Presentation on theme: "PASTURE REHABILITATION ON ARID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS Prof. Dr. Binali ÇOMAKLI."— Presentation transcript:
PASTURE REHABILITATION ON ARID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS Prof. Dr. Binali ÇOMAKLI
Approximately 20% of the worlds total land surface is covered with pasture. Including other grazing areas, it is 70% of the total area. In Turkey, approximately 25% of the total area is pasture. Both in Turkey and in the world, the important amount of pasture is gathered in arid and semi-arid climatic zones. In fact, in Turkey over 70% of the pasture is in arid and semi-arid areas. Due to various reasons, corresponding with moist areas, degraded pasture rehabilitation in arid and semi-arid areas is more difficult and taking a longer time. For this reason, maximum importance should be given on the destruction of pasture vegetation in arid and semi-arid areas and these areas should be used in accordance with the principles of pasture management.
Rangeland-Pasture and Field Concepts Rangeland: flat or nearly flat land where the base of the water is high and private property on which thick, tall, suitable to harvest plants occur. Pasture: generally deep water base areas on which short, sparse, recumbent or semi-recumbent formed rugged area plants occurred and animals grazed, are considered state property and used by the local people. Field: Flat or nearly flat (15% maximal slope) areas where soil tillage farming and plant cultivation is possible and water base is deep enough.
Pasture and Rangelands Status in Turkey In 1950s there was 46.5 million hectares of pasture and rangeland in our country, this figure has dropped today, 21.7 million hectares. Pastures weakened both in size and approximately 70% of its vegetation as a result of improper use. Approximately 42% of pastures is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. In fact, 61% of the total area in Eastern Anatolia region is covered with rangeland and pastures, in Erzurum this rate is 66%. Therefore, with its livestock depended agriculture based economy, rangeland and pasture have a vital importance in our region.
Rangeland-pastures importance of agricultural and ecological balance are as follows: 1.In our country, approximately 30% of the total area is covered with rangeland-pastures that are also have an important amount of plant resources which are the other key factor for other living things. 2. The most economical source of feed for the animals. In fact, in our country, 86.2% of high- quality forage is provided from rangeland- pastures. Besides, the most economical animal model at no cost is livestock grazing. 3.Rangeland-pastures are important in preventing erosion. Indeed, an important part of our countrys eroded areas are pastures.
4. Lengthen the life of facilities such as dams and ponds. 5. 87% of rangeland-pastures consists of V- VII class lands, for this reason evaluation of these areas is not possible. 6. Reduce the greenhouse effect by balancing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. 7. Rangeland-pastures meet the part of the need for firewood in rural areas. 8. Rangeland-pastures are gene centers. 9. In terms of livestock feed, they have an economic value.
Rangeland and Pasture Rehabilitation Due to various reasons (excessive and early grazing, fire, extreme cold and drought, etc.) to increase the potential vegetation of degraded rangeland and pasture productivity and providing a better benefit from produced animal feed, achieving more economical animal production practices is called rangeland- pasture rehabilitation.
Accordance with the law of 4342, rehabilitation of pastures are carried by relevant departments of the ministry of agriculture (agriculture provincial and district offices). Firstly in these studies, the condition of pasture is identified with surveys and investigations, afterwards, the presence of livestock in the village, feed resources are researched then projects are prepared. Indeed, on the one hand while trying to fix the vegetation, on the other hand cultivation of fodder crops is encouraged (50% of the crop seed is covered from the project).
