Presentation on theme: "This Study is For You This is a study-ready-program. You are welcome to do your own study, but we feel that we have helped you and we have done the studying."— Presentation transcript:
This Study is For You This is a study-ready-program. You are welcome to do your own study, but we feel that we have helped you and we have done the studying for you, knowing Leagues limited person power. We think that you will find that this presentation and the consensus questions are sufficient information for your study. We have provided some resources at the end for additional information, but it is our feeling that most Leagues will not need to do further research.
Scope of Study This study is broken down into three areas: 1.Prevention 2.Prosecution 3.Protection
President Obama Speaks In September 2012, a few days after the 150 th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, President Obama devoted an entire speech to the issue of human trafficking – or – modern day slavery. What follows are excerpts of his speech.
What the President Said W hen a man, desperate for work, finds himself in a factory or on a fishing boat or in a field, working, toiling, for little or no pay, and beaten if he tries to escapethat is slavery. When a woman is locked in a sweatshop, or trapped in a home as a domestic servant, alone and abused and incapable of leavingthats slavery. When a little boy is kidnapped, turned into a child soldier, forced to kill or be killedthats slavery.
The President : Father of Two Daughters Picture by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department. When a little girl is sold by her impoverished family girls my daughters age runs away from home, or is lured by the false promises of a better life, and then imprisoned in a brothel and tortured if she resiststhats slavery.
Human Trafficking Definition Trafficking in persons and human trafficking have been used as umbrella terms for the act of: recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or commercial sex acts through the use of force, fraud, or coercion.
Human Trafficking Definition (cont'd) It includes: compelled service using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. Human trafficking can include but does not require movement. People may be considered trafficking victims regardless of whether they were born into a state of servitude, were transported to the exploitative situation, previously consented to work for a trafficker, or participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked.
Human Trafficking Definition (cont'd) At the heart of this phenomenon is the traffickers goal of exploiting and enslaving their victims and the myriad coercive and deceptive practices they use to do so. Picture by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department
Human Trafficking Definition (cont'd) Common Methods of Control include: Restriction of movement Confiscating passports, visas, and/or identification Constantly accompanying the victim Insisting on answering questions on behalf of the victim, and/or translating all conversations Isolating the victim by not disclosing his or her location or address Requiring the victim to live and work in the same location Harmful living conditions
Human Trafficking Definition (cont'd) Restricting access to food and appropriate clothing Forbidding access to appropriate medical care Not allowing time off or sufficient time to sleep Harmful working conditions In exchange for work opportunity, charging a large fee that is difficult or impossible to pay off Requiring unusually long work hours with few or no breaks Restricting the number of days off Providing little to no pay or irregular pay
Selling Stolen Babies One other area, which is also human trafficking, but does not fit neatly into the previous definitions, is baby selling of stolen babies. This involves kidnapping or in other ways obtaining babies that are wanted by their birth families, but passing them off as orphans. Selling them to desperate would-be parents for huge profits, these would-be parents do not know that the babies have been stolen and they think they are saving the baby from a life in an orphanage or on the street.
Myths & Facts
From FBI Website*
From the FBI Website*
From FBI Website* *http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/january/trafficking_012012/trafficking_012012
Breaking News July 29, 2013 The FBI announced that a nationwide operation over the weekend resulted in 150 arrests, with 105 children rescued. The ages of children rescued ranged from 13 to 17. It targeted race tracks and truck stops, and the use of social media sites for child prostitution activity. Overall, the three-day undercover roundup operation took place in 76 cities and involved 230 law enforcement units. The FBI Said: "This operation serves as a reminder that these abhorrent crimes can happen anywhere and that the FBI remains committed to stopping this cycle of victimization and holding the criminals who profit from this exploitation accountable." This was the 7 th operation in the FBI's Innocence Lost National Initiative.
