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**David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy**

Graphs for GCSE Maths David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy**

x and y co-ordinates Let’s draw a grid and add scale numbers … Every point on the grid can be found with two numbers. One along the vertical scale labelled y and one on the horizontal scale labelled x These are called co-ordinates (x, y) So (1,2) is one along the x scale from zero and two along the y scale from zero Where is (2, 3)? Or ( -2, 4) Or (-1,-4) So, that’s co-ordinates. Lets look at connecting them together … Or (4,-3) David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Connecting co-ordinates – line equations**

Lets think about the co-ordinates where y = 2. What could they be? (1,2), (3,2), (5,2) (-1,2),(-4, 2) X=-2 X=3 If we connect these points we get a horizontal line and everywhere along the line y=2. So, the line equation is Y=2 Y=2 Y=1 Draw the line y=1 Or y=-4 Now try x=3 and x=-2 Y=-4 We have drawn simple equations , Lets look at equations that link x and y together … David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Line equations connecting x and y**

Lets say we have an equation y=x. Give some co-ordinates on this line. y=2x y=-x (0,0),(1,1), (2,2),(-1,-1), (-2,-2) y=x Draw this line equation y=1/2x y=-1/2x So, y=x is at 450 clockwise from the y scale Draw the line y=2x Or y=-x Now try y=1/2 x Or y= -1/2x Notice that as the number in front of x gets bigger the line gets steeper. This is the GRADIENT. For y=x, gradient =1, y=2x, gradient = 2 David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Working out the Gradient y=mx**

What are the gradients of the lines below y=-x y=x y=2x y=-2x Equation Gradient y=x y=-x y=2x y=-2x y=½ x y=-½x 1 -1 2 -2 -½ y=1/2x y=-1/2x Positive Negative Gradient Notice that y=-x has a negative gradient of 450 anticlockwise from the y scale Negative gradients point to the left, positive gradients point to the right David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Gradient means steepness**

3 3 2 y x y x y x 3 3 1 change in y change in x Gradient = 3 Gradient = 1 change in y change in x Gradient = 2 3 Gradient = 2/3 change in y change in x Gradient = 3 1 Gradient = 3 Gradient = change in vertical divided by change in horizontal David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Gradient can be negative**

3 change in y change in x Gradient = Gradient = -1 2 Gradient = -2/3 1 Gradient = -3 Gradient = change in vertical divided by change in horizontal y x David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Find the gradient from two points**

change in y change in x n.b. Gradient = Work out the gradients of these pairs of co-ordinates (2,2) and (-2,0) Y side = 6 X side = 2 Grad = 3 (-3-4) and (3,0) Y side = 2 X side = 4 Grad = ½ (-5,4) and (-3,-2) 6 4 1. Draw a triangle as shown Y side = 4 X side = 6 Grad = 4/6 2. Note the length of the x side and the y side of the triangle and divide one by the other to get the gradient Which gradient is negative? David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Your turn - Find the gradient from two points**

Work out the gradients of these pairs of co-ordinates (3,3) and (-1,-3) (-4-1) and (3,0) (-1,4) and (2,-2) David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Working out the equation of a line y=mx+c**

Work out the equations of these lines Crosses Y Equation Gradient Y/X 1 3 2 1/2 1 Y=½x + 2 2 -1 1 2 Y=x - 1 -2 3 Y=-2x - 2 1. Record where it crosses the y scale. This is called c 2. Work out the gradient, called m 3. Put the two together as: Y = mx + c So you can find the equation of a line by using its gradient and where it crosses the Y scale and putting them in the equation y=mx+c David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy**

Match the equations 4 1 3 2 y=x-4 y=2x+3 y=-x+1 y=-2x-1 5 y=3x-2 David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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**Your Turn - What’s the equations**

4 2 1 5 3 Notice the gradients when lines are at right angles or perpendicular (2 & 3) David Weeks, Mathsmadeeasy

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