Pastures In Good and Very Good Condition Use in accordance with the principles of management Use in accordance with the principles of management Controlling grazing and fertilizing Controlling grazing and fertilizing
A pasture in very good condition A pasture in very good condition
Pastures in Medium and Medium to Poor Condition Controlling grazing Controlling grazing Soil and Water Conservation Measures Soil and Water Conservation Measures Fertilization Fertilization Irrigation Irrigation Weed Control Weed Control Drainage Drainage
PASTURE REHABILITATION MEASURES 1 – GRAZING CONTROL Timing Timing Range Range Capacity Capacity Suitable livestock for vegetation Suitable livestock for vegetation
2 - ARTIFICIAL PASTURE 2 - ARTIFICIAL PASTURE Appropriate Location Selection (climate, topography, soil) Appropriate Location Selection (climate, topography, soil) Seed Bed Preparation Seed Bed Preparation Type selection Type selection Preparation of mixtures Preparation of mixtures Breading time Breading time Breading type Breading type
Seed mixture for pasture breading Seed mixture for pasture breading
Fertilization: fertilization should be done by taking into account the composition of the pasture vegetation. If the rate of leguminous plant is high, nitrogen should be reduced, phosphorus fertilizer compound should be increased. Average 10-15 kgN / de of nitrogen and 5-10 kg P2O5/de for phosphorus fertilizer is recommended. Weed control: the first spring grazing pastures should be prevented in order to avoid an increase in weeds, excess from irrigation should be avoided. In addition, fertilization and harvest timing should be considered and be carefull in order not to be late. If weed is too much, after a survey herbicides can be used to combat. Also in the pastures, mice formed piles of soil should be distributed in the spring.
3 - Fertilization 3 - Fertilization The reason of fertilizing pastures is to rehabilate the vegetation or improve yield in times of unsufficient livestock presence. The reason of fertilizing pastures is to rehabilate the vegetation or improve yield in times of unsufficient livestock presence. Effects of fertilizers to vegetation Increase yield Increase yield The increase in tastiness of the feed The increase in tastiness of the feed Botanical Composition Recovery Botanical Composition Recovery Increase in the amount of animal products Increase in the amount of animal products Chemical composition Recovery Chemical composition Recovery Period of green feed elongation Period of green feed elongation Fertilizer Types Fertilizer Types NPK, Ca, lime, magnesium, sulfur NPK, Ca, lime, magnesium, sulfur
Cautions fertilization Cautions fertilization Botanical Composition Botanical Composition Utilization type Utilization type Soil Moisture Soil Moisture Weed Status Weed Status Soil Analysis Soil Analysis
Fertilization Time and Quantity Fertilization Time and Quantity For Eastern Anatolia pastures 7-10 kg / de N, 5 kg / de P2O5 For Eastern Anatolia pastures 7-10 kg / de N, 5 kg / de P2O5
4- WEED CONTROL The Concept of Weed in Pasture - Rangeland The Concept of Weed in Pasture - Rangeland Toxic Toxic Fragrant Fragrant Barbed Barbed Unsavory and Annual Plants Unsavory and Annual Plants
Causes of Spreading Weeds Causes of Spreading Weeds Irregular Grazing Grazed Animal Spreading of Weed Seeds Small Animal Spreading of Weed Seeds Unfavorable Weather Conditions Abandonment After Tillage Bared Land for Road etc.
Weed Control Weed Control Mechanical Control (Bulldozer, Chain, Rail and Cable Pulling), More For Bush Control Mechanical Control (Bulldozer, Chain, Rail and Cable Pulling), More For Bush Control Harvest Harvest Tillage Tillage Burning Burning Chemical Control Chemical Control Biological Control Biological Control
5- SOIL WATER PRESERVATION MEASURES Tearing Tearing Furrowing Furrowing Ditching Ditching Observing Observing Water Spreading Facilities Water Spreading Facilities Bush Barriers Bush Barriers Rock Collection and Rock Cords Rock Collection and Rock Cords
6 - PASTURE CONSTRUCTION AND FACILITIES TO EASE GRAZING Using Water, Salt And Extra Feeds in The Pastures Using Water, Salt And Extra Feeds in The Pastures Water bowls: especially in cattle grazing pastures, the distance must be less than 2-3 km between two water supplys. Because the cattle need to drink water at least twice a day. Cattle needs 25-40 liters per day, sheep needs 1-4 liters of water. In recent years, water bowls are made of galvanized steel plate instead of concrete water bowls. Measures should be taken to avoid watering of sludge and excess water around should be drained. In addition, in order to prevent algae in water bowls, copper sulphate clogged glass bottles should be used. Water bowls should be established in less productive places of the pasture.