By the Numbers
Gathering the Numbers Unfortunately, the only statistics are of cases investigated, which are most likely a slight number in relation to the actual incidents of human trafficking. Actual statistics are often unavailable, and some may be contradictory due to the covert nature of the crime, the invisibility of victims and high levels of under-reporting. Further obstacles include inconsistent definitions, reluctance to share data, and a lack of funding for and standardization of data collection. Particularly lacking are estimates on the number of American citizens trafficked within the U.S.
Reported Incidents The U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, provided the following figures for April 2011.
United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics Federally funded task forces opened 2,515 suspected incidents of human trafficking for investigation between January 2008 and June About 8 in 10 of the suspected incidents of human trafficking were classified as sex trafficking. About 1 in 10 incidents were classified as labor trafficking.
United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics Federal agencies were more likely to lead labor trafficking investigations (29%) than sex trafficking investigations (7%). More than half (62%) of the confirmed labor trafficking victims were age 25 or older, compared to 13% of confirmed sex trafficking victims. Four-fifths of victims in confirmed sex trafficking incidents were identified as U.S. citizens (83%), while most confirmed labor trafficking victims were identified as undocumented aliens (67%) or qualified aliens (28%).
Trafficking.org Statistics Minor victims were sold an average of times a day, 6 days a week. 1 out of 5 pornographic images is of a child. The sale of child pornography has become a $3 billion dollar industry. Over 100,000 websites offer child pornography. 55% of internet child pornography comes from the United States.
How Many People Are Actually Trafficked? The United States Department of State 2012 and 2013 Report on Trafficking in Person (TIP) states: It is estimated that as many as 27 million men, women, and children around the world are victims of what is now often described with the umbrella term human trafficking at any given time. The work that remains in combating this crime is the work of fulfilling the promise of freedomfreedom from slavery, for those exploited, and the freedom for survivors to carry on with their lives.
Gender Estimates According to the UN Office of Drugs and Crime: Women account for percent of all trafficking victims detected globally; women and girls together account for about 75 per cent. Twenty-seven percent of all victims detected globally are children. Of every three child victims, two are girls and one is a boy.
Estimates, not Statistics for the United States The Congressional Research Service estimates that as many as 17,500 people are believed to be trafficked into the United States each year, and some have estimated that 100,000 U.S. citizen children are victims of trafficking within the United States.
Incidence in the United States The following is a list of available statistics estimating the scope of Human Trafficking within the United States from Trafficking.org. Trafficking.org Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States: There are 100,000 to 300,000 underage girls being sold for sex in America. The average age of entry into prostitution is years old. 50,000 women and children are trafficked into the United States each year. 1 out of every 3 teens on the street will be lured toward prostitution within 48 hours of running away from home.
Incidence in the United States (cont'd) A good resource to see is this website, which is constantly updated: When you view it, scroll to US, and magnify map. Be sure to click on legend to see what the flashing symbols mean.
Polaris Project* Statistical Snapshots Sex trafficking exists within the broader commercial sex trade, often at much larger rates than most people realize or understand. * There are several references to Polaris Project in this presentation because they are the major organization in the United States involved in rescuing and helping victims.
Polaris Project Sex trafficking has been found in a wide variety of venues of the overall sex industry, including residential brothels, hostess clubs, online escort services, fake massage businesses, strip clubs, and street prostitution. The next several slides provide statistical snapshots from PolarisProject.org for each of the sex trafficking venues.
Fake Massage Businesses "Johns" who frequent fake massage businesses make it a "hobby" to buy sex and to track all such brothels nationwide. There are more than 5,000 brothels disguised as massage businesses nationwide. Standard pricing structure: Johns pay a house fee of $60 - $90 per half hour/hour plus they occasionally pay tips; the women are pressured to please the customer. Standard day for a woman in a fake massage business: 10am – 2 or 3am, 7 days a week. Estimated average number of men a woman must have sex with daily:
Internet-Based When the U.S. Craigslist Adult Services Section was available, there were 10-16,000 adult services postings/day in the U.S. alone. This was estimated at 40 percent of the total online sex ads in the U.S. each day at the time. Law enforcement across the U.S. have identified online sex ads as the number one platform for the buying and selling of sex with children and young women. An FBI investigation found that more than 2,800 ads of prostituted children were posted on Craigslist in 2008 alone.
