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Teacher Beliefs about Parent Involvement, Parent Efficacy, and Child Behavioral Outcomes Laura C. Mullaney, MAKathleen A. Gill-Hraban, MA Susan M. Sheridan,

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher Beliefs about Parent Involvement, Parent Efficacy, and Child Behavioral Outcomes Laura C. Mullaney, MAKathleen A. Gill-Hraban, MA Susan M. Sheridan,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Teacher Beliefs about Parent Involvement, Parent Efficacy, and Child Behavioral Outcomes Laura C. Mullaney, MAKathleen A. Gill-Hraban, MA Susan M. Sheridan, PhDCarrie A. Blevins, MA University of Nebraska – Lincoln The Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families, and Schools (CYFS; http://cyfs.unl.edu)http://cyfs.unl.edu The project is funded by the Institute of Educational Sciences Grant Award Number: R305F050284

2 Parent Involvement “Any of a variety of activities that allow parents to participate in the educational process at home or in school, such as information exchange, decision sharing, volunteer services for schools, home tutoring/teaching, and child advocacy” (Chavkin & Williams, 1995)

3 Parent Involvement Parent involvement has been shown to predict:  Educational outcomes (e.g., improved achievement, lower dropout rates)  Positive behavioral outcomes (e.g., decreased aggression)  Positive social outcomes (e.g., increased positive peer interactions) (Gutman & Midgley, 2000; Izzo et al., 1999; Senechal & LeFevre, 2002; Brody et al,, 1999)

4 Teacher Beliefs about Parent Involvement When teachers make parent involvement a part of their regular teaching practice, parents:  Increase their interactions with their children at home  Feel more positive about their ability to help their children in school  Report the teachers as being better teachers (Epstein & Dauber, 1991)

5 Parent Efficacy A parent’s belief that they are capable of exacting a positive influence on their child’s school outcomes (Hoover-Dempsey et al., 1992) Parents may experience increased efficacy for helping their children learn when teachers offer specific suggestions for involvement (Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brissie, 1992)

6 Teacher Perceptions of Parent Efficacy Teachers who believe that parents are capable of contributing to their children’s educational success are more likely to encourage parent involvement Teachers who invite parents’ involvement tend to report high levels of support from parents, and tend to be perceived by parents as better teachers (Hoover-Dempsey et al, 2002)

7 Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) Structured, indirect model of service delivery Parents and teachers:  Are joined collaboratively to address the needs and concerns of a child with the assistance of a consultant  Work toward establishing shared ownership  Set mutual goals  Make joint decisions, and  Help articulate each other’s roles and responsibilities (Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2008)

8 CBC Specific focus is to support positive child outcomes by:  Strengthening family-school partnerships, and  Promoting parent engagement within a developmental and culturally sensitive context Shown to promote positive academic, socioemotional, and behavioral outcomes for children CBC is one service delivery approach with the goal of strengthening family involvement with children’s academics (Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2008)

9 Research Questions 1. What is the relationship between CBC and child behavioral outcomes? 2. Is the relationship between CBC and child outcomes moderated by a) teacher beliefs about parent involvement or b) teacher perceptions of parent efficacy

10 Child Behavioral Outcomes Teacher Beliefs/Perceptions 1 CBC 2

11 Participants Conducted as part of large scale randomized clinical trial investigating efficacy of CBC 80 Teachers 187 students (K-3 rd grade) and their parents Public and parochial schools in moderately sized Midwest city and surrounding communities

12 Participant Demographics TeacherParentChild Age Mean356.6 SD7.51.14 Gender Male3%11%77% Female97%89%23% Ethnicity White100%86%75% Other0%14%25% Meet 2008 HHS Poverty Criteria26% Education Less than College Degree30%57% College Degree64%36% Advanced Degree6%7%

13 Measures Teacher beliefs and perceptions:  Teacher Beliefs about Parent Involvement (Hoover- Dempsey et al., 2002); 8 items rated on 6-point scale  Teacher Perceptions of Parent Efficacy for Helping Children Succeed in School (Hoover-Dempsey et al., 1992); 7 items rated on 6-point scale  For more information on these scales visit: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Peabody/family- school/index.html http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Peabody/family- school/index.html  Collected along with demographic information at beginning of school year

14 Measures Child Behavior:  Behavior Assessment Scale for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004); Teachers rate the frequency of Externalizing and Adaptive Behaviors; 4-point scale; T-scores (M=50; SD=10)  Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; Gresham & Elliott, 1990): Teachers rate the frequency of the child’s social skills; 3-point scale; Standard Scores (M=100; SD=15)

15 Procedures Students identified by teachers as being disruptive Classrooms randomly assigned to 1) control condition, or 2) CBC condition Students in control condition received traditional school support CBC conducted in small group format

16 Procedures CBC intervention:  Trained graduate students met with teacher and 2 to 3 parents for about 8 weeks  Consisted of 3 phases: Needs Identification and Needs Analysis Intervention Development and Implementation Intervention Evaluation  Behavioral interventions consisted of 3 components: Communication component Motivation component Functional component