Salt: In addition, if the vicious animals stay at night in pasture, additional feeders and also plate made salt should be used. Salt and water bowls must be a distance of at least 500 m. Requirement of salt for sheep and goats 100-500 g and cattles 500-3000 g per month is calculated. Still animals need to rest in the shade during the hottest hours of the day.
Shades are made of natural (tree shadow) or artificial. In addition, in order to eliminate the need for itching of cattle, itching piles are constructed on pasture. Also, for comfortable transportation of animals, there should be pasture roads. In intensive stockbreading electric fences can be used especially in the artificial pasture.
Recomandations for pasture rehabilitation; 1. Especially near the big locations, in order to reduce the pressure of grazing on pastures, the ranch farming and creating rotation pastures in the farm land should be encouraged. This situation is of great importance in animal husbandry. 2. To reduce grazing pressure on pastures and particularly to avoid early grazing, villagers must have adequate stocks of forage. For this purpose, forage production must be increased. 3. Identified and defined process completed villages, pasture management and rehabilitation maps should be created after the necessary vegetation surveys.
4. In cooperation with villagers, the subject of pasture breeding and management, the importance of the issue should be told. 5. The necessary tools and equipment should be provided for pasture breeding. In this regard accumulated pasture fund resource should be used in pasture breeding without delay. 6. Positive results were obtained by breeding pasture fertilization. Considering the Legume vegetation type and plant rates,5-10 kgN /de nitrogen and 4-8 kg P205/de phosphorus fertilization is recommended.
7. Especially on the abandoned tillage, a mixture of artificial pasture should be established where soil structure and topography and species are appropriate for the region.
RANGELAND BREEDING AND RECOMANDATIONS Water base level: the rangelands are areas where the water base level is high. Rangelands high water base level can be reduced by opening drainage channels. The distance between the depth of drainage canals and channels must be determined with the necessary preliminary studies. Irrigation: observations showed that; in our region although the soil is moist in the spring, excessive irrigation is plied; on the early summer time, despite the water needs, adequate irrigation have not been done. Excessive irrigation in the spring falls rangeland seed off in the quality.
Fertilization: Fertilization should be done by taking into account the composition of the rangeland vegatation. If the legume rate is more, nitrogen fertilizer should be reduced, phosphorus fertilizer should be increased. Average 10-15 kgN / de of nitrogen and 5-10 kg P2O5/de of phosphorus fertilizer is recommended. Weed control: the rangelands spring grazing should be prevented in order to avoid an increase in weeds, excess from irrigation should be avoided. In addition, fertilization and harvest timing should be considered and be carefull in order not to be late. If weed is too much, after a survey herbicides can be used to combat. Also in the pastures, mice formed piles of soil should be distributed in the spring.
According to the studies; with the measures mentioned above, it is possible to increase the yield 2- 3 times in rangelands and one time in pastures. According to the studies; with the measures mentioned above, it is possible to increase the yield 2- 3 times in rangelands and one time in pastures. As a result, paying attention to the proper use of pasture in arid and semi-arid areas, deterioration of vegetation should be warranted. In fact, in this type of areas due to the water restriction, degradation of vegetation is more easy and repairing itself requires a very long time, nearly 60-70 years. Degraded pasture vegetations should be rehabilitated with proper breeding methods. Otherwise the destroyed vegetation can not protect the soil and caused erosion. As a result, paying attention to the proper use of pasture in arid and semi-arid areas, deterioration of vegetation should be warranted. In fact, in this type of areas due to the water restriction, degradation of vegetation is more easy and repairing itself requires a very long time, nearly 60-70 years. Degraded pasture vegetations should be rehabilitated with proper breeding methods. Otherwise the destroyed vegetation can not protect the soil and caused erosion.