Residential Brothels Standard price for 15 minutes of sex at a Residential Brothel: $30 Standard day for a woman or child at a Residential Brothel: 10am-10pm, 12 hours a day; 7 days a week Estimated number of men a woman or child must have sex with daily: 25 – 48 men daily
Street Prostitution Estimated number of men victims must have sex with daily: 1 – 15 Standard quota per night: $500 to $1,000 or more per night Minors as young as 12 years old are recruited into prostitution in the United States
Hostess & Strip Clubs In the 2008 study Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution, conducted by the Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation, 46% of the 113 interviewees had bought sex at strip clubs and 49% of interviewees believed that there were girls under 18 years of age working at strip clubs.
Escort Services While statistics on the scope of sex trafficking in escort services are not available, a 2008 study provides insight into the dynamics of the network. Of the women and girls interviewed, 41% of the women and girls were escorts, and 28% started as escorts when first recruited into commercial sex. Ninety-three percent had pimps when they were first recruited. Of the 41% who were escorts, 67% had experienced violence by their pimps and 59% said that they had been coerced.
Truck Stops The availability of statistics is limited due to the crimes hidden nature and limited awareness by law enforcement and social service providers. Victims of pimp-controlled sex trafficking are commonly forced to meet quotas of $500 to $1,000 a night. Victims working a truck stop typically earn $5 - $100 per sex act. All earnings are confiscated by the pimp. See this website:
Picture by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department. A Typical Victim
Polaris Project Labor Trafficking in the United States In the United States, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) defines labor trafficking as: The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery. Common types of labor trafficking include people forced to work in homes as domestic servants, farm workers coerced through violence as they harvest crops, or factory workers held in inhumane conditions with little to no pay. In the United States, these forms of forced labor are more prevalent than many people realize. The next few slides provide statistical snapshots from PolarisProject.org for each of the labor trafficking types.
Agriculture & Farms Since the passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, numerous cases of slavery have emerged in agriculture. In the state of Florida alone, the Department of Justice has prosecuted 7 labor trafficking cases, assisting over 1,000 victims. Most recently, on September 2, 2010, the Department of Justice issued an indictment alleging that Global Horizons, a labor recruiting company, recruited over 400 Thai workers and forced them to work in agriculture in at least 13 states by ensuring the workers accrued a substantial debt, confiscating their passports and visas, and deporting workers that didnt cooperate with the companys demands.
Domestic Workers Victims of domestic servitude in the U.S. are most often foreign national women with or without documentation living in the home of their employer. Men and boys may also be victims, but these cases are less common.
Restaurants & Food Service Cases of human trafficking in restaurants have been investigated in multiple states, including FL, TX, MA, NY, WI and MN and the prevalence of labor trafficking in restaurants has been commonly cited by human trafficking investigators and service providers as an area of concern.
Factories/Manufacturing Labor trafficking in manufacturing occurs in the garment industry and in food processing plants in the United States. Victims, both men and women, have been forced to work hour days, 6-7 days per week with little or no break time. People may be trafficked into garment industry jobs such as sewing, assembling, pressing, or packing apparel. Others may be forced to work in food processing operations that include slaughtering, preserving, canning and packing goods for distribution.
Factories/Manufacturing An Example* Several workers paid large fees to labor recruiters who brought them to the U.S. with falsified documents. When the workers arrived in the U.S., they had to work at a canning plant in a small, rural town in Kansas to pay their enormous debt. The recruiters required that the workers live in overcrowded conditions in housing that they provided. Because of its isolated location, the workers had to rely on the recruiters for food and basic supplies. The recruiters took the majority of the workers pay checks, claiming that the money went to their debt, housing, and food. *Based on calls received by the National Human Trafficking Resource Center. Identifying details have been changed to protect confidentiality.