17 Data Analyses Hierarchical Linear Modeling  Addressed nested structure of data (children nested within teachers and nested within time)  To test effect of CBC on child behavioral outcomes, slope difference between pre- and post-test was compared by condition  To test moderation, interaction between CBC and teacher beliefs/perceptions was examined

18 Results 1. What is the relationship between CBC and child behavioral outcomes? Significant slope differences between CBC and control groups found for:  Social skills between CBC and control groups (p=.014)  Adaptive skills between CBC and control groups (p=.046) Marginally significant difference for externalizing behaviors between CBC and control groups (p=.061)

19 Results Adaptive SkillsSocial Skills

20 Results Externalizing Behaviors

21 Results: Parent Involvement 2. Is the relationship between CBC and child outcomes moderated by teacher beliefs about parent involvement? Teacher beliefs about parent involvement moderate the relationship between CBC/control and adaptive skills The slope for children who have received CBC is significantly greater when teacher beliefs about the importance of parent involvement are high

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23 Results: Parent Efficacy 2. Is the relationship between CBC and child outcomes moderated by teacher perceptions of parent efficacy? Teacher perceptions of parent efficacy moderate the relationship between CBC/control and adaptive skills The slope for children who have received CBC is significantly greater when teacher perceptions of parent efficacy are high

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25 Discussion CBC results in a significant positive change in children’s social skills and adaptive skills, as well as a marginally significant decrease in children’s externalizing behaviors Supports previous research showing positive outcomes for CBC

26 Discussion Initial teacher beliefs about parent involvement in school seem to positively influence the relationship between CBC and change in children’s adaptive skills  Children show the greatest improvement in their adaptive skills when their teachers begin CBC with the belief that parent involvement in education is important  The effect of CBC was bolstered when teacher beliefs were high

27 Discussion Initial teacher perceptions of parental efficacy for helping their child in school also seems to positively influence the relationship between CBC and children’s adaptive skills  Children show the greatest improvement in their adaptive skills when their teachers begin CBC with strong perceptions that parents are able to help their child succeed in school  The effect of CBC was bolstered when teacher perceptions were high

28 Implications These results suggest the importance of continuing to educate teachers not only on the importance of getting parents involved in their children’s education, but also educating teachers on the notion that parents are in fact able to help their children do well in school Such results also highlight the importance of using a strength-based approach to problem solving by identifying the strengths of the parent and the teacher, in addition to strengths of the child

29 Limitations Select sample – teachers willing to be involved in CBC likely do so because they already believe parents involvement is important Teachers’ beliefs and perceptions are self-reported Social desirability may have influenced teacher responses to parent involvement/parent efficacy items Both the parent involvement and the parent efficacy measures are global measures –they are not specific to what is being tapped by CBC

30 Future Research Future research should examine how teachers’ beliefs and perceptions influence their invitations for parent involvement Research is needed that examines the effect of interventions that are designed to significantly alter teachers’ beliefs and perceptions about parent involvement and parent efficacy

31 Contact Information Susan M. Sheridan: ssheridan2@unl.edussheridan2@unl.edu Laura Mullaney: lauramullaney@yahoo.comlauramullaney@yahoo.com Katie Gill-Hraban: katiegill33@hotmail.comkatiegill33@hotmail.com

32 References Brody, G. H., Flor, D. L. & Gibson, N. M. (1999). Linking maternal efficacy beliefs, developmental goals, parenting practices, and child competence in rural single-parent African American families. Child Development, 70, 1197-1208. Chavkin, N. F. & Williams, D. L. (1989) Low-income parents' attitudes toward parent involvement in education. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 16, 17-28. Comer, J. P. & Haynes, N. M. (1991) Parent involvement in schools: An ecological approach. The Elementary School Journal, 91, 271-277. Epstein, J. L., & Dauber, S. L. (1991). School programs and teacher practices of parent involvement in inner-city elementary and middle schools. The Elementary School Journal, 91, 289-305. Gutman, L. M., & Midgley, C. (2000). The role of protective factors in supporting the academic achievement of poor African American students during the middle school transition. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 223-248. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C., & Brissie, J. S. (1992). Explorations in parent-school relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85(5), 287-294.

33 References Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. (1995). Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference? Teachers College Record, 97(2), 310-331. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M. T., Jones, K. P., & Reed, R. P. (2002). Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An in-service teacher education program for enhancing parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 1-25. Izzo, C. V., Weissberg, R. P., Kasprow, W., J., & Fendrich, M. (1999). A longitudinal assessment of teacher perceptions of parent involvement in children's education and school performance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 817-839. Sénéchal, M. & LeFevre, J. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: A five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 73, 445-460. Sheridan, S. M., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2008). Conjoint behavioral consultation: Promoting family-school connections and interventions. New York: Springer.


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