wood (with lacquer), marble, and tiled roofs. Colors favored Red, black, yellow, and white. Roof line favored Curved, with overhanging eaves.
Type of perspective was used; Central, with objects that recede into space but do not converge onto one single vanishing point. Paradise of Amitabha Cave 172, Dunhuang, China Tang Dynasty mid 8th century wall painting wall approximately 10 feet high
Each figure exists in an undefined space. Importance is represented by size. The emphasis is on line drawing and flat colored washes, with simple shading to suggest volume. attributed to Yan Liben Emperor Xuan and attendants, detail of The Thirteen Emperors Tang dynasty ca. 650 handscroll, ink and colors on silk detail: 1 ft. 8 1/4 in. x 1 ft. 5 1/2 in. ; entire scroll, 17 ft. 5 in. long The painting The Thirteen Emperors is attributed to Yan Liben
Palace ladies, detail of a wall painting in the tomb of Princess Yongtai Qianxian, China Tang dynasty 706 detail 5 ft. 10 in. high Devices used to give a sense of depth and space to the composition. Paired figures facing into and out of the space of the picture. The figures are grouped in an oval with intervals that suggest a common ground plane.
Horse Tang Dynasty 8th to 9th century C.E. 20 in. high glazed earthenware Types of figurines commonly found in Tang tombs: Chinese people (such as First Emperor of Qins army). Foreigners. Fantastic creatures. Domestic animals.
Neighing Horse Tang Dynasty 8th to 9th century C.E. 20 in. high glazed earthenware
Fan Kuan Travelers Among Mountains and Streams Northern Song Period early 11th century hanging scroll, ink, and colors on silk 6 ft. 7 1/4 in. x 3 ft. 4 1/4 in. Stylistic characteristics Shifting perspective where some objects are represented from a level ground and others from an oblique perspective. Humans are dwarfed by overwhelming nature. Distance is represented with smaller, paler brush markes and unrepresented space (in front of the mountain). Shifting perspective is most characteristic in the paintings of the northern Song artist Fan Kuan.
Fan Kuan Travelers Among Mountains and Streams Northern Song Period early 11th century hanging scroll, ink, and colors on silk 6 ft. 7 1/4 in. x 3 ft. 4 1/4 in. A pioneer of Chinese landscape painting during the Period of Disunity was Fan Kuan The six canons of Chinese painting include responding to things, depicting their forms and dividing and planning, positioning and arranging, but not making objects appear still and persons appear in motion Scholars praised landscape Song dynasty painter Fan Kuan as a master of light, shade, and texture
Attributed to Huizong Auspicious Cranes Northern Song period 1112 section of a handscroll, ink and colors on silk 1 ft. 8 1/8 in. X 4 ft. 6 3/8 in. Calligraphy has been highly valued throughout Chinas history and was required training for court painters. Chinese painting valued care with and variety of brushstrokes for both drawing and shading. When Huizong reorganized the imperial painting academy, he required the study of poetry as part of the official training of court painters.
Meiping vase from Xiuwi, China Northern Song period 12th century stoneware, Cizhou type, with sgraffito decoration 1 ft. 7 1/2 in. high Chinese potters applied slip to earthenware and stoneware vessels by painting, pouring, and dripping on a clay body not yet fully dried.
Meiping vase Northern Song period C.E. Stoneware, Cizhou type with sgraffito decoration
Foguang Si Pagoda Yingxian, China Liao Dynasty 1056 C.E. A pagoda, or tower of winged eaves, was earliest used for housing relics and providing devotion to the Buddha, but later served other functions. The form developed from the tall towers of Indian temples and stupas.
Foguang Si Pagoda Yingxian, China Liao Dynasty 1056 C.E.
Ma Yuan On a Mountain Path in Spring Southern Song period early 13th century album leaf, ink and colors on silk 10 3/4 in. x 17 in. Elements typical of Southern Song landscape painting: Landscape reduced to a few elements that carefully frame a figure. Foreground, middle ground, and background arranged vertically. Abbreviated, expressive calligraphy-inspired ink painting, with a variety of wet and dry brush strokes. The Chinese interest in landscape was most strongly influenced by Daoist nature cults and poetic themes
Liang Kai Sixth Chan Patriarch Chopping Bamboo Southern Song period early 13th century hanging scroll, ink on paper 2 ft. 5 1/4 in. high In Chan thought, the performance of even mundane tasks have the potential to become a spiritual exercise. A scruffy, caricature-like representation suggests that the figure is not burdened by worldly matters such as physical appearance. Quick and seemingly casual painting can be interpreted to mean progress towards enlightenment.
Zhou Jichang Lohans Giving Alms to Beggars Southern Song Period 1178 C.E. hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk 3 ft. 7 7/8 in. x 1 ft. 8 7/8 in.
Shakyamuni Buddha at entrance to cave temple from Sokkuram, Korea Vairocana Buddha, disciples, and bodhisattvas Fengxian Temple, Longmen Caves, Luoyang, China Unlike at Longmen, the interior wall surfaces and sculpture were not cut from the rock in the process of excavation. Instead, workers built the rotunda wall by attaching hundreds of granite pieces by stone rivets. The result is more polished and geometric. A colossal relief in the Longmen complex of caves from the Tang dynasty features a central figure of the Buddha that is 44 feet tall. The sculpted granite pieces at Sokkuram were attached to the walls of the cave using stone rivets
Vairocana Buddha, disciples, and bodhisattvas Fengxian Temple, Longmen Caves, Luoyang, China Seated Buddha preaching first sermon from Sarnath, India 5th century C.E. sandstone The Korean Buddha shares compactness and stylization of features most with the Sarnath Buddha. The pose is elegantly simple, more balanced than the Longmen; the Buddha hardly seems to occupy much space yet it is definitely carved in the round and has a sense of quiet motion and peace that is best seen in Shakyamuni Buddha at entrance to cave temple from Sokkuram, Korea
Crown from tomb 98 Hwangnamdong, Korea Three Kingdoms Period 5-6th century gold 10 3/4 in. high
Shakyamuni Buddha at entrance to cave temple from Sokkuram, Korea Unified Silla Kingdom granite approximately 11 ft. high
Maebyong vase Koryo dynasty ca celadon with inlaid decoration 1 ft. 4 1/2 in. tall Celadon Korean pottery characterized by highly translucent iron-pigmented glazes, fired to produce gray, pale blue, pale green, or brownish olive. Incised or engraved areas created tonal variations. Impressive celadon ceramics were developed during the Koryo dynasty The Koryo potters of Korea produced world famous celadon ware.