Peddling & Begging Rings Peddling and begging rings are estimated to cumulatively earn $50 million annually. Victims may take in as much as $100 per day, but are allotted barely enough to cover meals, usually $8 to $15 per day. They typically dont have enough money to buy a bus ticket home.
Hospitality Industry Over 1.5 million people in the U.S. work in the accommodation industry. The extent of trafficking within the industry is unknown.
This part of the study addresses: Human Trafficking Education in Schools – K-12 Curriculum – Higher Education Courses/Certificate Programs Community Awareness and Education
Education in the Schools A first step in addressing human trafficking in schools is to educate boys to respect girls, and for all children to respect each other. School age children need to be taught to be aware of the dangers of traffickers and how to protect themselves from traffickers tactics.
Education It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men. -Frederick Douglass Picture National Archives and Records Administration Education empowers young people to raise awareness and find ways to combat human trafficking in their community.
Student Efforts Project Stay Gold is a student abolitionist movement at Jefferson Township Middle and High Schools in NJ. It started in 2010 when a student asked how she and her friends could "do something" about human trafficking as they were learning about the Triangle Trade, slavery, and the Civil War with its connection to today. Teachers then created a PowerPoint presentation that the students studied and then changed into their own curriculum, teaching it to the sixth and seventh graders. The following year, they created videos to teach about human trafficking and had a launch party to showcase their work to their peers, with the hope of inspiring others to become student abolitionists.
Student Efforts They have created a curriculum which they teach to their peers, encouraging fellow students to become abolitionists, and inspiring curriculum development in other schools. This group of modern day abolitionists has given presentations to schools, libraries, and statehouse rallies and forged partnerships with groups like Project Polaris, Attorney General Jeffrey Chiesa (now temporary US Senator) and the Department of Homeland Security.
Student Efforts They have created a website, are selling t-shirts, and other items, donating the proceeds to non-profit organizations. They are using art as a medium for spreading awareness by engaging in song writing, photography projects, and creating videos to inform people of trafficking issues. Picture from Homeland Security websiteBracelet By Project Stay Gold Picture by Doris
Student Efforts The Project Stay Gold website has information on the many activities the students have created including videos, their Art for Abolition program, and facts about modern day slavery. Eighth graders present to sixth and seventh graders and the school guidance counselor speaks to eighth graders about personal safety and the warning signs of trafficking.
Student Abolitionists Share 5 Things To Do 1.Raise Awareness through social media by posting pictures and stories. 2.Make posters using appalling, surprising and impacting images. 3.Create an abolitionist club to help spread the word. 4.Educate yourself and tell your peers what you learned. 5.Support the Abolitionist movement by donating proceeds from fund-raisers to organizations that are fighting to end human trafficking.
More Education The US Fund for UNICEF (they sell the cards to raise money for UNICEF) has curricula on human trafficking on a website: trafficking trafficking One curriculum is for grades 6 - 8, and one is for grades 9-12.
Human Trafficking Education Program in NYC Public Schools The Frederick Douglass Family Initiatives, in association with the New York City Mayors Office and the NYC Department of Education, is leading an innovative Human Trafficking Education program in NYC Public Schools beginning in The mission and the method of the program are to Stop Human Trafficking in Our Communities By Educating Students and Empowering them to Take Action!
Higher Education Efforts A LWVNJ member and a director at the College of Saint Elizabeth, successfully proposed an undergraduate service-learning course that will focus on human trafficking for fall Along with course work in ethics, students will engage in 20 hours of community service. To meet their community service requirement, most students will engage in educating their peers and younger students about human trafficking. If students have a background in finance (e.g., an adult returning to complete a Bachelors) or if students are bilingual, they may elect to work directly with a survivor.
Higher Education Efforts A Professor at Drexel University is creating a new certificate program in human trafficking to improve awareness and teach professionals in the health sciences and other fields how to offer support when they suspect someone is being trafficked. She currently teaches a course on human trafficking that trains students to work with victims.
Community Awareness Many Americans have little - if any - awareness of human trafficking. Even those that have heard of human trafficking, are uninformed. Some believe that incidents of trafficking might occur somewhere else in the world-- probably in some distant foreign country - not where they live or work. Not in the USA.
Community Awareness (contd) The belief is often held that women from poor foreign countries choose to come to this country and work as prostitutes or in low paying jobs because it is better than the life they left behind. The truth is that they are tricked into a slave trade. Men, women, and children are then exploited for both sex and labor. It most definitely exists in our neighborhoods and workplace, and might even involve our own children.
Community Awareness (contd) Many are horrified when they learn that people with whom they interact every day – a maid, a manicurist, a landscaper, a restaurant worker - may in fact be held against their will, exploited and abused. More people are enslaved today than ever were in the transatlantic slave trade of the past.
Community Awareness (contd) Factors that keep the community-at-large from recognizing human trafficking in their communities and prevent them from taking action: Lack of awareness of the forms of human trafficking Lack of awareness of the signs that human trafficking is taking place in their community
Community Awareness (contd) Many community businesses that have trafficked individuals working for them operate under the radar of concerned citizens, because they are not a public nuisance. Some patrons who visit a neighborhood business where trafficked individuals are working, may get a gut feeling that something is wrong or off, but fear keeps them from taking action.
Prosecution & Protection Laws
This part of the study focuses on existing anti- trafficking laws which deal with the prosecution of offenders as well as victim protection and services: United States Law New Jersey Law International Law
United States Law The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) is a federal statute passed into law in 2000 and renewed in 2003, 2006, 2008, and It created the first comprehensive federal law to address human trafficking, with a significant focus on the international dimension of the problem.
United States Law The law provides a three-pronged approach: Prevention through public awareness programs overseas with a State Department- led monitoring and sanctions program; Protection through a new T-Visa and services for foreign national victims, and Prosecution through new federal crimes laws.
Pending US Legislation A new law is being considered in the US Congress (H.R. 1732) Strengthening the Child Welfare Response to Trafficking Act. Some minors who are sex trafficking victims have had contact, often multiple times, with a child welfare system not always prepared to help them. This bill would provide for the use of existing resources to better serve and protect these vulnerable youth.
Pending US Legislation (contd) According to Polaris Project: A 2007 study conducted in New York State shows that more than 85% of identified commercially sexually exploited children in New York State had prior child welfare involvement. This legislation is low-cost because it focuses on the utilization of existing resources and reporting frameworks. The information identified by this reporting requirement will help child welfare officials better meet their child protection goals by encouraging better identification of trafficked children, and greater understanding of their specialized support and services needs. This bill was introduced with bipartisan support including co-sponsorship by the late NJ Congressman Donald Payne.
The States Today, all 50 states have human trafficking laws. But the laws vary greatly in definition and areas covered. The implementation of these laws is dismal, judging by the few cases brought to the justice system in proportion to the extent of the crimes.
Safe Harbor Laws Bradley Myles, CEO, Polaris Project, emphasizes that: It is still possible for child victims of sex trafficking to be arrested and prosecuted for prostitution in dozens of states. He urges more states to pass Safe Harbor laws that provide support for these young victims of exploitation and abuse.
The States – New Hope On July 11, 2013, the Uniform Law Commission, a body that drafts legislation to be a model for the laws of all states, drafted the Uniform Act on the Prevention of and Remedies for Human Trafficking (UAPRHT). This will be voted on by the American Bar Association in August This has the potential to go a long way toward providing uniformity in all states for laws on Human Trafficking.
New Jersey Law Human Trafficking Prevention, Protection, and Treatment Act May 2013
New Jersey Law The important provisions of this legislation are: Unjust convictions can be removed from a survivors (victims) record. Victims will be able to testify against traffickers via closed circuit TV, so that she will not be further traumatized by in person confrontation. Survivors of labor trafficking whose abuse left him with years of medical bills can sue his trafficker for cost.
New Jersey Law (contd) The National Hotline number ( a product of Polaris Project, an organization that works with victims) will be posted where victims are most likely to see it – a billboard campaign is underway on major NJ highways or text BeFree (233733). (It is a national, toll-free hotline, available to answer calls and texts from anywhere in the country, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year.)
New Jersey Law (contd) The law will also create a 15 member Human Trafficking Commission in the Department of Law and Public Safety, criminalize additional activities, and increase penalties. It will increase protection to victims from a Human Trafficking Survivors Assistance Fund.
New Jersey Law (contd) It would also provide for increased training and public awareness. It would establish the Prostitution Offender Program, a Johns School, as well as mandating a fine, some of which would go into the Human Trafficking Survivors Assistance Fund.
Judge Blocks Part of New Jersey Law On June 28, 2013, a federal judge temporarily blocked part of the new law after two internet companies brought lawsuits. The companies: Backpage.com and The Internet Archive, claimed that the law would make online service providers criminally liable for content supplied by third parties. Many New Jersey organizations signed an amicus brief to show support. LWV NJ was not able to do so.
On August 9, 2013, oral arguments were heard in the Backpage.com and Internet Archive case. The federal judge blocked enforcement of part of the newly passed New Jersey law which was created to combat all forms of human trafficking, including child sex trafficking. The judge cited that a section of the law holding online service providers criminally liable for content on their services conflicts with federal law. Judge Blocks Part of New Jersey Law (contd)
Assemblywoman Valerie Vainieri-Huttle, D- Englewood, a key sponsor of the NJ anti- trafficking law, said, The state plans to appeal the decision. She noted, This is a process, and while we wait for it to take its course, at the appropriate time we may want to look at revising the language, so we could still be able to hold a website owner accountable. If all else fails, we will look into revising it to make sure it is constitutional. Englewood Judge Blocks Part of New Jersey Law (contd)
Other New Jersey Laws Related to Human Trafficking Current Criminal Statutes: 2C:13-8 Human Trafficking 2C:41-1(a)(1)(z) Racketeering - Definitions 44:10-44 Definitions relative to welfare reform, eligibility 52:4B-44 Standards for law enforcement agencies to ensure rights of crime victims 2C:64-1 Property subject to forfeiture C.2A:4A-21 Purposes C.2A:4A-22 General definitions C.2A:4A-42 Predispositional evaluation C.2A:4A-71 Review and processing of complaints
Other New Jersey Laws (contd) C.2A:4A-74 Court intake service conference 2C:34-1. Prostitution and Related Offenses C.52:4B-44.1 Establishment of standard protocols for provision of information and services to victims of human trafficking, minors charged with prostitution 52:4B-11 Causes of personal injury or death Human trafficking; benefits and services for human trafficking victims
What is Needed in New Jersey The following suggestions were made by the office of a NJ legislator for further efforts: 1. Make sure legislative recommendations are made to the Governor for the new Human Trafficking Commission. 2. Ensure enactment and enforcement of the new law. 3. Legislators should make sure their constituencies know about the new law. There are enforcement incentives in this bill specifically for that reason. 4. Focus on Super Bowl 2014 which will be in NJ and ensure that resources are made available to the Attorney Generals office. (The Super Bowl is expected to bring many more traffic victims here.) Legislators should join efforts to raise awareness about the Super Bowl in their district.
Human Trafficking Liaison Essex County Prosecutors Office As part of our study, we reached out to Gigi Scoles, Human Trafficking Liaison with the Essex County, New Jersey Prosecutor's Office. Here is her feedback with regard to our questions:
Question 1- What are the challenges you face as state prosecutors? Cases that involve human trafficking crimes are often complex and long-lasting investigations, and are different from more common criminal cases We require a lot of manpower and resources for conducting a thorough investigation It becomes high-crime cases vs. low manpower resources Human Trafficking Liaison Essex County Prosecutors Office (contd)
Getting initial tips to investigate such cases is more complicated, timely, and difficult It is a different framework than getting tips for other types of criminal cases Victims don't generally identify as victims Victims are reluctant to work with prosecutors especially if they were trafficked from abroad Victims are afraid of retaliation back home Victims are afraid of having a criminal record Victims are distrustful of law enforcement officials Human Trafficking Liaison Essex County Prosecutors Office (contd)
State Prosecutor Offices are not accustomed to collaborating with victim services providers and NGOs. These types of partnerships take a while to build, and there is an effort to improve this, but again, because of the nature of these cases, it is a process. Human Trafficking Liaison Essex County Prosecutors Office (contd)
There is a lack of a sufficient network of victim services out there - there are not a lot of shelters that will take in victims of human trafficking. A real concern at domestic violence shelters is the wrath of an angry pimp. What is needed is a plan for adequate services for victims, like setting up shelters that can assist and be available for trafficking victims, without the worry of retaliation. Human Trafficking Liaison Essex County Prosecutors Office (contd)
Question 2- How can organizations like the LWV help law enforcement officials? Training and educating the general public. If more people become aware of their basic rights, then victims out there can learn about their rights and seek help and protection. If more people become aware of the signs of trafficking, then more people can report suspicious activity or send in tips. Human Trafficking Liaison Essex County Prosecutors Office (contd)
Assist with the development of a plan for adequate services for victims, to avoid re- victimization; for example, address the issues that made victims fall into trafficking. These issues include: Job training Financial services/help Family support system Dysfunctional family life/upbringing Human Trafficking Liaison Essex County Prosecutors Office (contd)
Existing Law - International The Palermo Protocol is a protocol to the Convention* against Transnational Organized Crime – to date it has been ratified by 154 Nations. (Ratified by the US Nov 3, 2005.) The International Labor Organization Convention* Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor. (Ratified by the US Dec 2, 1999.) *Convention means Treaty.
Swedens Example Swedish law makes it illegal to buy prostitution services, but not illegal to sell services. This law was designed to prevent human trafficking for sex. The buyer (John) is subject to a jail term and to a fine. In addition, he may have to pay damages to the victim. The reviews are somewhat mixed, but in general, it is said that trafficking has decreased greatly.
Swedish Official Evaluation of the Swedish Law The evaluation found the following: 1.Prostitution on the street halved. 2.The percentage of foreign women involved in prostitution increased. 3.Internet prostitution increased over the past 5 years, but no more than in Denmark & Norway (Nordic benchmarks) and internet use as a recruiting tool to attract the young and vulnerable increased.
Swedish Law (contd) 4. Criminalization led to: a.decline in prostitution b.reduction in demand c.a barrier to trafficking d.changed social attitudes (70% favored the ban) 5.The effect of more family and acquaintances knowing - deterred potential buyers (NAME & SHAME.)
International Promises The promise of freedom is not unique to the United States, but has become an international promise through Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Polaris Project The National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline, operated by Polaris Project and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services...has responded to nearly 21,000 calls in 2012, connected more than 2,300 survivors to services and support, and received credible tips of human trafficking in every state and the District of Columbia. In 2013, we are already seeing a 45% increase in call volume compared to 2012, along with increases in s, web forms, and now text messages. This growth reinforces to us that the hotline is a highly effective way to identify and reach victims of human trafficking in the U.S. and connect them to the services they need to free themselves and rebuild their lives. -Bradley Myles, CEO, Polaris Project
Sex Trafficking Awareness Poster Lured by Fairy Tale Promises, She Learned Not Every Prince is Charming.
United States Strategic Action Plan On April 9, 2013, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius wrote in part: Now, for the first time in more than a decade, the federal government has created a coordinated Strategic Action Plan to strengthen services to victims of human trafficking in the United States. Together with the Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security, we are co- chairing this process and working with partner agencies of the Presidents Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons.
Strategic Action Plan (contd) We released the proposed Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States this morning to the public for comment... Human trafficking is wrong. It is illegal. Join us in the fight for dignity for some of the most vulnerable among us.
Federal Strategic Action Plan Bradley Myles, CEO, Polaris Project, issued the following: We strongly support the recommendations offered for the U.S., and agree that increasing funding for services for all victims of human trafficking -- including U.S. citizens, foreign nationals, men, women and children -- should be a top priority. The U.S. governments first-ever federal strategic action plan to strengthen services for trafficking victims is an important milestone, and we strongly support an increase in funding to accelerate the governments ability to implement this plan.
Rehabilitation Polaris Project has created a short video of their rehabilitation efforts. We recommend viewing it, if time permits. 8QtVSpBMQ&feature=youtube
The Opposite Point of View One woman, Laura Agustin claims on her website: Millions of people around the world make a living selling sex, for many different reasons. What are they expected to do? This would take away their livelihoods. Selling sex may be their preference. Media outlets such as Backpage.com, and the classified ad section of numerous print and online publications, make their money selling sex ads. Their business would not be as profitable if they did not sell ads. Traffickers make millions of dollars selling sex or labor and they dont want to be deprived of their income. Some may feel that these efforts might be too costly.
…no one should sit idly by while millions of abused and exploited women, men and children have lost their freedom. –Bradley Myles, CEO, Polaris Project
References NJ Video: Acting Attorney General John J. Hoffman announced arrests of a Lakewood man and four male associates on charges of human trafficking. They were allegedly operating brothels in Lakewood that were part of a network of brothels in New Jersey, New York and elsewhere: embed.nj.com/services/player/bcpid ?bclid=0&bc tid= embed.nj.com/services/player/bcpid ?bclid=0&bc tid=
References US Victims Of Trafficking And Violence Protection Act Of Tip Report Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress by Congressional Research Service
References US (contd) US Department of Health and Human Services government-efforts-to-combat-human-trafficking US Congressional Research service report The American Bar Associations information 13/winter/the_state_of_state_humantrafficking_laws.html 13/winter/the_state_of_state_humantrafficking_laws.html
References US (contd) Bureau of Justice Statistics FBI /trafficking_ /trafficking_ Poster Fairy Tale campaign/BC_8.5x11_Poster_Fairy_tale.pdf campaign/BC_8.5x11_Poster_Fairy_tale.pdf Pending Bill HR
References International Law The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Known as the Palermo Protocols Information: _no=XVIII-12-a&chapter=18&lang=en _no=XVIII-12-a&chapter=18&lang=en The Treaty: ProtocolTraffickingInPersons.aspx ProtocolTraffickingInPersons.aspx
References International Law (contd) ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labor 2100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C182
International References - Other UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) trafficking/index.html?ref=menuside Download UNODC's anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling Tools and Publications trafficking/publications.html trafficking/publications.html UNICEF UNICEF Sex Trafficking Links ficking&type=Main ficking&type=Main
Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) and Others Polaris Project Polaris Project Video Q&feature=youtube End Child Prostitution and Trafficking (ECPAT) Trafficking.org
Truckers Against Trafficking A good resource, but not exhaustive, is the following website, which is constantly updated. When you look at it, scroll to US, and magnify map, for US information. Be sure to click on legend to see what the flashing symbols mean.
Education Project Stay Gold College of Saint Elizabeth Drexel University increase-human-trafficking-awareness/
Thank You This study was conducted by Elizabeth Santeramo and Doris Schapira, with assistance on specific research items from Norma Blake, Loretta Lynch, Joy Scally, and Rhea Tabakin. We also reached out to and/or interviewed the following: Polaris Project NJ staff, Gigi Scoles - Essex County Prosecutors Office, Project Stay Gold students and faculty, Louise Murray, LWVNJ member and director at the College of St. Elizabeth and others. A special thanks to LWVNJ Advocacy Committee members and Betsy Lawson, LWVUS Lobbyist.